（一） All gardeners know this is going to happen every year, and yet many are still surprised when it does. I’m talking about the arrival of freezing temperatures. There will come
a time when we need to protect some of our landscape plants from freezing temperatures. And since no one reliably predicts the weather, now is a good time to get ready. Many calls I receive are from the gardeners who confuse frosts and freezes. While both are cold weather events, they are completely different. Frosts relate to the amount of water in the air. When air temperatures drop low enough, the water in the air condenses (凝结) onto surfaces as dew(small drops of water). An example of this is a cold glass of iced tea sweating on a hot summer day. Frosts typically occur when the sky is clear and the wind is calm. Heat absorbed by the soil and plants during the day goes into the air at night. Calm wind conditions allow surface temperatures to drop below freezing while higher elevations (高度) remain warmer. If the surface temperature and dew point are below freezing, ice crystals (结晶体) form on the cool surfaces. Sometimes the air is too dry for ice crystals to form, but a frost event has still occurred. A frost can occur when the air temperature is above 32° F(0° C). A freeze occurs when a mass of cold air moves into the area. This weather event often happens under windy conditions with a cloud cover. A typical freeze case is very different from a frost. When the outside air temperature falls below 32° F for a certain number of hours, a freeze can cause plant damage. A hard freeze occurs with temperatures below 28° F for a certain number of hours. So what can a gardener do to prepare for these events? Fortunately, we have lots of resources to keep us informed on the weather. TV, radio and weather websites can help us know when one is expected, though even then we can be fooled. A couple of years ago, I followed the TV forecast that called for 36°F, and I didn’t cover my lettuce plants. When I woke up the next morning, it was 26°F outside. It’s a good thing most of our leafy green, cool-season vegetables can tolerate some fairly low temps. So knowing the cold is coming, here are some tips to help your landscape plants and winter vegetables bundle up. Make sure your plants are well watered just before a cold weather event. As water freezes, it releases heat that protects the root system during cold snaps. Plants grown in containers have the advantage of being portable. When temperatures drop toward freezing and below, an easy solution is simply moving the plants into the house or garage for a couple of days. If moving the plants inside is not an option, simply place them up against the house for some protection. West- and south-facing walls are best, as they absorb and release more heat energy from the sun. Maintain 2 to 3 inches of mulch (护根) around the base of landscape plants to protect water and act as a blanket for the roots. Cover in-ground plants with plastic sheets, cloth, boxes or
something similar. Ideally, the leaves should not touch the covering because frost and ice will form on these surfaces. Whatever method you use, just be ready to put it into practice on short notice as we move further in November and another Mississippi winter. 1. We can infer from Paragraph 1 that A. the weather forecast is reliable B. nobody is willing to protect their plants C. the author can predict the weather correctly D. freezing weather is always a trouble for gardeners 2. Which of the following is TRUE about a freeze? A. No plants can survive a freeze. B. A freeze needs a colder weather condition than a frost. C. A freeze occurs when the air is wet enough. D. Dew will appear on the leaves when a freeze occurs. 3. Several suggestions are mentioned to protect plants from a freeze EXCEPT A. watering the plants in advance B. transplanting all plants into containers C. paying attention to the weather changes D. covering the roots of the plants with mulch 4. The passage is intended to tell gardeners in Mississippi to A. distinguish between frosts and freezes B. watch out closely for weather forecast C. be ready to protect plants from cold weather D. take care of themselves in the coming winter （二） I didn’t grow up in a very happy household. My parents saw the world as a menacing place, full of people out to cheat you. “Life is a battle, and you’ve got to give it hell every day” was my mom’s rough equivalent of “God bless you” when I was leaving the house in the morning. Like many Americans, my parents placed a high value on material possessions. I witnessed my parents exhibit short moments of happiness via purchases and experiences related to all the stuff. But those moments were bursts of something that was not true happiness, just a moment that ran like water between the fingers. For years, I didn’t understand that happiness is something you create and are responsible for. I thought that was one of those foolish ideas only highly-developed spiritual people had. With no idea how to create my own happiness, I kept looking for it in things outside myself — in moments, temporary rushes, things that would take me away or make me forget, like shopping, a night of partying, much like my parents had done.
