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高中英语 Unit4 Making the news Learning about Language课件 新人教版必修5


第三课时

Learning about Language

1.by accident 偶然的,意外的 ①I found it by accident. 我很意外地发现了它。 ②I met Jacob by accident in the cinema. 我偶然在电影院遇到了雅各布。

知识拓展 1)by ch

ance 意外地,偶然地 They met by chance on a plane. 他们在飞机上不期而遇。 2)by any chance 万一,碰巧 Would you by any chance have change for $5? 你能换五美元吗?

3)meet with 偶遇,碰到 I met with a friend in the train yesterday. 昨天我在火车上遇到一位朋友。 4)come across 偶然遇到或找到 I came across my old college roommate in town today. 今天我在镇上遇到我大学的室友。

5)run into 偶然遇见,偶然发现 I ran into an old friend. 我与一个老朋友不期而遇。 注意:by chance, by any chance, meet with, come across, run into 这 5 个短语都表示“偶然遇到或发生某 事”,但 by chance 和 by any chance 是介词短语,在句 中只能作状语。另外三个是动词短语,在句中作谓语。

活学活用 单句改错 He broke the beautiful bowl by the accident. ______________________________________________

答案:去掉第二个 the

2.defend sb./sth.(from/against sb./sth.) 1)防御,保护,保卫(某人/某事物) ①When the dog attacked me, I defended myself with a stick. 那狗扑向我时,我用棍子自卫。 ②They had three players defending the goal (against attack). 他们有三个队员防守球门。

2)辩解,辩白 ①The accusations. 报纸为她辩护,驳斥对她的指责。 ②You'll need stronger evidence to defend your claim to the inheritance. 你需要更强有力的证据才能为你的遗产继承权进行辩 护。 newspaper defended her against the

词语辨析 defend, protect, guard 这些动词均有“保护、保卫”之意。 1)defend 普通用词,指用武力或其它措施使人或物不 受损害,消除危险。用作比喻时,指坚持某种行动、决定 或意见;含有采取措施抵制进攻的意思。 She had to defend herself against the guard dog. 她不得不防备看门狗咬她。

2)protect 普通用词,指用某种手段作为防御工具以防 危险或伤害;天灾、战争等较大的事情,多用 against;较 小的事情多用 from 引出。 He raised his arm to protect his face from the blow. 他抬起胳膊挡住向他脸部打来的一拳。

3)guard 普通用词,指保持警惕以防可能的攻击或伤 害。强调警卫,以确保安全。 The dog guarded the house(against strangers). 狗守护着房子(防止陌生人进入)。

活学活用 Politicians are skilled at________themselves ________ their critics. A.protecting; with B.protecting; for C.defending; for D.defending; against 答案:D

倒装 倒装是英语中常见的一种语言现象。它具有强调、修 饰等作用。若把助动词、情态动词放在主语前,则构成部 分倒装;若把谓语全部放在主语前,则构成完全倒装。

Ⅰ.完全倒装 完全倒装是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之 前。此结构通常只用于一般现在时或一般过去时。常见的 结构有: 1)There be 句型: 其中 be 可换成 live, lie, stand, remain, exist, come, go, seem(appear/happen/used)to be 等表示 “存在”的词。

①There entered a strange little man. 走进来一个奇怪而身材又矮小的人。 ②Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 从前,海边的一个村子里住着一位老渔夫。

2)以 here, there, off, out, in, up, down, away, now, then, on 等表示方向、 位置或时间副词开头的句子, 谓语是 come, go, be 等动词时,并且其主语为名词时,通常使用完全倒 装。 ①Now, here goes the story. 这个故事是这样的。 ②Then came another question. 然后又一个问题被提出来了。

③Away flew the bird. 那鸟飞走了。 ④Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face. 突然进来一个蒙着面具的人。

3)表示地点的介词短语,常将其放在句首,构成完全 倒装,用于强调;注意,此时句子的谓语动词通常是不及 物动词,且主语为名词。 ①In the cottage lives a family of six. 在这幢小茅舍里住着一家六口。 ②Near the bridge was an old cottage. 在桥的附近有一幢古老的小茅舍。

③Next to this one is another grand hotel which is beautifully decorated. 这家饭店隔壁还有一家装修华丽的大饭店。 ④On either side of the great avenue stood many block buildings. 这条大街的两侧都耸立着许多综合楼。

4)表语(充当表语的可以是形容词、分词、不定式、介 词短语、副词等)置于句首,一般是主语较长或结构为较复 杂的句子。 ①Gone are the days when he was looked down upon. 他被人瞧不起日子已经一去不复返了。 ②In the armchair lay a cat, half asleep. 一只猫躺在椅子上,半睡半醒。

③Standing around the teacher were her students. 老师周围站着的都是她的学生。 ④Also discussed were the problems we had met with in our studies. 同时还讨论了我们在学习中碰到的问题。 ⑤First to unfold was the map of the world. 首先要打开的是世界地图。

5)such 位于句首。 ①Such are the fortunes of war. 这些就是战争的机会。 ②Such were his last words. 他最后的话就是这些。

Ⅱ.部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒 装置主语之前。如果句中的谓语部分不含有助动词或情态 动词时,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语 之前。

1)为了避免句子内容不必要的重复,常用“so+be 动 词(助动词、情态动词)+主语”或“neither/nor+be 动词 (助动词、 情态动词)+主语”的倒装句式。 其中第一个句式 表示“与前面所述的肯定情况相同”,第二个句式表示 “与前面所述的否定情况相同”。

①His brother is a college student, so is mine. 他弟弟是大学生,我弟弟也是。 ②He used to have his further study abroad, so did I. 他曾去国外深造过,我也去过。

