[教材P2原句] CHOLERA” JOHN SNOW DEFEATS “KING
(1)vt.打败；战胜；使受挫 Li Na defeated her opponent and won the first in the final of French Open in 2011
在2011年法国网球公开赛决赛中李娜击败对手获得 了冠军。 (2)n.[C，U]失败
The Brazil national football team suffered a defeat in the World Cup. 巴西国家足球队在世界杯上被击败了。
defeat， beat， win 击败，强调过程和 结果
defeat， beat， win
Yesterday I Defeated /beat John at chess. He won only
one set， while I won two sets. 昨天我和约翰下棋赢了他。他只赢了一盘，而我
2.attend vi.& vt.照料；护理(病人)；出席；参加 [教材 P2原句]
John Snow was a famous doctor in London — so
expert， indeed， that he attended her personal physician. 约翰· 斯诺是伦敦一位著名的医生——他的确医术 精湛，因而成了维多利亚女王的私人大夫。 Queen Victoria as
①The professor is rich in knowledge， so we all like
to attend his lecture.
attend a meeting/a lecture/school 参加会议/听报告/上学
attend (on/upon) sb.
②During his visit to China， Putin attended the 16th ChineseRussian Prime Ministers meeting in October， 2011. 在2011年10月访问中国期间普京出席了中俄总理 第十六次会议。 ③He was badly injured. As a result， he was
attended (on) by three nurses.
attend， join， join in， take part in
事则用join sb. in sth.
①I often attend meetings and sometimes I join in/take part in their discussion.
我经常出席会议，有时参与大会的讨论。 ②My wish is to join the army after graduation.
我的愿望是毕业后参军。 ③Lincoln took an active part in politics and was strongly against slavery. 林肯积极参加政治活动，强烈反对奴隶制度。
But he became inspired when he
thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 但当他一想到要帮助(那些)受到霍乱威胁的普通 百姓，他就感到很振奋。
expose sb./sth. to ...
be exposed to ...
1. We want to expose the kids to as much art and culture as possible.
2. 别在太阳下晒得太久，你会被晒伤的。 Don't expose yourself to the sun for too long. You will get burnt.
4.cure n.[C]治愈；疗法vt.治愈；治疗；改掉(坏习惯) [教材P2原句] Neither its cause nor its cure was
1. Doctors are searching for a cure for AIDS.
2. We must cure the children of bad habits. 我们必须纠正孩子们的坏习惯。
This medicine may cure you of your headache.
⑤a cure for ...
⑥ cure sb. of sth.
强调结果，即“治愈”；可构成 cure sb. of sth.结构 强调过程，不涉及结果；可构成
treat sb. for sth.结构
①The doctor treated her headache with a new medicine， but didn't
②He was treated for his heart disease for three
months， but the doctors said they could cure him of it in one month.
John Snow wanted to face the challenge
and solve this problem.
①To deal with the economy is a real challenge for Greece.
(1)face the challenge
accept/take up a challenge (2)challenge sb. to sth. challenge sb. to do sth.
接受挑战 向某人挑战某事 向某人挑战做某事
accepted a challenge to a TV debate.
他接受了电视辩论的挑战。 ③When I said I ran faster than her， she challenged
me to a race.
当我说我跑得比她快时，她硬逼着要和我赛跑。 ④Mr Wang challenged me to play another tennis game.
? ?[误]to ? ? ?[正]to
challenge to sb. challenge sb.
6.absorb vt.吸收；吸引；使专心 [教材P2原句] The second suggested that people
absorbed this disease into their bodies with their
meals. 第二种看法是人们是在吃饭时把这种病毒引入体内的。 ①This kind of paper absorbs ink. 这种纸吸墨水。
absorb ... into ...
absorb ... from ...
absorb sb.'s attention be absorbed in
absorb nutrients from the soil.
植物能从土壤中吸收养分。 ③Dolly Song sung by Wu Dongbo absorbed my
武东博演唱的《甩葱歌》吸引了我的注意力。 ④ Absorbed in his work ， Tom simply forgot food and sleep.
7.suspect [教材P2原句] John Snow suspected that the second
theory was correct but he needed evidence. 约翰· 斯诺推测第二个理论是正确的，但他需要证据。 (1)vt.怀疑；认为 ①Never employ the man you suspect， nor suspect the man you employ. [谚语]疑人不用，用人不疑。
suspect that ... suspect sb. of (doing) sth. suspect sb. to be ...
怀疑??；觉得?? 怀疑某人(做过)某事 怀疑某人是??
②What makes you suspect him of stealing the money？ 你凭什么怀疑钱是他偷的？ ③I suspect that he is a thief. ＝ I suspect him of a thief.
＝ I suspect him to be a thief.
