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重要语法讲解


高一英语重要语法
定语从句
1. 定语从句的结构及理解 2. 定语从句的关系词的使用 3. 定语从句的简化表达 知识总结归纳 (一)定语从句的结构:在复合句中,修饰某个名词或代词的句子(做这个名词或代词的定语)叫定语 从句,定语从句一般放在被修饰的名词或代词后面,被修饰的名词或代词叫做定语从句的先行词,它与定 语从句之间要有一个词连接, 这个词指代先行词的内容

叫做关系词 (关系代词或关系副词: that, which, who, whose, when, where, why)。先行词在定语从句中充当主语,宾语,时间,地点,原因状语。 结构:先行词+关系词+定语从句。 1. There she saw a wall of water that was quickly advancing towards her. 2. In Japan, someone who sees another person making the gesture will think it means money. 3. A theme park is a collection of rides, exhibitions or other attractions that are based on a common theme. 4. The park has a conservation center that helps protect marine animals and their habitats in the rivers and coastal waters of Asia. 5. Visitors can go on exciting rides where they can feel what it is like to do the things they have seen their heroes do in the movie. 6. Oprah Winfrey is a black woman whose rise to fame is an inspiring story. (二)定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句: 限定性定语从句:从句对先行词进行必要的描述或说明,缺少它,则句义显得不完整,从句与先行词 紧密相连。 非限定性定语从句:对先行词进行补充说明,解释,它与先行词之间有逗号隔开。 1. Before she could move, she heard a loud noise, which grew to a terrible roar. 2. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, which must have been three meters deep. 3. Flora, whose beautiful hair and dress were all cold and wet, started crying. 4. Their talk includes rhythm and rhyming words as well as tongue twisters, which often make the audience applaud. (三) 关系词前面可以根据定语从句的内容加上一些介词, 这些关系词在介词后面常用 which 或 whom. 1. There was a man with whom I would have to work together and finally the manager of the company. 2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the shark. 知识重点与难点 (一) 当先行词有最高级, 序数词修饰, 是不定代词, 或是 all, no, only 等形式时, 关系代词一般用 that, 而不能用 which。 1. The Titanic was the largest ship that had ever been built at that time. 2. There is one thing that keeps worrying me.

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(二)当先行词是表示时间,地点,原因的词时,关系词用 when, where, why 还有 which, that 1. I’m very glad to return to my hometown where I had lived for 10 years. 2. This is my hometown which I used to talk about to you. 3. I think I can understand the reason why he didn’t tell the truth to me. 4. No one believes the reason that he gave us about his absence at the meeting. (三)定语从句的简化表达: 1. The man who is sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University. 2. The letter that was mailed last night will reach him tomorrow. 3. The question that is being discussed is very important. 4. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:45. 说明:以上的定语从句部分可以用更加简单的非谓语形式表达出来: 1. The man sitting on the platform is a professor from Wuhan University. 2. The letter mailed last night will reach him tomorrow. 3. The question being discussed is very important. 4. You are welcome to a party to be given in our class at 7:45. 说明:修饰一个名词除了后面用定语从句以外,还可以用非谓语动词形式:doing 短语,done 短语, being done 短语,to be done 短语修饰。其结构和意思如下: 1. 被修饰名词+doing 短语: 正在做….的人/正在发生的事。 2. 被修饰名词+ done 短语: 被…..的人/事 3. 被修饰名词+being done 短语:正在被…..的人/事 4. 被修饰名词+ to be done 短语:将要被…..的人/事 (1)Do you know the man talking to my sister ? (2)The “crazy” gesture, moving the index finger in a circle in front of the ear, means “you have a phone call” in Brazil. (3)Did you see that car being repaired ? (4)In a camera, the lens must be focused on the object to be photographed. (5)The students to attend the meeting will arrive here tomorrow. (6)Goods imported from abroad are not always better than those made in China. (7)The Yellow River, said to be “the mother river” runs across China like a huge dragon. 总结:以上做定语的那些短语就是英语语法中所说的分词,不定式的各种形式作定语。 1. 这些短语作定语应放在被修饰名词的后面。如果单独一个 V-ing 或 V-ed 形式作定语,则可以放在被 修饰名词前面。 2. 分词作定语时,其动作应与全句动作同时发生。V-ing 表示主动意义和正在做,V-ed 表示被动意义。 being done 表示正在被做的 3. 不定式作定语表示将要发生的,to be done 表示将要被做的

