教学过程 一、概念及分类 （一）概念 英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语”，如果将谓语的一部分或全部放在主语之前，这种语序叫 倒装。 倒装既是一种语法手段， 也是
一种修辞手段， 用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分。 （二）种类 1. 完全倒装：将谓语的全部放在主语之前，通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时 例：Here is the book you want. 你要的书在这儿。 Down went the small boat. 小船沉下去了。 2. 部分倒装：将谓语的一部分，如助动词、或情态动词，移至主语之前。 例： Never have I seen her before. 我以前没见过她。 Only by working hard can one succeed. 只有努力才能成功。 【注意】 若句中的谓语没助动词或情态动词，则添加助动词 do, does 或 did，并置于主语之前 例：Well do I remember the day I joined the League.入团的那一天，我记忆犹新。 Little did I think that he could be back alive. 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。 二、倒装句结构 （一）完全倒装句结构 1. There be 结构（在此结构中可以用 exist, seem, happen, appear, live, rise, stand 等来代替 be 动词） 例：There is a mobile phone and some books on the desk. 桌上有一个手机和一些书。 There lived an old fisherman in the village. 村里住着一位老渔夫。 There stand two white houses by the river. 河滨矗立着两座白房子。 练习：河滨矗立着一座白房子。 ( )________ a beautiful palace ________ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at C. Stands there; under 例：Here comes the bus．汽车来了。
B. There stands; under D. There stands; at
2. ?“ here, there, now, thus, then + come (或 be,go,lie,run) + 主语”结构
Now comes my turn. 轮到我了。 Then came the order to take off. 起飞的命令到了。 ?“ out, in, up, down, off, away + go/ come/ leave 等（表示移动的动词）+ 主语” 结构 例：Away went the crowd one by one. 人们一个一个地离去。 In came a stranger in black. 进来了一位穿黑衣的陌生人。 Down fell the leaves. 树叶掉了下来。 练习：( ) Out ________, with a stick in his hand. A. did he rush C. he rushed B. rushed he D. he did rush
? “表示地点的介词词组 + be, lie, stand,exist 等（表示存在的动词） + 主语”结构 例：East of the lake lie two towns. 湖的东边是两个城镇。 Under the tree was lying a wounded soldier. 练习：( A. was such an old C. was such old a 3. “表语+连系动词+主语”结构 例： Lucky is she who was admitted to a famous university last year. 她很幸运， 去年被一所名牌大学录取。
Gone are the days when he was looked down upon. 他被人看不起的日子一去不复返了。 Present at the meeting are some well-known scientists. 一些知名的科学家出席了会议。
) Near the church ________ cottage.（村舍） B. had a so old D. is so an old
) A. Such was C. Such were
Albert Einstein, a simple man and 20th century’s greatest scientist. B. So was D. So were
【注意】完全倒装句里，如果主语是人称代词,就不用倒装。 例： Here we are. 我们到了。 Out she went. 她走了。 （二）部分倒装句结构 1. Only + adv、介词短语或状语从句 + 助动词/ 情态动词 + 主语。 例：Only then did I see life was not easy. 只有那时我才知道生活是不易的。 Only in this way can you use the computer well. 只有用这种方法你才能把电脑学好。 Only when he is seriously ill does he ever stay in bed. 只有他病重时，他才待在床上。 【注意】? only 修饰状语从句时，从句不可倒装，主句要部分倒装 ? only 修饰主语时，句子不用倒装 例：Only he can answer the question. 练习：1.________________________ (只有努力工作) can we succeed. 2.Only when he was away from home _________
__ (他才意识到) how nice home was.
3.Only you _______________________________（能解决这个问题）。 2. never, often, seldom, little, nowhere, not, hardly,scarcely 等（含有否定意义的副词或连词） 及 at no time、under/in no circumstance、in no case、by no means、on no condition 等（表否定意 义的介词短语）+ 助动词/ 情态动词 + 主语。 例：Never before have I seen him. 我以前没见过他。 Not a single word of English can he speak. 他连一个英语单词都不会说。 练习：( ) ”on no condition ____ you are a Chinese ,” dad told me before I went abroad. A. you should forget C. shouldn’t you forget B. forget you D. should you forget
【拓展】? not until + 状语从句 + 助动词/ 情态动词 + 主语 例：Not until he returned did we have supper. = We didn’t have supper until he returned. 练习：孩子睡着了，妈妈才离开房间。
? Not only + be 动词 + 主语， but also … （此时 not only… but also…连接的是两个句子） 例：Not only was there no electricity at that time but also (there was) no water in the area. ? 表示“刚??就??的倒装结构
例：Hardly had he started to leave when it began to rain. 他刚要离开，天就下起了雨。 Scarcely had he sat down when his mobile phone rang.他刚坐下，手机就响了。 No sooner had he handed in his paper than he realized his mistakes. 他刚交卷就意识到出错了。
3. 固定句型 ? So + be（have，助动词或情态动词）+主语，意为“??也是如此” 例：She has been to Tokyo.So have I. 她去过东京，我也去过。 【注意】如果句意不是“??也是如此”，而仅是对前面内容的肯定或附和（此时 so=indeed）， 那么，句子不可使用倒装。 例：---Jack won the first prize in the contest. 杰克在比赛中获一等奖。 ---So he did. 确实是的。 ? neither/nor+ be（have，助动词或情态动词）+主语 意为“……也不这样” 例：I cannot swim. Neither can he . 我不会游泳，他也不会。 ? 如果前面所说的内容既有肯定又有否定，或前后的谓语动词形式不一致时， 用“It is the same with +主语”结构或用“So it is with +主语”结构。 例：He worked hard, but didn't pass the exam. So it was with his sister.
