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最新英语阅读理解主旨大意题解题技巧


阅读理解解题技巧
How to grasp the main idea of a passage

有关阅读理解题目主要有以下几种:

命 题 类

主 事 推 词

旨 实 理 义

大 细 判 猜

意 节 断 测

主旨大

意型
考纲解读: 考查学生对一篇文章或一段文字的深层理 解程度及在速读中准确把握文章主旨大意 的能力。一般针对某一语段或某一语篇的 主题,标题或目的设题。

常见设题方式
1) 主题型主旨大意题的题干表现形式 ? The main idea of the passage is … ? The passage is mainly about … ? What is the passage mainly about? 2) 标题类主旨大意题 ? What is the best title for the text? ? The best title for the passage might be … 3) 目的类主旨大意题 ? The passage is meant to … ? The purpose of this article is to … ? The author intends to...

课堂探究1:

A

JINTAN, JIANGSU: The 20 students —18 boys and 2 girls — had a thousand reasons to be proud of themselves. They had just climbed their way to the top run out of 4 million students taking part in the Fifth National Hua Luogeng Gold Cup Mathematics Contest on Tuesday evening. The 20 gold medal winners are all primary and middle school students This story is mainly about ______ under the news age of 14. "Many of the problems are of college level and these pupils can A. when the contest started figure them out. It is just unbelievable!" said a teacher from Guangdong B. how the contest got its name province. Named after China's most famous mathematician, Hua Luogeng, the C. the 20 pupils who have won gold medals in the contest started in 1986, one year after his death. In less than 10 years, it contest has been recognized by the State Education Commission (国家教委) as the country's biggest and best contest of its kind.

D. the 5th National Hua Luogeng Gold Cup Mathematics Contest

B
Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease (illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether the main idea text? you What get an is unimportant cold of or the terrible killer, cancer, smoking A. Cigarette smoking is harmful. Is it worth it? can cause cancer B. Smoking can cause the most serious and terrible disease (illness) C. Smoking also can cause other health problems D. Smoking is harmful.

主题句通常在段首
新闻报道、说明文、议论文等主题句通常在开头?主 题句出现在段落或文章的开头部分,起着开宗明义? 点明主题的作用,它可以使读者一开始就明白文章所 讲的内容主旨?而支撑句则使用一些具体的人、物、 数字或具体的步骤来阐述或论证主题,常伴有 for example\ that is \first\ second \ finally \once \another time \for one thing 等词。

课堂探究2

A

Fat on human beings is distributed in different ways. Some fat people have a large stomach and no waist line—which makes them look round, rather like apples. Others are fatter below the waist, which makes them appear pear-shaped. There are two types of fat: external fat (fat under the skin) and internal fat (fat inside the body wall). Doctors, who have been examining the relationship between health and fatness, have found that the 'pears' have less internal fat, but the 'apples' have more internal fat than external fat. This seems to be what causes the health problems. The text is mainly about ______. The best treatment for fatness is to reduce the internal fat. But A. fatness and health unfortunately it seems that dieting (节食) simply makes an appleways to lose weigh shaped personB. into a smaller apple and a pear-shaped person into a C.the people's figures smaller pear. At moment there is no known way of reducing the internal rather D. than external fat. of fat distribution

B Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the Kindle. Television is still the most influential medium around. Indeed ,for many of the poorest regions(地区)of the world, it remains the next big thing——finally becomes globally available. And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better… …Too much TV has been associated with violence, overweight and loneliness. However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide The author intends to . A. stress the advantages of TV to people’s lives B. persuade women to become more independent C. encourage people to improve their reading skills D. introduce the readers some websites such as Google

主题句有时在段中或段末
1) 关注一些表转折关系的连词 “but, yet , however, in fact, indeed,”等,这些词后面连接的通常都是一段话 的主题句。 2) 关注一些表征总结性,结论性的词:

“in brief/short, above/in/after/all in all, conclusion, in a word”等,这些词后面连接的通常也都是一段话的主 题句。 3) 如果主题句含有find, show, indicate和suggest等词, 重点看其后的宾语从句。

课堂探究3 A new eight-kilometer road is under construction that links the port area with motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the center of the city. As part of the project, two four-kilometer road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for the traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 meters below the surface and are 12 meters wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction. In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electric signs at frequent intervals. They show traffic conditions ahead and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining.

Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. The surface of the road lies on the base, which is made of concrete and steel. The drainage system, just below the road surface on one side, removes any extra liquid, particularly water. In the event of fire, the fire main, which is made of steel, pipes water to many fire hydrant stations at regular intervals along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel and at the level the road surface. Other systems The passage isof mainly about _____. in the tunnel will include emergency phones. A. the construction of a road B. the design of a road C. the construction of two tunnels D. the design of two tunnels

B Excused from recycling because you live in a high rise with a rubbish chute (垃圾道)? You won’t be for long. Miami’s Mark Shantzis has made it simple for those living in tall buildings to use the chute and cycle, too. In Shantzis’ Hi-Rise Recycling system, a chute leads to a pip-shaped container with six boxes that can turn around when operated. The system, which fits in the same space as the chute and container now in The purpose in writing this text is _________. use, enables ,glass, plastics, paper, metal, and other rubbish to go into A. boxes. to encourage people to recycle their rubbish. separate The system is controlled a board foxed next the chute B. to introduce afrom recycling system for to high rises door. The boardC. has a button for the eachuse class recycling materials . At the to describe ofof computer technology in press of a button, a microcomputer locks all other floors’ chute doors and sets the recycling recycling container turning until the right box comes under the chute. D. to explain the need for rubbish collection in high The computer also counts the loads and gives a signal by phone when the box isrise full. And a particular piece of equipment breaks up the nonrecyclables.

从段落中寻找高频率词
任何一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,因此, 当文章中没有明确的主题句时,就会发现一个反 复出现的中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词

主旨大意题技巧小结
1) 主旨大意题属于归纳概括题。如有标题,标题 中蕴含的信息往往是关键信息。 2) 找准文章的主题句是关键。“主题句定位法” 是一种行之有效的方法。 读首段/句抓大意 读尾段/句抓大意 3.) 无明显主题句时寻找高频词 任一篇文章都是围绕某个主题展开的,因此,有 的文章中最明显的特点之一是有一个反复出现的 中心词,即高频词,也叫做主题词。抓住了它, 便容易抓住文章的中心。

主旨大意题干扰项特点
① 以偏概全。干扰项只阐述了文章的一部分内容, 也就是文章的局部信息。 ② 断章取义。干扰项常常以文章中的个别信息或个 别字眼作为选项的设置内容,或者以次要的事实或细 节冒充全文的主要观点。 ③ 主题扩大。干扰项所归纳、概括的范围过大,超 过文章实际所讨论的内容。 ④ 无中生有或似是而非。有的干扰项中的关键词 语好像在文章中谈到了,但认真分析之后你会发现这 类干扰项的内容与文章的内容毫无联系。

遵循 四字原则:

精 准 全

用精炼的语言概括出文章的中心思想 要注意文章的内涵和外延, 把作者的观点准确地 表达出来. 要排除掉那些片面的选项, 选取包含文章的主要 内容及作者观点的选项, 范围不宜过大或过小.



所选择的标题要新颖,对读者有吸引力, 能激发读 者的阅读兴趣.

课堂探究1:

A

JINTAN, JIANGSU: The 20 students —18 boys and 2 girls — had a thousand reasons to be proud of themselves. They had just climbed their way to the top run out of 4 million students taking part in the Fifth National Hua Luogeng Gold Cup Mathematics Contest on Tuesday evening. The 20 gold medal winners are all primary and middle school student s under the age of 14. "Many of the problems are of college level and these pupils can figure them out. It is just unbelievable!" said a teacher from Guangdong province. Named after China's most famous mathematician, Hua Luogeng, the contest started in 1986, one year after his death. In less than 10 years, it

B
Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease (illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?

课堂探究2

A

Fat on human beings is distributed in different ways. Some fat people have a large stomach and no waist line—which makes them look round, rather like apples. Others are fatter below the waist, which makes them appear pear-shaped. There are two types of fat: external fat (fat under the skin) and internal fat (fat inside the body wall). Doctors, who have been examining the relationship between health and fatness, have found that the 'pears' have less internal fat, but the 'apples' have more internal fat than external fat. This seems to be what causes the health problems. The best treatment for fatness is to reduce the internal fat. But unfortunately it seems that dieting (节食) simply makes an appleshaped person into a smaller apple and a pear-shaped person into a smaller pear. At the moment there is no known way of reducing the internal rather than external fat.

B Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the Kindle. Television is still the most influential medium around. Indeed ,for many of the poorest regions(地区)of the world, it remains the next big thing——finally becomes globally available. And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better… …Too much TV has been associated with violence, overweight and loneliness. However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide.

课堂探究3 A new eight-kilometer road is under construction that links the port area with motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the center of the city. As part of the project, two four-kilometer road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for the traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 meters below the surface and are 12 meters wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction. In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electric signs at frequent intervals. They show traffic conditions ahead and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining.

B Excused from recycling because you live in a high rise with a rubbish chute (垃圾道)? You won’t be for long. Miami’s Mark Shantzis has made it simple for those living in tall buildings to use the chute and cycle, too. In Shantzis’ Hi-Rise Recycling system, a chute leads to a pip-shaped container with six boxes that can turn around when operated. The system, which fits in the same space as the chute and container now in use, enables ,glass, plastics, paper, metal, and other rubbish to go into separate boxes. The system is controlled from a board foxed next to the chute door. The board has a button for each class of recycling materials . At the press of a button, a microcomputer locks all other floors’ chute doors and sets the recycling container turning until the right box comes under the chute. The computer also counts the loads and gives a signal by phone when the box is full. And a particular piece of equipment breaks up the nonrecyclables.


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