【典型例题】
[例 1] Friendship is needed by all, _____ plays an important role in people’s lives. A. which B. that C. who D. it 分析: _____ plays an important role in people’s lives 为非限定性定语从句修饰先行词 Friendship 用 which 连接定语从句。 答案:A [例 2] Uncle Li _____ I worked three years ago has retired now.
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A. who B. whom C. with whom D. to whom 分析:_____ I worked three years ago 作为定语从句修饰先行词 Uncle Li,从句完整的表达是:I worked with Uncle Li three years ago. 所以关系词前应加上介词 with。 答案:C [例 3] Is this the reason _____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work ? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 分析:定语从句_____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work 修饰先行词 the reason 指“他在会上 就他工作中的粗心解释的原因。先行词在从句中做宾语。 答案:A [例 4] Teachers, _____ work is rather hard, are being better paid than before. A. who B. that C. which D. whose 分析:非限定性定语从句_____ work is rather hard 修饰先行词 teachers, 它与从句中的 work 是从属关 系,关系词用 whose 答案:D [例 5 ] The Olympic Games , _____ in 776 BC, didn’t included women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 分析:公元前 776 年被首次举行的奥运会,直到 1912 年才容纳女运动员。_____in 776 BC 做定语修 饰 The Olympic Games,指过去的内容,表示被动。用 done 做定语。 答案:C [例 6] The houses _____ for the teachers and the construction work will start soon. A. built B. to be built C. to build D. being built 分析:根据句意房子即将开工。_____ for the teachers and the construction work 修饰 The houses 应为 The houses The houses 将要为教师和施工修建的房子。 答案:B [例 7] How many of us_____, a meeting that is not important to us would be interested in the discussion? A. attended B. attending C. to attend D. have attended 分析:根据句意:比如说,我们当中参加一个对我们毫不重要的会议的人会有多少人对这个讨论感兴 趣呢?_____, say, a meeting that is not important to us 修饰 How many of us 做定语。与全句动作同步. 答案:B [例 8] She has three children, _____ is working in Australia. A. who B. one of whom C. one of them D. none of them 分析:非限定性定语从句__ is working in Australia 修饰先行词 three children,根据从句中的 is 判断, 是说:三个孩子中的一个在澳大利亚工作。 答案:B

【模拟试题】
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1. Susan is the very girl _____ the good deed. A. whom I think did B. whom I think she did C. who I think did D. I think who did 2. Luckily, the poor boy had enough money _____ he could buy a train ticket. A. by which B. on which C. with which D. for which 3. The book _____ he devoted much time is to come out next month. A. where B. which C. to which D. on which 4. The day came finally _____ I was given an opportunity to act in the play. A. when B. in that C. which D. in which 5. 1. Don’t you think the question _____ tomorrow is of great importance. A. being discussed B. discussed C. to be discussed D. to discuss 6. The food _____ at the moment is for the dinner party. A. cooked B. to be cooked C. is being cooked D. being cooked 7. Do you know the teacher _____ under the big tree ? A. read B. reads C. reading D. being read

【试题答案】
1. C Susan 正是我认为作了好事的那位女孩。先行词 the very girl 在从句中做 think 的宾语,同时又是 后面宾语从句 did the good deed.的主语,所以关系词不能用 whom 2. C 定语从句_____ he could buy a train ticket.修饰先行词 money:用这笔钱买火车票。关系词前面需 要加介词:with 3. C 定语从句_____ he devoted much time 意思是:他把大量的时间都投入在这本书上了。devote….to sth.关系词前加介词:to 4. A 定语从句_____ I was given an opportunity to act in the play 修饰先行词 the day :先行词 the day 在 从句中做时间状语:在这一天我得到了扮演一个角色的机会。 5. C 短语_____ tomorrow 做定语修饰 the question,根据表达的内容:明天即将被讨论的问题。应当用 不定式的被动结构做定语。 6. D 短语_____ at the moment 做 the food 的定语,表示:正在做的食物。Being done 做定语表示:正在 被??的??。 7. C 现在分词短语 reading under the big tree 做定语修饰 the teacher 表示: 正在大树下看书的那位老师。