Not until I was a mother did I begin to examine my own beliefs about happiness and transform my own thinking. I knew I didn’t want to raise my kids in the “life is a battle”. But when I asked myself the question of how I can raise happy children with an optimistic view of life, the answer I realized was connected with happy parents. And if I didn’t feel consistently happy or understand the sources of my own happiness, then how could I possibly set the right example to my children and pass this on? Because I lacked the right skill set and knowledge, I set out to discover new tools that I now apply to raising my kids. One of the first things I learned is you can actually choose to be happy. We have more control over happiness than we think. We need to develop habits that foster happiness. This allows us to set a higher baseline of happiness and be able to regain it quicker when life gets us down. One such habit I develop at home is a gratitude practice. Happiness starts with recognizing the value and goodness in our own lives. Every night, my kids and I say what we are thankful for. Each one of us takes a turn as we go around the room recalling small things from our day to be thankful for, something as simple as “the fun conversation I had”, or big things like family and health. I love hearing the things they say. There is only one rule that no one can interrupt whoever is talking. And if they don’t feel like participating then they don’t have to, but I continue my practice to set the example. Gratitude sets the foundation of happiness as you begin to see the joy in the every day. Happiness stops to be an experience you seek or a thing to be gained. How many times have you thought, if I just had X, then I would be happy, like more money, a house, a better relationship? But even if you get X, then there is Y and the cycle repeats itself. Studies have proven more stuff doesn’t make us happy, although we do need a baseline level of material comfort by way of food, clothing and shelter — freedom from poverty — to be happy. For many years, I didn’t understand that happiness is actually there in front of you. 1. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. How I learned to be a happier mom B. What I did with my trouble in life C. How I put up with my noisy kids D. What I was longing for in the past 2. The underlined word “menacing” in the first paragraph probably means A. magical B. threatening C. wonderful D. embarrassing . 3. Compared with her parents, the author thinks children’s happiness A. comes from the happy parents B. is influenced by the surroundings C. comes from material possessions D. is related to the sense of responsibility 4. The purpose of the talk every night is .
A. to get all the family members together B. to share what they have done all day C. to help develop a good habit in life D. to show gratitude for things in life 5. We can learn from the passage that A. money means happiness in real life B. happiness is determined by our attitude C. gaining more knowledge will make us happy D. raising kids is in fact a real happy thing （三） Top beautiful bookstores in the world ●City Lights City Lights, an independent bookstore-publisher combination specializing in world literature, the arts and progressive politics, is still one of the world’s greatest bookshops since its establishment by poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti. It became well-known for publishing Allen Ginsberg’s influential poem Howl and Other Poems. Having been a gathering place for American literary icons (代表人物), like Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, this literary landmark attracts booklovers from across the country and around the world to browse, read, and just soak in the pleasant atmosphere. ●Shakespeare &Company Originally established in 1919 by Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare &Company is a combination of a bookstore and a reading library, specializing in English-language literature. In the 1920s, the store was a meeting point for literary icons such as Ezra Pound, Ernest Hemingway, William S. Burroughs, James Joyce and Ford Madox Ford. Located in the 5th Arrondissement in Paris’s Left Bank, the current store was opened in 1951, named after and in honor of the earlier store that closed during World War II. ●Daunt Books Daunt Books is an original Edwardian bookshop in London. It already has five branches in the city. Daunt Books specializes in travel books, travel accounts, non-fiction, history and fiction. The staff are extremely knowledgeable, providing the customers with helpful advice. ●Selexyz Bookstore The 800-year-old Dominican church in Maastricht has been turned into one of the most beautiful bookshops in the world—Selexyz Bookstore. The store keeps the character and charm of the old church. It houses the largest stock of books in English in the city. Reading here is a religious experience. It is a bookshop made in heaven. 1. We can learn from the text that _____. A. City Lights has the largest stock of books in London
B. City Lights was set up by Allen Ginsberg C. Shakespeare &Company is located in Paris D. Daunt Books has five branches in the world 2. In which bookstore can you get useful suggestions from the staff？ A. City Lights. B. Daunt Books. C. Shakespeare &Company. D. Selexyz Bookstore. 