他很努力，但没有通过考试。他妹妹也是这样。（既有肯定又有否定） She is a teacher and she enjoys teaching. So it is with Mr Li.
were, had, should 时，可省略 if, 但其谓语须倒装。 you would have passed the exam.
例：Were I you, I would take the job. Had you worked hard at your lessons, Should he fail，he would kill himself. 5. So+adj/adv + 助动词/情态动词+ that 从句（陈述语序） 例：So clearly does he speak English that he can always make himself understood. 6. many a time, often 等（表示频率的副词） + 助动词/情态动词 + 主语 例：Often did she come to my house in the past. 过去她常到我家来。 7. 表示方式、程度的副词 + 助动词/情态动词 + 主语 例：Well do I remember the day when I joined the League. 我对入团的那一天还记忆犹新。 8. 非谓语动词+ be + 主语。 例：Covering much of the earth's surface is a blanket of water. 覆盖地球大部分表面的是水。
Also discussed were the problems we had met with in our studies. 同时还讨论了我们在学习中碰到的问 题。 First to unfold was the map of the world. 首先要打开的是世界地图。
（三）形式上的倒装句 形式上的倒装在语法上称为前置。它的特点是，只把强调的内容提至句首，主谓并不倒 装。这样的结构非常多，但有几个重要的句型需要特别注意： 1. the+比较级??，the+比较级?? “越??，越??”
例：The harder you work， the greater progress you will make。 2. whatever +n 引导让步状语从句，意为“无论什么??”；however+adj/adv 引导让步状 语从句，意为“无论多么??” 例：However difficult the problem may be ,we must work it out this evening. Whatever reasons you have , you should carry out your promise. 3. as,though 引导让步状语从句时采用倒装形式的情况 ? 表语的倒装 n./adj. + as + S + v. 例：Tired as/though he was , he still went on with his work. Strange as/though it seems, it is true. Exhausted as/though she was , she wasn’t able to sleep. ? 谓语动词的倒装 v. + as + S + 情态动词/助动词
例：Try as he might，he didn’t pass the exam。 Search as they would here and there, they could find nothing in the room. ? 状语的倒装 adv. + as + S + v. 例：Much as he likes the bike, he doesn’t want to buy it. Hard as I studied, I could not catch up with them. 【注意】如果是单数 n 或 adj 的最高级作表语，不再用冠词。如： 例：Youngest as he is in our class， he speaks English best。
练习（ ）1.in recent years travel companies have succeeded in selling us the idea that
the future we go,________. A. our holiday will be better C. the better our holiday will be
B. our holiday will be the better D. the better will our holiday be B. however D. no matter how much
）2._____ difficulties we come across, we’ll help one another to overcome them.
A. whenever C. no matter what 三、倒装句用法口诀 副词开头要倒装，人称代词则如常。 only 修饰副介状，位于句首半倒装。 否定意义副连词，即“不??也不”需倒装。 such 代词做表语，引起主谓要倒装。 Not only 开头句，前一分句须倒装。 had,were, should 虚拟句，省略 if 半倒装。
课后作业： 1._______ and caught the mouse. A. Up the cat jumped B. The cat up jumped C. Up jumped the cat D. Jumped up the cat
2.______ and the lesson began. A. In came Mr Brown B. Mr Brown in came C. In came he D. came in Mr Brown 3. Over _______, dead. A. rolling the goat B. rolled the goat C. did the goat roll D. the goat rolled 4.—Where is my shirt, mum? 4. —_________. A. There is it B. There it is C. There is D. Here is it 5. —Where is your father? Oh, ________. A. here he comes B. he here comes C. here does he come D. here comes he 6. The door opened and there ________. A. enters an old man B. entered an old man C. did an old man enter D. an old man entered 7. Now ______ your turn to recite the text. A. will come B. comes C. has come D. there is 8. Often _____ them not to smoke here. A. we advised B. advised me C. did we advise D. had we advised 9. ________ playing soldiers. A. Inside the room were two boys B. Inside the room two boys C. Were two boys inside the room D. Inside the room was two boys 10. On the wall _______ two large portraits. A. are hanging B. hanged C. hang D. Hangs