我怀疑他是个小偷。 (2)n. [C]嫌疑犯 ④The police have taken the suspect to the police station. 警察把那个嫌疑犯带到了警察局。
It seemed that the water was to blame.
看来水是罪魁祸首。 (1)vt.责备；指责；把??归咎于 be to blame (for sth.) 对(坏事)负有责任；
blame sb. for (doing) sth. blame sth. on sb. 因(做)某事而责备某人 把某事归咎到某人身上
①Don't always blame your
own failure on others. Sometimes you yourself are to blame. 不要总把自己的失败归咎于他人。 有时该怪你自己。 ②Who was to blame for the accident of the BeijingShanghai express train？
(2)n.[U]过失；责备 bear/take/accept/get the blame (for sth.) (对某事)承担责任 put/lay the blame for sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人
③I am ready to take the blame for what I said. 我已准备对我所说的负责。 ④She'll put the blame on me if it gets bad. 如果事情变糟，她会把此事归咎于我。
9.announce vt.宣布；宣告(决定、计划等)；(尤指通过 广播)通知 [教材P3原句] With this extra evidence John Snow
was able to announce with certainty that polluted
water carried the virus. 有了这个特别的证据，约翰· 斯诺就能够肯定地宣布， 这种被污染了的水携带着病菌。
(1)announce sth.(to sb.) announce that ... It is announced that ... (2)announcement n.
(向某人)宣布、通告某事 宣布??；通知?? 据宣布?? 通知；通告
make an announcement
①Guangdong police announced a reward for reporting
crime clues. 广东警方宣布将给予提供犯罪线索者一笔赏金。 ②The spokesman of the Foreign Ministry announced the news to the reporters.＝ The spokesman of the Foreign Ministry announced to the reporters the news. 外交部发言人向记者发布了新闻。
表示“向某人宣布某事”用announce sth. to sb.或 announce to sb. sth.，而不用于announce sb. sth.结构。 ③It is announced that there will be a celebration on National Day. 据宣布，国庆节要举行庆祝会。 ④The announcer made an announcement that all
the details should be announced through the broadcast.
announce， declare announce 指正式公布、宣布，侧重预告人们关心或 感兴趣的事情，尤指新闻 declare指正式向公众宣布，侧重“当众 declare 发表”，多用于宣战、议和或宣判等。 declare后可跟复合宾语
[自填助记] ①The date of his visit has not been announced . 他来访的日期尚未公布。 ②Fighting has been going on for a year， but war has not yet been declared . 仗已打了一年，但并没有宣战。
[教材P3原句] The water companies were
instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. 供水公司得到指示，再也不能让人们接触受污染
①When I met him， he was instructing his son how to deal with the car problem. 当我见到他时，他正在教儿子如何修汽车。
(1)instruct sb. in sth. instruct sb. to do sth.
give sb. instructions to do sth. 命令某人做某事 follow one's instructions 听从某人的指示
②My job is to instruct her in English.
我的工作是教她英语。 ③He instructed me to deliver it to a customer . 他吩咐我把东西传送给顾客。 ④The teacher gave them instructions to arrive early tomorrow morning. 老师命令他们明天早晨要早到。
2. draw a conclusion
3.expose ... to ...
4. of sb.'s/sth.'s day
5.face a challenge
6.mark ... on ...
7.be to blame
8.link ... to
1.put forward 提出；拨快；将??提前；推荐
[教材P1原句] black holes？ 谁提出了黑洞理论？ Who put forward a theory about
写出put forward的汉语意思 ①During the “10＋3” summit， Premier Wen put forward proposals on how to establish an East Asia 提出 free trade area.
②The women's final has been put forward to 2：00
③He put his watch forward to avoid being late for the
④We put Mary forward to take part in the competition to find a designer for the new airport 推荐；提名 building.
⑤We're trying to put aside a few hundred dollars
every month towards our vacation.
⑥Before we leave the office， let's put these files away. 离开办公室之前，让我们把这些文件收拾好。
2.draw a conclusion得出结论
①The debate did not arrive at/come
to/reach/draw a conclusion until midnight.
辩论直到午夜才结束。 ②In conclusion， I'd like to say how much I have enjoyed myself. 最后，我想说说我过得有多么愉快。
③arrive at/come to/reach/draw a 得出结论
④in conclusion 最后
⑤We will conclude our concert with the national
我们将以国歌结束我们的音乐会。 ⑥What do you conclude from the experiment？
从这次试验中你得出了什么结论？ ⑦From the evidence I must conclude that you are wrong. 从证据看，我敢断定你错了。
3.link ... to/with ...把??和??连接起来
[教材P3原句] In another part of London， he
found supporting evidence from two other deaths
that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. 在伦敦的另一个地区，他从两个与宽街爆发的霍 乱有关联的死亡病例中又发现了有力证据。
①For centuries farmers have linked the behavior of animals to changes in the weather. 几个世纪以来农民们一直把动物行为与天气变化联系 在一起。 ②Our economy is closely linked with America's. 我们的经济与美国经济紧密相连。
link up (with) join ... to/and ... connect ...to/with/and ... relate ...to ... combine ...with ...