情态动词
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1. 情态动词的推测表达 2. 情态动词表达虚拟语气 3. 某些情态动词的特殊用法 知识重点与难点总结 知识重点: 情态动词在表达推测意义的句子中的运用: (一)用情态动词表达事实的推测。can,could,might,may,must 可以用来表达对事实的推测。根据说 话人对事实的把握性大小,must 表示“肯定?”,may / might / can / could 表示“可能??”, must 只用 于肯定句中,may / might 的否定式 may not / might not 表示 “可能不??”, 而 can / could 可以用于疑问 句,表示“可能,可能??吗?”,其否定式 can’t / couldn’t 表示“不可能”。用情态动词可以对现在或 过去的事实进行推测。对不同的时间内容推测有不同的结构。 (二)对现在的事实进行推测: 主要结构:…must / may / might +动词原形 be+名词/形容词/介词短语 be + doing 例句: 1. You must be Jeanne. I’m Mathilde Loisel. We used to know each other very well. 2. They must be in bed already at this time of the night. 3. The teacher must be joking. 4. Freda isn’t in class. She must be sick. 5. There must be something wrong. 6. She might be very clever, but she hasn’t got much common sense. 7. He may be arriving this evening. 8. He may be traveling around the world. 9. The keys can’t be in the room. I have just searched it very carefully. 10. Can the news be true ? (三)对过去的事实进行推测:结构:情态动词+have done / been+名词/形容词/介词短语 例句: 1. Mrs. Longmans must have been a pretty girl in her youth. 2. He couldn’t have seen Anna yesterday. She’s gone abroad. 3. I think I must have left my glasses in the library. 4. He might have overslept again. 5. Where can Tom have gone ? 情态动词表达虚拟语气:表达“本来?”,“不然早就?”。这是情态动词的一种虚拟语气用法。表 示说话人所讲的与所发生的事实相反。表达了说话人的埋怨,后悔的语气。其结构是在一些情态动词后面 加 have done 结构。根据要表达的意思,有如下结构: should have done / ought to have done:本应该?? shouldn’t have done / oughtn’t to have done:本不该?? could have done:本来可以?? needn’t have done:本来没必要?? would like to have done:本来很想??
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would rather not have done: 本来不愿意?? could / might / have done: 不然早就?? 例句: 1. You shouldn’t have laughed at his mistakes. 2. You could have told us earlier. 3. I ought to have bought that dictionary last week. 4. You ought not to have spent so much time in reading novels. 5. We need not have been in a tearing hurry to catch the train. 6. They would like to have seen that film last film. 7. If he had given me his number, I could have telephoned him. 8. They might have been frozen to death but for the rescue in time. 知识难点: 某些情态动词的特殊用法: need 和 dare 的两种形式的用法 need 和 dare 可以用做实义动词, 后面接不定式 (to do) 结构, 在疑问句和否定句中, 加助动词 do/does/did/ 或 don’t/doesn’t/didn’t。作为情态动词使用时,主要用于疑问句和否定句中。情态动词 needn’t(没有必要, 不必)相当于 don’t have to 例句: 1. It is cold, you need to wear some warm clothes. 2. Need I stay here with you for a while ? Thank you, you needn’t. 3. How dare you speak to parents like that ? 注意: 句型 I dare say+从句。 意思是:我肯定?? = I’m sure 或 There is no doubt that+从句。 例句: I dare say that my uncle will get the money if I die. will 和 would 表示“意志”或“愿意”,would 则指过去愿意做?? 例句: 1. He said that he would help us. 2. You may telephone if you will accept this job. would 可以表达“过去习惯做??”类似于“used to do” 例句: 1. When we were children, we would go swimming every summer in that river. 表示请求,固定的句型:Will/Would you please do…? / Would you like to do…? 例句:Will/Would you please give him a message when you see him ? shall 1. 用于第一,三人称,表示“请求”;“建议” 或“推荐” 例句: 1. Shall we start the meeting now? 2. Shall I watch TV now ? 3. Shall my son carry the case for you ? 2. 用于第二人称,表示“命令,“要求”,“许诺” 例句:

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1. You shall take whatever you like. 2. You shall not go to the party with me if you make so much noise again. 在表示推测的否定句或疑问句中,常用 can /can’t /could / couldn’t 表示,意思是: “可能?吗?”; “? 不可能?”。而不能使用 mustn’t 或 must 等词。

【典型例题】
1. —Do you think he will do me a favor ? —As far as I know, he is the last one to help others. He _____ be prepared to give you a hand, though. A. might B. must C. can D. should 分析:本题考查情态动词推测性用法。 根据 he is the last one to help others.(他是最不可能帮助别人 的人),既然如此,那么“帮助你”的可能性也就最小了。 答案为 A 2. —Look, someone is coming. Guess who it ____ be ? —I think it ___ be Tom. —I don’t think it ___ be ____ . A. can ; must ; can ; he B. may ; can ; must ; him C. must ; can ; must ; his D. might ; must ; can ; himself 分析: 根据备选答案。 can 表示推测时用于疑问句或否定句中。 本题首句就应该是 Guess who can it be? 第二句应该是 I think it must be Tom.(说话人十分肯定)。第三句表达了说话人对前一个人的否定。即:I don’t think it can be him/he.(不可能是他)。答案为 A 3. —Do you know Ms. Wang likes walking after supper ? —Sure. She ____ around the campus now. A. must be walking B. must walk C. may walk D. may be walking 分析:关键词 Sure 告诉我们说话人的口气十分肯定。根据句子语境:她此刻肯定正在校园散步呢。 must be doing 表示肯定正在做。答案为 A 4. —I stayed at a hotel in New York. —Oh, did you ? You _____ with Barbara. A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would say D. must have stayed 分析:首句说:我在纽约住在一家宾馆里。在此 a hotel 是泛指。所以 D 选项不合题意。第二句在说: 你本来可以和 Barbara.住在一起的。Could have done 表示:本来可以。答案为 A 5. Why didn’t you tell me there was no meeting today ? I _____ all the way here through the heavy snow. A. needn’t have driven B. can’t have driven C. mustn’t have driven D. shouldn’t have driven 分析:根据句意:你为什么不告诉我今天没有会?我本来没必要冒着大雪开车跑这么多路。Needn’t have done 表示本来没必要。答案为 A 6. I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. A. mustn’t leave B. shouldn’t have left C. couldn’t have left D. needn’t leave 分析: 根据句意: 我真的很担心你, 你真不应该一句话都不说就离开家。 “离开家” 已经发生了。 Should have done 正好表达了本句的意思。答案为 B 7. A:Are you coming to Jeff’s party ? B:I’m not sure. I _____ go to the concert instead. A. must B. would C. should D. might 分析:根据 B 的回答:我不一定去,我有可能去听音乐会。Might 表示推测:可能。答案为 D
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8. A:I promise that she ____ get a nice present on her birthday. B:Will it be a big surprise to her ? A. should B. must C. would D. shall 分析:A 说:“我答应她在生日聚会上她会得到一份生日礼物。shall 表示许诺。答案为 D

