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【英语】Unit 1《Section Three Learning about Language(人教版必修5)


Unit 1 Great scientists

Learning about language

Answer key for Exercise 1 on page 4
1. victim 2. physician 3. analyse 4. defeat 5. challenge 6. enquiry 7. pump 8.

blame 9. absorb 10.link…to

Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 4

severe exposed cure concluded

suspected experts foresaw announced

attended

Answer key for Exercise 3 on page 4:
make a suggestion

make a decision
make a plan

make a contribution
make a speech

make a noise
make a change

make a description
make an investigation

Answer key for Exercise 4 on page 4:

make a face 做鬼脸 make one’s way to 一路前进,向前 make up one’s mind 下决心;决定 make friends 交朋友 make dinner 做饭 make the bed 铺床 make money 挣钱 make sure 确信 make room for 为……腾出空位

Grammar
The Past Participle used as

Attribute and Predicative

Translation
1. Most of the scientists invited to the party were from South America. ? 2. Harvard, founded in 1636, is one of the most famous universities in the United States. ? 3. Your mother is very disappointed with you. ? 4. The top of the mountain is covered with snow.
?

过去分词具有动词的性质,同时兼

有形容词或副词的性质,在句中可以作
表语、定语、状语和补足语。
定语——在句中修饰名词或代词的成分。 表语——是谓语的一部分,位于系动词 之后,说明主语身份、特征或状态。

一、作定语修饰名词或代词 1、单个的过去分词作定语一般放在名词的前面, 过去分词短语作定语通常放在被修饰的词后面.

?1.The encouraged people are excited. ?2. The broken cup is thrown away. ?3. I want to write stories about people addicted to drugs. ?4. We are studying in a school built 70 years ago.

2、过去分词修饰 something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody, nobody等不定代词或指示代词 those时,要放在这些词的后面。 He is one of those invited.

Nothing reported (in the newspaper) interested him.

Practice: Change the following Past Participle into clauses. 1. He told us of the great wrong done to him. =He told us of the great wrong which had been done to him. __________________

本句中的过去分词作定语,既表被 动又表完成。

2. The United States is a developed country. = The United Stated is a country which has developed ____________________. 本句中的过去分词作定语,只表示完成。

3. Have you noticed the bridge being built there? = Have you noticed the bridge ___________________ there? which is being built
本句中的过去分词作定语,表示被动的 动作正在进行。

3、 有些过去分词作前置定语和 后置定语时意义不同。
in the given time with the words given a concerned look the people concerned a wanted person workers wanted 在既定的时间内 用所给的单词 关切的神情 有关人士 被通缉的人 招聘工人

二、作表语 1、表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态。许多动词的 过去分词已经被当作形容词使用。如: disappointed, excited, moved, puzzled, pleased, surprised, lost等。

The window is broken. 窗户碎了。 Don’t get so excited. 别这么激动。

2、过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:
(1)作表语的过去分词,被动意味很弱,主要表 示动作的完成和状态,此时相当于一个形容词。 The glass is broken. Our classroom is crowded (2)被动语态的过去分词,动作意味很强,句 子主语为动作的承受者,后常跟by短语。

The glass was broken by Jack. The windows were closed by Tom last night.

(3)作表语的过去分词前可以有修饰 语,而被动语态的过去分词前不能加修 饰语。 The glass was broken by Tom.

Your composition is well written.

现在分词与过去分词区别
现在分词: 表示主动的动作

1.语态上

过去分词: 表示已经被动的动作

I heard someone opening the door . I heard the door opened .
现在分词: 表示正在进行的动作

2.时间上

过去分词: 表示完成的意思
boiling water the rising sun

the falling leaves

the fallen leaves

boiled water

the risen sun

3. 现在分词表示它所修饰的名词或句子 主语的特征、特性。 过去分词表示它所修饰的名词或句子 主语的心理感受或状态。
a moving film a moved audience The news is exciting. We were excited to hear it.

Complete the sentences using the past participle as the predicative.
1. 丢了钱他自责不已。 got blamed He ___________ about losing the money. 2. 工作了一整天后这位画家看上很疲劳。 The painter looked so_____ after working for a tired whole day.

3. 我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我原以为 它能好些。 was disappointed with I ___________________ the film I saw last night, I had expected it to be better. 4. 听说那位明星死了,人人都很惊讶。 Everybody ____________to hear the was shocked death of the famous film star.

5. 对新的奥运场馆大家真得很兴奋。 Everybody is really _________ about excited the new Olympic stadiums. 6. 他的伤口感染了一种新病毒. His wound ___________________a became infected with new virus.

Answer key for exercise 2 on page 5
terrified people reserved seats polluted water a crowded room people terrified of (cholera) seats reserved by... water polluted by...

a room crowded with...
a winner pleased with...

a pleased winner

astonished children

children astonished at/by... a vase broken by... a door closed by... the audience tired of... an animal trapped in/by...

a broken vase
a closed door the tired audience

a trapped animal

Past participle 过去分词 (done) 作 表 语
inspired 1. John Snow was_________ (inspire) when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. interested 2. He became __________ (interest) in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. polluted 3. He found that it came from the river __________ (pollute) by dirty water. 4. A women liked the water so much that she had it delivered ___________ (deliver) to her house every day. 表 状 态

作 定 语

表 被 动

1.Because of my poor English I’m afraid I can’t make myself ____. A. understand B. to understand C. understanding D. understood 2. The speaker, _______for her splendid speeches, was warmly received by the audience. A. having known B. being known C. knowing D. known

3. Mr. Smith , ____ of the speech, started to read a ______novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring
4.The Olympic Games,____ in 776B.C, did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 5. He was disappointed to find his suggestions ____. A . been turned down B. turned down C. to be turned down D. to turn down

Test yourself
B 1. Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying
2. With a lot of different problems ____, the C newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled

3. Don’t use words, expressions or phrase ____ D only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known C. to be known B. having been known D. known

4. When I got back, I saw a message _______to the

door ______ “Sorry to miss you; I will call later.” C
A. pin, read C. pinned, reading B. pinning, reading D. pinned, read

5、A boy ____ Jack won the game. B A A boy ____ himself Jack won the game.

A 6、Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa.
A.invited C.being invited B.to invite D.had been invited

A. calling

B. called

D 7、The first text books ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A.having written C. being written B.to be written D.written

A 8、 Who is the man____to your father just now?

B Who is the man ____to just now?
A.speaking B. spoken

A 9、The building ____last year is seventy meters high.
C The building ____ now is seventy meters high.

B The building _____next month is seventy meters high.
A. built B. to be built C. being built


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