3. What is the special feature about Selexyz Bookstore? A. It became well-known because of an influential poem. B. It once closed during World War II. C. It keeps the character of the old church. D. It specializes in travel books. （四） Reading award-winning literature may improve your ability to read other people, a new study suggests. Researchers found that when they had volunteers read works of well-known literary awards, it seemed to temporarily improve their ability to understand other people’s emotions. The same was not true of nonfiction or “popular” fiction — the mystery, romance and science-fiction books. Experts said the findings suggest that literature might help people become more perceptive (有觉察力的). “Reading literary fiction isn’t just for passing time. It’s not just an escape,” said Keith Oatley, a professor of cognitive psychology (认知心理学) at the University of Toronto. “It also enables us to better understand others, and then take that into our daily lives.” Oatley was not involved in the new research, but worked on some of the first studies to suggest that reading literature can boost people’s empathy (共鸣) with others. His team has found that those who read a lot of fiction tend to show greater empathy on standard tests, but the same is not true of non-fiction fans. For the study, the researchers at the New School for Social Research, in New York City, set up a series of five experiments in which participants read either literary fiction, popular fiction, non-fiction or nothing at all before taking some standard tests. One test is known as “Reading the Mind in the Eyes”. People have to look at photos of actors’ eyes, and then guess what emotion is being expressed in each. The test is considered a measure of empathy. “Literary” fiction has no clear definition. So Kidd and his colleague Emanuele Castano chose contemporary works that have won or been finalists for famous literary awards. They included The Round House by Louise Erdrich, Salvage the Bones by Jesmyn Ward and the short story Corrie by Alice Munro. “Popular” fiction included best-sellers like Gone Girl by Gillian Flynn,
and Danielle Steel’s The Sins of the Mother. What’s so special about literary fiction? “For one, it’s usually more focused on characters than on plot,” Kidd noted. But beyond that, he said, there is usually no single “authoritative narrator” who takes us through the story. It demands that the reader almost become the writer and fill in the gaps. “You really have to think about the characters,” Kidd said. Oatley agreed. “Alice Munro doesn’t tell you what to think,” he said. “You, yourself, have to make deduction about characters. And that’s often what we’re doing in our real-life conversations.” Or at least that’s what people could do. Often, Kidd said, their daily interactions with other people are more automatic, and don’t involve deep consideration. Reading could offer a way to “practice” your social skills and use them more in real life, according to another researcher not involved in the study. 1. What may be Oatley’s opinion on the new study? A. It still lacks solid evidence. B. It is beneficial to one’s reading. C. It is meaningful and convincing. D. It is based on his own research. 2. According to the researchers, which of the following cannot help you understand others’ emotions? A. Salvage the Bones. C. Corrie. B. The Round House. D. Gone Girl. .
3. Reading literary fiction helps understand others better probably because A. reading can help us control our emotions B. the writers are good at making conversation C. the characters in the fiction have good social skills D. reading involves deep understanding of the characters 4. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. Different kinds of fiction B. Reading literature for fun C. Reading is more than entertainment D. Literature lovers read people better （五）
It was this time three years ago that I found myself, just like you, anxiously waiting for “that day” to arrive so I could get my A-level results and enter Exeter University. However, when the day came I missed my grades and didn’t get a place. Back then I had thought that I was going to go to Exeter University or I wasn’t going to attend university at all. Seeing my results meant this had to change. Or have a year out and reapply later? But that wasn’t what I did. I ended up going to the University of Greenwich to study for an ITMB degree — and I’m so glad I did. That is why I want to share my story with anyone else who may find themselves in a similar position.
When I found out I hadn’t got in, I was disappointed. My AS Levels were fantastic so I knew I’d messed up on the final exams. I immediately had to think — what was next and what were my options? I turned to friends for advice on other possible universities and routes. The more I thought about it, the more I knew that I wanted to do the course, the IT Management for Business BSc degree (ITMB), because it was developed by employers and offered such great link-ups with them throughout the three-year course. So I decided to call the ITMB course director at Exeter University. I had met him twice at open days and I’d asked for his business card and he said I was welcome to give him a call if I wanted to talk about anything — so I did. He explained that he was actually starting a new post at the University of Greenwich and that he would take my UCAS application with him to talk to the department at Greenwich. Within 24 hours, he called to say he had spoken with the director and that he would like me to join Greenwich in September. I couldn’t believe it — it had all happened so fast and here I was having gone from no university place to an offer in the space of a few days. If you miss your grades, remember to be open-minded and stay positive. I had not considered Greenwich University despite the fact that they offered the ITMB course that I wanted to study and I have had the most amazing three years. In life, you have to take the opportunities and challenges that life throws at you and turn them into positives. I had a summer internship (实习期) every summer while studying and I am about to start as a technical consultant for HP (Hewlett-Packard) — a great graduate job for a fantastic company. These achievements are no mean feat in this day and age when many graduates find themselves struggling to find work. So, if it feels like the whole world is breaking around you, take some time to work out your next steps; talk to friends, family, school, college and any contacts that you may have made during the application process. Be open to their suggestions and advice. While it might feel like everything’s going wrong, the changes to your plans could turn out, like my experience, which really means that everything would go right. 1. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage? A. To share his experience of choosing a course. B. To show how he was admitted to an ideal university. C. To prove going to university is not the only option. D. To encourage those who fail to attend their ideal universities. 2. The author failed to enter Exeter University because A. he didn’t get the satisfying grades B. he disliked reapplying the next year C. the school has no the ITMB course D. he had been admitted to Greenwich University 3. We can learn from the fifth paragraph that . A. the author used not to be open-minded and positive