【模拟试题】
1. A:Is John coming by train ? B:He should, but he _____ not. He likes driving his car. A. must B. can C. need D. may 2. Mr. White _____ at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn’t show up. A. should have arrived B. should arrive C. should have had arrived D. should be arriving 3. Sorry, I’m late. I _____ have turned off the alarm and gone to sleep again. A. might B. should C. can D. will 4. You _____ be tired—You’ve only been working for an hour. A. must not B. won’t C. can’t D. may not 5. —I didn’t go to work yesterday afternoon because my car broke down. —You _____ mine. I wasn’t using it. A. might borrow B. could have borrowed C. can have borrowed D. ought to borrow 6. —A man answered the phone. I suppose it was her husband. —It _____ her husband. He has been dead for ages. A. mustn’t be C. may not have been B. couldn’t have been D. mustn’t have been

【试题答案】
1. 分析:根据 B 的回答“他应该(坐火车来),但是也不一定,他喜欢开自己的车。本题考查了情态 动词的推测用法。may 表示不十分有把握的推测。答案为 D 2. 分析: 根据句意: White 先生本应该在 8:30 到这里出席会议的, (在 8:30) 可他 没有到场。 Should have done 表示:本应该。答案为 A 3. 分析:本句是说话人在解释迟到的原因:我或许是关掉闹钟又睡了。might have done 表示对过去的 推测:可能已经??答案为 A 4. 分析:根据后半句 You’ve only been working for an hour.(你才刚干了一个小时)说明 You _____ be tired(你不可能很累),can’t 表示“不可能”答案为 C 5. 分析:听到对方说“昨天车坏了而没去上班”,第二个人说“你本来可以借我的车去 上班。” 本来可以/能:could have done. 答案为 B 6. 分析:第二个人是说:那个人不可能是她丈夫,因为她丈夫已经去世多年了。根据对 话的语境,是在谈论过去的事,表示过去不可能:could not have done 答案为:B

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与 it 有关的主要句型 it 强调句型 知识总结归纳: (一)it 用做形式主语或形式宾语:根据句子结构的需要,it 用做形式主语或形式宾语,而真正的主语或 宾语(to do 短语,doing 短语,名词性从句)则放在句尾。 主要句型: It’s +形容词/名词+连词+名词性从句 to do sth. doing sth. find / make / think / feel it +形容词/名词+连词+名词性从句 to do sth. doing sth. 例句: 1. It will become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English . 2. It’s usual for close friends to have similar ideas and beliefs . 3. It’s a pity that I didn’t think of it earlier. 4. It’s no use going there so early. 5. Out teacher thinks it no good learning without practice. 6. Didn’t I make it clear to you that I was not coming ? 7. We found it strange that no one would take the money. (二)其他句型 1. It takes+时间段+sb.+ to do sth. 2. 表示“据说,据报道,/人们认为/相信/建议等 It’s said that……. It’s reported that …… It’s believed/thought/suggested that…… 例句: 1. It generally takes time to reach this point—being on the same wavelength . 2. It is believed that the two children went off exploring(探险)on their own and get stuck on the cliff . 3. It’s suggested that we should have a meeting to discuss the problem . 4. It was once predicted(预测)that British and American English would become separate languages finally . (三)it 在强调句型中:在英语中,为了突出强调句子的某一个成分(谓语除外),达到强调或使听话人 特别注意这一部分的目的。便形成了一种强调句型。 It is / was+被强调的部分+that / who+句子的其他部分。 It is / was not until+时间+that+句子的其他部分。 例句: 1. I saw John on my way to school this morning. It was John who/that I saw on my way to school this morning. It was on my way to school that I saw John this morning. It was this morning that I saw John on my way to school. 2. It was his best suit that John wore to the dance last night.
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3. It was not until 1920 that regular radio broadcast began. 4. It was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that frightened me so much . 5. It was the kindness and sympathy in their eyes that prevented me from doing so . 知识难点: (一)注意强调句型的变形,即以一般疑问句或特殊疑问句的形式出现的强调句型。 1. What is it that Joe can’t find in the bathroom ? 2. Where was it that you met the foreign guests from Australia? 3. I can’t quite remember when it was that we married. 4. Was it because he was very ill that he asked for leave? (二)是强调句型还是 that 主语从句或其他复合句 1. It is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. 2. It is these poisonous products that can cause the symptoms of the flu, such as headache and aching muscles. 3. It was almost ten o’clock when our soldiers came back from the front. 4. Was it in this place that the last king died ? (三)注意强调句型中被强调部分带有定语从句 Was it at the air battle on June 8, 1944, which was led by Captain Johnson that Peter lost his life.