(与??)连接；联合 把??与??连接起来 把??与??连接起来 把??和??联系起来 把??和??联合起来
③The bands have linked up for a charity concert. 这些乐队已联合起来，准备办一场慈善音乐会。 ④Wealth is seldom related to happiness. 财富鲜与幸福相关。
Neither its cause nor its cure was
Neither Libya nor Iran was the main focus of the
attention at the moment in Asia.
So many thousands of terrified people
died every time there was an outbreak.
因此每次(霍乱)爆发，就有成千上万惊恐的人们死去。 [典例背诵] Every time I saw the pictures， I was reminded that Guo Meimei showed off wealth online.
①The first suggested that cholera multiplied in
the air. 第一种看法是霍乱病毒在空气中繁殖。 ②To prevent this from happening again， John Snow suggested that the source of all the water
supplies be examined .
为防止这种情况再度发生，约翰· 斯诺建议所有水 源都要经过检测。
①Premier Wen's remarks suggested that Tiangong1
had been sent up into space successfully. 温总理的话表明“天宫一号”已发射成功。 ②He suggested Conocophillips (should) take measures to stop oil leaking. 他建议康菲公司应采取措施阻止漏油。
A woman， who had moved away from
Broad Street， liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day. 一位已经从宽街搬走的妇女，很喜欢从这个水泵里抽 上来的水，每天都要让人把水送到她家。
Wang Shipeng had his foot injured while playing basketball. 王仕鹏打篮球时脚受了伤。
1.So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. 因此每次爆发(霍乱)时，就有成千上万惊恐的人们 死去。 every time在句中引导时间状语从句，与each time 相同，意为“每次??的时候”。
①Every time I went to Beijing I would visit the Great Wall. 我每次去北京都会去参观长城。 ②Every time I see him， he's always wearing a smile on
(1)表示习惯、经常性：every time， each time，
next time， the first/second/last ... time等；
③ The first time I went abroad ， I couldn't understand what foreigners said. 第一次出国时，我听不懂老外说什么。 (2)表示瞬间变化，意为“一??就??”：the moment，
the minute， the instant， the second等；
④The moment I saw him， I knew what had happened. 见到他的那一刻，我就知道发生了什么事。
the day， the week， the month， the year， the spring， the summer， the autumn， the winter等。 ⑤We got together the night he returned from abroad. 他从国外回来的那个晚上我们聚会了。
2.To prevent this from happening again， John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined.
源都要经过检测。 句中suggest表示“建议”，另外suggest还有 “表明；暗示”的意思。其用法如下：
suggest that sb. (should) do (从句中常用虚拟语气) suggest thatclause(从句中
①His attitude suggested that he was not interested in it at all.
他的态度表明他对此一点也不感兴趣。 ②I suggested that he (should) adapt himself to his new conditions. 我建议他应该适应新的环境。
③My deskmate's sleepy look suggested that he was
of his study and I suggested he (should) have a rest .
3.A woman， who had moved away from Broad Street，
liked the water from the pump so much that
she had it delivered to her house every day.
句子结构分析： A woman， who had moved away from Broad Street ，
句中had it delivered是“have＋sth.＋过去分词”结构，
该结构有以下三种常见用法： (1)表示“请/让别人做某事”，句中所用的便是此义。 ①I'll have my bike repaired tomorrow. 我明天得(请人)修一下我的自行车。
(2)表示“经历或遭遇(一些不好的事)”。 ②She had her computer stolen the other day. 前几天她的电脑被偷了。 (3)表示“完成/解决某事”，此时主语也可能是过去分
③When will you have your homework handed in？ 你什么时候交家庭作业？
have sth. done， have sb. do， have sb. doing
让/叫/使/请别人做某事。宾语sth.后 have sth. done 面用过去分词作宾语补足语，sth.与过 去分词表示的动作之间是被动关系
have sb. do
have sb. doing
[自填助记] ①You shouldn't have your horse running so fast. It's too dangerous.
②I have my husband do some housework every day. 我每天让丈夫做些家务。 ③He had his leg broken while playing football. 他踢足球时摔断了腿。
[点津] 作“照顾；护理”讲时，可用attend，也可用attend on/upon；作“出席；参加”讲时，attend多作及物 动词。
④ Attend to your study and stop talking.
专心学习，不要讲话。 ⑤Excuse me， but I have an important matter to attend to. 对不起，我有件要事要办。
④A teacher should
expose his students to