B. the author looked down upon other graduates C. Exeter University accepted the author eventually D. the author has an advantage over other graduates 4. When we face a troublesome situation, the author suggests that A. we should not change our mind easily B. we should find a good course director C. we should turn to others and accept any advice D. we should stay positive and take action to change the situation （六） When parents talk about their new babies, their audience will “ooh”, “aah” and smile. When parents talk about their soon-to-be adolescents, their audience will roll their eyes. The adolescent years are a time filled with rapid changes, mood swings and growing independence, but it does not have to be a time of war. So many people have talked about the difficulties of raising a teenager that many parents approach the adolescent years as a tough period to survive. But this is still your child. She may not crawl into your lap anymore and he might not respond to the time-out corner, but the child you raised from babyhood to now is still there and still needs you. There is a fine line between being aware of possible problems and actually assuming your child will engage in them. Smart parents are informed of the latest teen trends. They know how to look for behavior changes that indicate problems. They have talked to their teens about the dangers of drug use, sex, crime and other risky activities. They know where their teens are and pay attention to who their friends are. Unfortunately, being aware of all the bad things with which your teens can get involved can make parents anxious. It may seem like there are so many possibilities of bad behavior, but smart parents never assume their children will fall into these trends. Expecting the worst of your teen sets you both up for several unhappy, unsatisfying years together. It creates a lot of tension between parents and their teens. Additionally, parents can give the wrong message about what they’re looking for. They should be conveying that good behavior is doing well in school, helping out at home and having healthy relationships with friends. However, many parents are defining good behavior as not doing drugs, not having sex, or not hanging around with the wrong crowd. Sometimes parents can get caught up on small things for fear that it will lead to bigger things. Teens may make choices you don’t like — haircuts and clothing are prime examples — but that doesn’t mean that they are heading in a bad direction. Adolescence is a time of exploration and they have their own way to understand the world, so some rebellion (叛逆) is appropriate. Parents should not jump to the conclusion that because their son dyed his hair green he is now also experimenting with drugs. With so many negative messages, the household loses its sense of peace. Ideally, teens should feel that parents are on their side, but if they are constantly being given messages that sound as though the parent is expecting them to
fail, they will not feel that trust. Amazingly, raising teenagers with negative expectations can actually promote the behavior you fear most. According to a recent study conducted at Wake Forest University, teens whose parents expected them to get involved in risky behaviors reported higher levels of these behaviors one year later. So while you are alert for problems, stay focused on the positive. You might want to learn about your teenagers’ interests and hobbies, even if you don’t understand them. This is an excellent way to reconnect with the child you love. Choosing to highlight the positive things in your life and your child’s life can only make everyone in the household happier. 1. From the first two paragraphs, we can learn that A. adolescence issues trouble many parents B. most parents don’t know how to raise a baby C. teenagers are old enough to look after themselves D. some parents overact when dealing with their teenagers 2. According to Paragraph 3, smart parents . A. never embarrass their children in front of others B. know what is fashion and can keep up with fashion C. never force their children to do something they don’t like D. know teenager problems and can handle the issues smartly 3. The intense relationship between parents and their teens might be caused by A. teens’ cool attitude and behavior B. teens’ close relationship with their friends C. negative expectations from concerned parents D. their different understanding of good behavior 4. The author thinks some rebellion is appropriate because A. it is harmless to society B. teens need parents’ support C. teens have the right to behave differently D. it is a way that teens explore the world 5. The passage suggests that parents should A. ignore their teens’ bad behavior B. expect as much of their teens as possible C. show less love and concern to their teens D. trust their teens and look things on the bright side （七） Saved by the Lab (拉布拉多犬) While walking Boomer, my five-year-old Lab, on a street near my home, I fell into a large