【典型例题】
一. 单项选择: 1. I don’t think possible to master a foreign language without much memory. A. this B. that C. its D. it 分析:本题考查 it 做形式宾语的句型。“我认为没有大量的记忆掌握一门外语是不可能的。”故选择 D 2. Does matter if he can’t finish the job on time ? A. this B. that C. he D. it 分析:本题考查 it 做形式主语的句型:如果他没能按时完成工作的话,这很要紧吗?故选择 D 3. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but didn’t help. A. he B. which C. she D. it 分析:本题考查 it 的代词用法。It 指上一句的内容:Tom 的母亲始终告诉他应该努力学习。 故选择 D 4. is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 分析:本题考查 it 做形式主语的句型:英语正在作为一种国际性语言被接受是一个事实。选择 D

5. It was in the small house ___ was built with stones by his father ___he spent his childhood. A. which ; that B. that ; where C. which ; which D. that ; which 分析:本题考查带有定语从句的强调句型用法。句中:“___ was built with stones by his father 的定语 从句。被强调的部分是 in the small house ___ was built with stones by his father。根据句意:他正是在他父亲 用石头盖的房子里度过了他的童年。故选择 A 二. 单句改错:

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1. That is said that this novel has been translated into several languages. 分析:根据句意:据说这部小说已经被译成多种语言。表示据说,应当说:It is said that…。That 改 为:It 2. Is this your turn to clean the blackboard ? 分析:根据句意:该轮到你擦黑板了吧? 轮到某人做某事:It is one’s turn to do….This 改为:it 3. It is known to everyone, the moon travels around the earth once every month. 分析:表示“众所周知”可以说:It is known to everyone that+陈述句。或:As is known to everyone, +陈述句。It 改为:As, 或去掉“,”加连词 that 4. The official made this clear that he would do everything possible to solve the problem. 分析:根据句意:这位官员宣布将尽一切力量解决这个问题。固定结构应当是:make it clear that+陈 述句。It 在此是形式宾语。This 改为:it 5. It was in the park where the old couple told me their love story. 分析:根据句意可以知道本句用了强调句型,强调地点:in the park 所以按照强调句型的结构 where 改为:that 6. Although we can’t see them, there is air around us. 分析:句中的代词 them 根据句意应当指代后面的 air,但 air 是不可数名词,因此 them 改为:it 三. 翻译句子: 1. 直到星期三我才给办公室去电话。 分析:表达“直到??才??”可以用 not…until…引导的时间状语从句;也用强调句型;或倒装句。 翻译: (1)I didn’t telephone the office until Wednesday. (2)It was not until Wednesday that I telephoned the office. (3)Not until Wednesday did I telephone the office. 2. 只有当我们看不清楚的时候,我们才意识到我们眼睛的重要性。 分析:本句可以用强调句表达,也可以用倒装句: 翻译: (1)It is only when we cannot see perfectly that we realize how important our eyes are. (2)Only when we cannot see perfectly do we realize how important our eyes are. 3. It was in surgery that the results of that discovery were obtained, and it was there that the battle between the new idea and the old prejudices was fought out most dramatically. 翻译:那些发现的成果是在外科医学中获得的,也正是在那里,新思想与旧偏见用最富有戏剧性的方 式展开了战斗。

