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人教版高中英语必修四unit2 Grammar


动词-ing形式作主语和宾语

1. 动词-ing形式是在动词末尾加 -ing, 属于非谓语动词。如:do-doing, write-writing, sit-sitting, etc.

否定形式:not + v--ing
2. 动词-ing形式作主语或宾语时,也

可称为动名词。

> 动词-ing形式作主语 1. 动词-ing形式作主语表示抽象的或泛 指的动作, 谓语动词用单数。如: ① Reading aloud is very important for us
to learn a foreign language. ② Going to bed early and getting up early is considered to be a good habit. ③ Watching TV and reading books are really interesting.

2. 动词-ing形式作主语时常后置, 用it作形式主
语,用形容词或名词作表语。常见的作表语 的名词或短语有:no use, no good, fun, hard work, a hard / difficult job, a wonder, a waste of time等。如: ① Is it worthwhile quarrelling with her? ② It’s no good waiting here. ③ Let’s go home. It was a waste of time reading that book.

3. “There is + no”后可以用动词-ing形 式作主语,表示“没法……”。如: There was no telling when this might happen again. 没法预料这样的事什么时候会再发生。 There was no knowing what he could do. 他能做什么很难说。

动词-ing形式作宾语 1. 有些动词如admit, avoid, consider, escape, deny, risk, suggest等后能接 动词-ing形式作宾语,而不能接动 词不定式。如: We’re considering paying a visit to the Science Museum.

2. 有些短语如can’t help, be used to, end up, feel like, lead to, be busy, be tired of, be fond of, be afraid of, be proud of, think of / about, put off, keep on, insist on, be good at, give up等后常接名词、 代词或动词-ing形式作宾语。如: I have been used to living here. I’m fond of collecting stamps and coins.

3. need, require, want作“需要”解时, 后接动词-ing形式作宾语, 主动形式 表示被动意义, 相当于to be done。 如: The radio needs / requires / wants repairing / to be repaired.

常跟动词ing作宾语的动词歌诀:
consider, suggest / advise, look forward 考虑建议盼原谅,to, excuse, pardon 承认推迟没得想,admit, delay / put off, fancy

避免错过继续练,avoid, miss, keep /keep on, practise
否认完成停欣赏,deny, finish, stop, enjoy / appreciate 不禁介意准逃亡,can’t help, mind, allow/ permit, escape 不准冒险凭想象。 forbid, risk, imagine

[注意]
1. 动词-ing形式的复合结构是指在动词-ing形式前 面加上逻辑主语来强调动作的执行者,该逻辑主 语常为形容词性物主代词或名词所有格;当逻辑 主语不出现在句首时,可用人称代词的宾格代替 形容词性物主代词或用名词普通格代替名词的所 有格。如: I’m annoyed about John’s forgetting to pay.

I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

2. 动词-ing形式的否定形式是在其前面

加not,带有逻辑主语时not应在动词
-ing形式之前。如:

Not cleaning his teeth made him
smell bad. Your schoolmate’s not coming home in time made her parents worried.

需要注意的问题:
以下的动词后面加动词的不定式作宾

语:
decide, hope, expect, seem, agree, afford, arrange, choose, offer, plan, promise, determine, demand, manage, fail, prepare, refuse, pretend

常跟不定式作宾语的动词歌诀: 三个希望两答应, 两个要求莫拒绝, 设法学会做决定, 不要假装在选择。 hope; wish; want; agree; promise demand; ask; refuse manage; learn; decide pretend; choose

想要拒绝命令, 需要努力学习, 期望同意帮助, 希望决定开始。

want; refuse; order need; try; learn expect; agree; help hope; wish; decide; begin; start

以下的动词后面既可接动词的不定式

又可以接动词的ing作宾语:
hate, love, prefer, remember, forget, regret, like, try, stop, begin, start

既跟动词-ing又接不定式作宾语的动词歌诀:

双方一旦开始,不论喜欢讨厌,都得继续下去。 不管记住与否,努力打算停止,后悔三个需要。 begin, start, like, prefer, hate, dislike, continue remember, forget, try, mean, stop, regret, want, need, require

从 A、B、C、D四个选项中选出最佳 选项。 1. It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. ____ the answers ready will be of great help. A. To have had C. Have B. Having had D. D Having

2. The parents suggested ____ in the hotel room but their kids were anxious to camp out during the trip. A. sleep C. C sleeping B. to sleep D. having slept

3. How I regret ____ so much time in the net bar! I should have studied

harder.
A. to waste B B. wasting

C. wasted

D. being wasted

1. Lydia doesn’t feel like _____ abroad. Her parents are old. A. study B. studying C. studied D. to study

2. Planning so far ahead _____ no sense — so many things will have changed by next year. A. made B. is making C. makes D. has made

Rewrite the following sentences using the –ing form as the subject. Example: It is necessary to get water from wet to dry places. —Getting water from wet to dry places is necessary.

1. It is nice to help people in need of help. Helping people in need of help is nice. 2. It is not easy to grow super hybrid rice. Growing super hybrid rice is not easy. 3. It is not difficult to learn more about farming. Learning more about farming is not difficult.

4. In the countryside it is not as easy to do research as in the city. Doing research in the countryside is not as easy as in the city. 5. To get rid of hunger is very important for some African countries. Getting rid of hunger is very important for some African countries.

6. It is important to explain this again or we will confuse the students. Explaining this again is important or we will confuse the students.

Which verbs are followed by –ing? Which by the infinitive? First write doing or to do over the correct group. Then write the verbs in the box in the correct columns and finally practise making at least four sentences with them.

_______ to do manage expect decide seem offer

_______ doing imagine suggest avoid admit practise

both to do and doing hate love prefer remember regret

promise, enjoy, fail, try, finish, hope, stop, begin, afford, forget, like mind, miss, start, plan, keep

to do

doing

both to do and doing

promise fail hope afford plan

enjoy finish mind miss keep

try stop begin forget like start

1. Finish exercise 4 on Page 13.

2. Next time we’ll learn Organic
Farming on Page 14. Find some

information.


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