hole in the road and broke both my legs. Though I screamed for help, no one was around. Boomer lay right down on the road and stayed there. I knew I needed medical help, so I wrapped my arms around his neck and said, “Home.” My 160-pound Lab dragged me, stopping now and then. Finally we made it to the house. My husband found me and called 911. I had rescued Boomer from a shelter. I never dreamed he would end up rescuing me. —Submitted by Bobbie Glover, Auburn Sealed! Gimpy, the elephant seal pup (小海豹), my constant companion at work, was a gentle giant with 150+ pounds—until the day I slipped and fell on the deck (甲板) at the Marine Mammal Care Center, where I was a volunteer. Shocked, I looked up and saw three aggressive seal pups moving in. Just then I saw another seal pup rushing toward me. It was Gimpy. She became my shield. As the pups got closer, she swiftly forced them away. —Submitted by Hugh Ryono, Fullerton An eye on you Cashew, my 14-year-old yellow Lab, is blind and deaf. Her best friend is Libby, 7, her seeing-eye cat. Libby steers Cashew away from obstacles and leads her to her food. Every night she sleeps next to her. Without this cat, we know Cashew would be lost and very, very lonely indeed. It’s amazing but true: this is one animal who knows what needs to be done and does it day in and day out for her friend. —Submitted by Terry Burns, Middleburg 1. What do we know about Boomer? A. It repaid its owner in a special way. B. It’s an old and heavy Lab. C. It was once saved from danger by its owner. D. It brought Bobbie Glover’s husband to her. 2. Gimpy saved Hugh Ryono by _____. A. driving aggressive seal pups away B. dragging her away from dangerous seal pups C. covering her up with its body D. killing the aggressive seal pups 3. What’s the relationship between Cashew and Libby? A. They depend on each other. B. Libby acts as a guide and companion of Cashew. C. Libby depends on Cashew for comfort. D. They became good friends after Libby saved Cashew. 4. Which of the following can be the best title for the text? A. Benefits of raising pets B. The friendship between animals
C. Animal heroes
D. Brave animals （八）
Back in 2008, when local residents and organizers began planning a teen center, they couldn’t know that as it neared completion in 2013, the $190,000 in funding necessary to run the center and have actual programs might not be available. Liz Derias, from Oakland’s Leadership Excellence, led a group of West Oakland youth in the design of a community center for youth and by youth. The mission was clear: to serve and protect youth primarily in West Oakland, regardless of their backgrounds, through personal development, education, job training and the arts. Ideas came up in 2003 by Nadel after a visit to McClymonds High School. The city had stopped investing in that part of Oakland, and McClymonds’ students started talking about what they wanted in their community. By the time Derias and West Oakland youth began developing their survey, the focus was right on programs and architectural design. The results of the survey were promising, and opening the center met West Oakland community’s needs. With nearly 80 percent of the 108 surveyed unemployed, job training became the focus of the center’s programs. Computer labs, classrooms, offices, a stage and a kitchen were included in the building’s design to provide a wide variety of job training possibilities designed for West Oakland’s youth. They even recommended the church’s former parking lot be converted to a covered seating area because a majority of respondents indicated they would walk or take the bus to the center, making a parking lot unnecessary. But although construction of the youth center is set for completion this summer, money needed to pay for the programs and the staff, estimated at $190,000 for the first year by a city report, has not been provided. Now, without public funding, community organizations, including Attitudinal Healing Connection who helped to host the 2009 survey and Hands Helping Hands, continue to search for possibilities that would create a bridge between the youth center, other community organizations and opportunities for education. Derrick Bulls, executive director of Hands Helping Hands, said, “We’re looking at Laney College’s Gateway to College program as well as combining General Educational Development courses and job training with counseling and support.” And despite the funding challenge, McElhaney’s office plans to organize a grand opening ceremony if and when funding is available. “We’re excited to have a new building that has exciting service for youth,” she said. “But it will go unfinished as long as program funding is unavailable.” With the final vote on the city’s budget set for the end of June, public funding for the center is still possible, but not likely due to limited resources and a number of funding requests, leaving
open the possibility of a beautiful but empty youth center waiting for funds. Yet regardless of the uncertainty of the youth center’s future, former councilwoman Nadel is still holding out hope that the center’s mission will complete. She said, “It’s a problem of the way our society doesn’t fund things properly. The city hasn’t made a mistake. The city has found a need and gone little by little to meet that need, but that doesn’t mean money can’t be obtained.” 1. The teenagers in the West Oakland youth center will A. be treated equally C. donate more money B. make great efforts D. try to get more support . .
2. It can be inferred that Oakland’s youth center may probably fight a way out by A. seeking support from the government B. purchasing more land from church C. organizing an opening ceremony D. strengthening outer cooperation 3. The underlined word “converted” in Paragraph 5 can be best replaced by “ A. moved B. changed C. compared D. supplied 4. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. Youth center — exciting service for youth B. A funding challenge for youth center C. Youth center’s mission is falling D. A great relief to youth center ”.
参考答案： （一）1-4 DBBC （二）1-5 ABADB （三）1-3 CBC （四）1-4 CDDD （五）1-4 DADD （六）1-5 ADCDD （七）1-4 AABC （八）1-4 ADBB