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【模拟试题】
一. 单项选择: 1. Nobody thinks very polite to be always cutting in when another person is talking. A. that B. this C. it D. there 2. I was disappointed with the film, I had expected to be much better. A. this B. that C. one D. it 3. He tore up my photo and upset me. A. this B. it C. which D. what 4. It was with great courage the boy told the truth he had stolen the money. A. which ; that B. when ; what C. as ; that D. that ; that 5. When I try to find that prevents so many people from taking part in the program, it seems to me that there are two main causes. A. what it does B. what it is C. why it does D. why it is 6. Nancy is expecting another baby and hopes will be a boy. A. he B. that C. it D. there 二. 句型转换: 将下列陈述句按划线的内容变为强调句。 1. The children often help their parents do the farm work. 2. In 1993, a tomato was developed that was very different from any grown before. 3. The biggest problem of Chinese farmers is the shortage of arable land. 4. Future agriculture should depend on high technology as well as traditional methods. 三. 阅读理解: A It is important to know another language and how to communicate without words when you are in another country. Before saying anything, people communicate with each other by using gestures(手势). However, many gestures have different meanings, or no meaning at all, in different parts of the world. In the United States, nodding your head up and down means “yes”, while in some pats of Greece and Turkey, it means “no”. In the southeast of Asia, it is a polite way of saying “I heard you”. Today in the USA, when someone puts his thumb up, it means “Everything is all right.” However, in Greece it is bad. Also putting your clasped(紧握的)hands up above your head means “I am the winner.” It is the sign which players often make. In Russia it is the sign of friendship. In the USA, holding your hand up with the thumb and index finger (食指) and the other three straight means , “Everything is OK.” In France, it means “You are worth nothing.” It is also important to make eye communication. If you look down when talking to an American, he or she may feel that you are shy, or you are trying to hide something. Besides these, you should also know there are some topics that can not be talked about, such as age, weight and marriage. You can talk about the weather, work, sports, food, where one lives and news of the day. 1. Which of the following is true? A. People all over the world only communicate by words. B. Many gestures either have different meanings or no meanings at all.
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C. Gestures are the most common way to communicate. D. People can talk about anything in another country. 2. In Greece nodding your head means “_________.” A. Yes. B. No C. I heard you D. I am the winner 3. Putting the thumb up should not be used in _____. A. Greece B. the USA C. England D. China 4. What does this sentence mean “….your action can speak louder than your words” ? A. What you do is better than what you say. B. You try your best to be polite. C. You are better understood by your gestures than through your words. D. What you say is better than what you do. 5. The main idea of the passage is that when you are in another country, _____. A. it is important to know the language. B .it is important to know what you talk about to a foreigner. C. to know how to communicate without words is as important as to know the language. D. to communicate through gestures is more important than to know the language. B “In the old days,” as one wife said. “ The husband was the husband and the wife was the wife.” In the past husbands each had their own way of going on. The wives’ jobs were to look after them. “The wives wouldn’t stand for it nowadays. Husbands help with the children now. They stay more, as well as have more interest, at home.” We shall give some examples of what husbands do, firstly in sharing work with their wives; and secondly, in their largely independent domain(领域)of house repairs. “Some husbands, as well as doing much of the heavy work in the home, carrying the coals, and emptying the rubbish, act as assistants to their wives for at least part of the day.” Mr. Hammond washes up the dishes every night and lays the breakfast for the morning. Mr. Clark said that on Sunday mornings he usually hovered(吸尘) around and read plays aloud for his wife while she did a bit of washing. Mr. Davis polishes the floors and helps to make the beds at weekend, and during weekdays, takes the dog out for one of his twice-daily walks. So it goes on…. 1. The expression “act as assistants to their wives” means that ____. A. husbands read plays aloud. B. husbands are paid by their wives. C. husbands help their wives. D. husbands look after their sick children. 2. the meaning of the wife’s words at the beginning of the passage were that ____. A. in the past men stayed at home all day. B. in the past there was a clear division of role in the family. C. in the past most boys and girls were married at an early age. D. in the past wives and husbands lived separately. 3. What does Mr. Davis do at weekends ? A. He cleans the floors and makes the beds. B. He reads plays aloud and does the weekly shopping. C. He cooks food for his wife.
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D. He takes the dog out for a walk. 4. In the past, the woman’s main job was to ___. A. take the children to school. B. take care of their husband. C. do the washing up. D. dig the garden. 5. The passage is mainly about____. A. the division of husbands, wives and children. B. how to get on well between husbands and wives. C. the relationship between husband, wives and children. D. the relationship between husband and wives today.

【试题答案】
一. 单项选择: 1. C,it 在句中做形式宾语。句型为 think it +形容词+to do something 2. D,it 在句中作为代词指代前面说的 film 3. B,it 作为代词指代前面 He tore up my photo 这件事。 4. D,这是一个带有同位语从句的强调句,“这个男孩怀着极大的勇气说出了他偷东西的真相。he had stolen the money.做 the truth 的同位语从句,用 that 引导。 5. B,这是一个强调句的变形,强调句变成了特殊疑问句又做 find 的宾语从句,what 是被强调的内容。 根据句义:我在努力发现到底是什么阻止了这么多人参加这个项目。 6. C,Nancy 很快又要有一个孩子了,她希望这是个男孩。指代 baby 用代词 it 二. 句型转换: 1. It is the children that often help their parents do the farm work. 2. It was In 1993 that a tomato was developed that was very different from any grown before. 3. It is the shortage of arable land that the biggest problem of Chinese farmers is 4. It is high technology as well as traditional methods that future agriculture should depend on. 三. 阅读理解: A 答案与分析: 1. B 细节判断题,根据第一段 However, many gestures have different meanings, or no meaning at all, in different parts of the world.可以得知:许多手势在某些地区要么有着不同的含义要么根本就没有任何意义。 2. B 根据第二段内容可以得知点头在希腊某些地区的含义。 3. A 根据第三段:Today in the USA, when someone puts his thumb up, it means “Everything is all right.” However, in Greece it is bad.可以得知树大拇指在希腊的含义不同于在美国。它是“不好”的表示,不应使 用。C,D 两项文章没有涉及。 4. C 语句理解。根据第一段内容:人们在国外与人交流要么懂得外语,要么学会使用手势交流。所以 说“通过手势动作比通过语言能更好地被人理解。 5. C 考查文章的主旨。第一段第一句交代了文章的主题。 B
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答案与分析: 1. C,根据第三段:“Some husbands, as well as doing much of the heavy work in the home, carrying the coals, and emptying the rubbish, act as assistants to their wives for at least part of the day.” 可以得知丈夫在也帮助他 们的妻子。 2. B,根据第一段可以知道:在过去,在家庭中夫妻各有分工,充当各自的角色。 3. A,根据最后一段:Mr. Davis polishes the floors and helps to make the beds at weekend, and during weekdays, takes the dog out for one of his twice-daily walks.可以得出结论。 4. B,根据第一段:The wives’ jobs were to look after them.可以知道过去妻子的任务。 5. D,考查文章的主旨:从全文内容上看,文章讲述了夫妻在家中的关系。

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主谓一致
知识总结归纳 (一)概述: 主语与谓语的一致:在英语表达中,谓语动词的形式要和主语的人称和数保持一致。主要体现在 be 动词,助动词 do, have 以及一般现在时态中的动词形式。 谓语动词与主语保持一致的基本原则:语法一致,就近一致和意义一致。 名词或代词做主语有人称和单,复数之分,动词的单数就是第三人称单数形式,而动词的复数形式即 动词的原形。 例句: 1. I am seventeen, and he is sixteen. 2. There is a desk in the room, but there are no chairs in it. 3. John gets up at six o’clock every morning. 4. What is the latest news about the Olympic Games ? 5. The family are sitting at the breakfast table. (二)语法一致: 1. 由 and 连接的两个名词或代词做主语: (1)这部分主语表示的是两个人或两件不同的事物,谓语动词用复数形式。 例句: ① My brother and I have both seen that film. ② Both rice and wheat are grown in this part of China. ③ The poet and the novelist were both present at the meeting. ④ Reading, writing and arithmetic are called the three R’s. (2)这部分主语表示具有两个身份或性质的同一个人或一个完整的事物,谓语动词用单数形式。 例句: ① The professor and writer is speaking at the meeting. ② War and peace is a constant theme in history. ③ One more knife and fork is needed. ④ The statesman and poet was engaged in warfare all his life. ⑤ Law and order has been established. ⑥ Bread and butter is our daily food. ⑦ Fish and chips is a popular fast food. ⑧ The stars and stripes is the national flag of U.S.A. (3)这部分主语前面有 each, every, many a, no 等修饰时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。 例句: ① Each doctor and(each)nurse was given a new shirt. ② No sound and no voice is heard. ③ Many a boy and girl has made the same mistake. ④ Every minute and every second is precious. 2. 动名词,不定式,主语从句做主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 例句: ① Reading is a great pleasure in life. ② To live means to create.
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③ That we need more time is obvious. ④ What is needed is food and medicine. 3. 表示时间,金钱,距离,重量的复数名词表示数量做主语时,被视为一个整体,谓语动词用单数 形式。 例句: ① Three thousand miles is a long distance. ② Eight hours of sleep is enough. 4. 不定代词 anyone, anything, everyone, everything, someone, something, no one, nothing, each the other 等做主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 例句: ① Is anybody going to tell him the news ? ② Someone wants to see you. (三)就近原则 由连词 or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, 连接的两个名词或代词做主语时,谓语动词 和离它最近的哪个名词或代词的人称和数一致。 例句: 1. Either you or Jean is to be sent to New Zealand. 2. Not only his family but also he likes Chaplin’s movies. 3. Neither Tom nor the Browns enjoy their journey to Beijing owing to the bad weather. 4. George or Tom is wanted. 注意:There be 句型中 be 的形式由它后面的第一个名词的数决定。 例句: 1. There aren’t any letters in the mail for you today. 2. There is a lamp, two pens and three books on the desk. 3. Here are some envelopes and paper for you. 名词后面带有 with, along with, together with, besides, except, but, like, including, as well as, rather than 短语共同做主语时,谓语动词与这些短语前面的那个名词的数一致。 例句: 1. All but one were here just now. 2. A library with five thousand books is offered to that nation as a gift. 3. An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work. 4. You as well as I are wrong. (四)意义一致 1. 代词 none, neither, all 的不可数形式还是复数形式由它们指的内容决定 例句: (1)All hope has gone. (2)All are agreed on this point. (3)—Is there any milk in the fridge? —No, there is none. (4)None has returned from the meeting. 2. 集合名词 group, class, family, army, enemy, team 等名词的单,复数形式根据它们强调的内容而定。 例句: (1)The class were all cheerful.
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(2)The team were taking over some new plays. (3)The group are reading the newspapers. (4)The army is going to remain in this town. (5)The army have rescued the travelers. 3. 限定词短语 all of…; none of…; a lot of…; 以及分数/百分数+of ….修饰名词构成的名词短语做主语 时,谓语动词的形式由 of 后面的名词形式决定。 例句: (1)None of these suggestions are very helpful. (2)I don’t think any of us wants to work tomorrow. (3)Two-fifths of the students in the class are from Arabic-speaking countries. 难点突破 1. 主谓一致的考查主要体现在单项选择和短文改错两个题型中。同学们在练习和应试时,遇到这样的 题时,要牢记主谓一致的三个基本原则。一定要根据句子内容抓住关键的主语部分。同时还要考虑句子的 时态和语态。 2. one of +复数名词做定语从句的先行词时,定语从句中的谓语动词与复数名词一致。 the only one of + 复数名词做定语从句的先行词时,定语从句中的谓语动词用单数形式。 例句: Jim was one of the boys who were late for class. Jim was the only one of the boys who was late for class.

【典型例题】
[例 1] E-mail, as well as telephones, _____ an important part in daily communication. A. is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play 分析: 带有 as well as 短语的名词做主语时, 谓语动词与这个名词的人称和数一致, 不受 as well as 短 语内容的影响。E-mail 是单数形式,故选择 A。 [例 2] Either John or his friends _____ to blame for the bad results. A. are B. is C. was D. has been 分析:either…or..连接两个名词做主语时,其谓语动词与离它最近的名词的数和人称一致,本题中 his friends 决定了谓语动词的形式,故选择 A。 [例 3] The conductor and composer _____ by a crowd of people. A. are greeted B. is greeted C. greets D. have been greeted 分析:根据句意,主语部分的 The conductor and composer 是指一个人即:乐队指挥兼作曲家, 所以 主语的内容是单数形式,故选择 B。 [例 4] —The trousers _____ you well, madam. —But the colour _____ me. A. fit; don’t suit B. fits; doesn’t suit C. fits; don’t suit D. fit; doesn’t suit 分析:trousers, clothes, glasses,等名词本身就是复数形式。谓语动词用复数形式。Colour 是单数,谓 语用单数,故选择 D。 [例 5] The Smith’s family, which _____ rather a large one, _____ very fond of their old house.
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A. were; were B. was; were C. were; was D. was; was 分析:family 指“家庭”为单数,指“家庭成员”为复数形式。第一空格前的 which 指“家庭” 谓 语用 was. 第二空格后的 fond of 指“家庭成员喜欢他们的老房子” 谓语为 were,故选择 B。 [例 6] He is the only one of the students who _____ a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been 分析:当定语从句先行词是“one of +复数形式”时, 其后的从句谓语动词用复数形式。而当 one 之 前有 the only 时, 定语从句则强调 the only one,谓语动词用单数。另外,题目中的时间状语 for three years 表明从句的时态为现在完成时,故选择 D。 [例 7] Three fifths of the police _____ in the school near the town. A. has trained B. have trained C. has been trained D. have been trained 分析:分数+名词做主语时,谓语动词的形式由分数所指的名词的形式(可数名词或不可数名词)决 定,police 是集合名词为复数形式,根据句子意思,police 与 train 为被动关系,应用被动语态,故选择 D。 短文改错片段: 1. Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library. 分析:本句中主语 Now my picture and the prize 是复数形式,谓语动词 is 应改为 are. 2. Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become stranger at once. 分析: 本句第一行, 根据全篇内容的语境, 应当是一般现在时, 所以谓语动词 talked 改为 talk.第二行: 根据句意:我们下课后立刻又成了陌生人。Stranger 应当与主语 we 一致,改为复数形式,strangers. 3. But not all information are good to society. 分析:主语 information 是不可数名词,are 应改为 is

【模拟试题】
1. —Is there anybody in the classroom ? —No, the teacher, together with the students _____ to the playground. A. go B. went C. has gone D. have gone 2. —Are these your sheep ? —No. Mine _____ on grass at the foot of the hill. A. are feeding B. feed C. is fed D. is feeding 3. Sitting at the back of the room but in front of some old men and women _____ a very shy girl with two bright eyes. A. was B. are C. were D. there was 4. Mr. Bush, together with his wife and daughter _____ going to Japan next week. A. are B. is C. will be D. would be 5. Not the teacher but the students _____ excited. A. is B. has C. are D. have 6. As I have a meeting at four, ten minutes _____ all that I can spare to talk with you. A. are B. was C. is D. were 7. _____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass. A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifths; are C. Two fifth; are D. Two fifths; is

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【试题答案】
1. C 分析:本题考查的主谓一致的内容与上一题相同,从句子的语境判断,应当用现在完成时。 2. A 分析:mine 指 my sheep 为复数形式。是主动语态。 3. A 分析:本句为倒装句。主语是 a very shy girl with two bright eyes.核心主语是 a very shy girl,为单数, 全句为过去时。 4. B 分析:全句的核心主语是 Mr. Bush,为单数,全句为将来时。 5. C 分析:运用就近原则,谓语动词和主语 the students 一致,此处为主系表结构,用 be 动词。 6. C 分析:主语 ten minutes 表示时间,被视为一个整体,为单数形式。全句是现在时。 7. D 分析:本句核心主语是 land,为单数形式,同时注意分数的表达形式。

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