③One of my friends cannot speak foreign languages, neither can his wife. 我的一个朋友不会说外语,他的妻子也不会。 ④ They are not now preparing for their final examinations, nor are we. 他们没在为期末考试作准备,我们也没有。

2)具有否定意义的词或短语置于句首时(除否定词修饰 主语外), 句子通常采用部分倒装。 这类词或短语常见的有: not, never, seldom, hardly, little, nowhere, rarely, scarcely, by no means, under no circumstances, in no way, at no time, not until..., no sooner...(than), hardly...(when), not only...(but also)。

①Never have my sisters been to Hong Kong before. 我的妹妹们以前从未去过香港。 ②So far as I know, seldom does Mary come back to see her mother. 就我所知,玛丽几乎难得回来看她妈妈。

③Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. 无论如何你不会找到这个问题的答案的。 ④By no means are these goods satisfactory. 这些货物一点也不令人满意。 ⑤Not until twelve o'clock did he go to bed last night. 他昨晚直到十二点钟才睡觉。 ⑥Not only was the city polluted, but the streets were crowded. 不仅城市被污染,而且街道很拥挤。

⑦No sooner had I returned home from New Zealand than I bought a house and went to live there. 我从新西兰一回国, 就买了一栋房子并在那儿住下了。 ⑧Hardly could he finish his test paper when the school bell rang. =When the bell rang, he could hardly finish his test paper. 他还未做完试卷,下课铃就响了。

3)as, though 引导的让步状语从句,其中表语、状语等 放在 as 或 though 之前。注意:as 引导的让步状语从句具 有以下特点:①表语提前,形容词最高级前的 the,单数可 数名词前的 a/an 要省略。 ②主谓结构的句子, 谓语动词(原 形)提前时,主语后补出相应的助动词。

①Successful as he is, he is not proud. 尽管他取得了成功,但他并不骄傲。 ②Shortest as he is, he is the cleverest of the three. 虽然他是三个人中最矮的,却是最聪明的。 ③Child as he is, he knows some of the family secrets. 尽管他还是个孩子,他却知道家里的一些秘密。 (注 意 child 前无冠词)

④Try as I might, I could not lift the stone. 尽管我用尽力气,我还是举不起这块石头。 ⑤Too much as/though I like it, I can't afford it. 虽然我非常喜欢它,但是我却买不起。

4)so/such...that...句型中,so/such 部分放在句首,该部 分须采用部分倒装。 ①So serious was the situation that everybody faced a test. 形势如此地严峻,每个人都面临着一场考验。

②So hard did he overwork that he fell ill at last. 他太操劳过度以致于最后病倒了。 ③In such a hurry did she leave that she forgot to lock the door. 她匆匆离去,以至于忘记了锁门。

5)句首以 were, had, should 开头,省略 if 的虚拟语气 条件句。 ①Had they not helped us, we could not have done it so successfully. 如果没有他们的帮助,我们不可能把那件事办的如此 成功。 ②Should he come, say “Nobody in” to him. 万一他来了,对他说:“公司没人”。

③Were I you,I would go with them. 要是我是你的话,我就跟他们一起去。

6)only 与副词、 介词短语及状语从句连用放在句首时。 ①Only in this way can you come up with a solution to the problem. 只有这样,你才有可能想出解决这个问题的办法。 ②Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 叫了三次之后,他才来参加会议。

③Only when he is seriously ill does he ever stay in bed. 病得很重时,他才卧床休息。

7)频度副词及短语。如:often, always, once, many a time, now and then, every other day 等位于句首时。 ①Many a time has he given me good advice. 他多次给我忠告。 ②Often have I seen these Young Pioneers do good deeds. 我经常看到这些少先队员做好事。

8)表祝愿的句子常用倒装。 ①May our friendship last forever! 愿我们的友谊常存! ②May your company become prosperous! 祝贵公司生意兴隆! ③ Long live the great, glorious and correct the Communist Party of China! 伟大、光荣、正确的中国共产党万岁!

9)某些感叹句也用倒装语序。 ①Isn't it a beautiful garden! 多么美丽的花园啊! ②Have you ever seen such a naughty kid like him ! 你见过哪个孩子像他这么调皮!

知识拓展 1)在以 there, here, up, down, out, in 等副词开头的句 子中,主语是代词时,句子不倒装。 There they are. 他们在那边。

2)only 修饰主语,句子不倒装。 Only Mary knows the answer. 只有玛丽知道答案。 3)表示赞同某人的看法时,用 So+S.+do/does/did. —I told you that I would come. —So you did. —“我告诉过你我会来的。” —“你确实说过。”

4)not until 后接从句时,主句部分倒装,从句不倒装; no sooner...than, hardly...when, not only...but also 引导两个 分句时,前一分句部分倒装,后一分句不倒装,这种结构 常用过去完成时。但 neither...nor 结构中,前后两个分句 均要倒装。

①Not only did he complain about the food, but also refused to pay for it. 他不仅抱怨饭菜的质量,而且拒不付款。 ② Hardly had he finished his speech when the audience started cheering. 他刚演讲完观众便欢呼起来。

③No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 她刚出门,就有个学生来访。 ④Neither do I know her name, nor does he. 我不知道她的名字,他也不知道。

帮学助记 部分倒装口诀: 副词开头要倒装,人称代词非如常;only 修饰副介状, 位于顺首半倒装;否定意义副连词,位于句首须倒装;表 语前置主语长,衔接自然常倒装;such 代词作表语,引起 主谓要倒装; only 开头句, not 前一分句须倒装; had, were, should 虚拟句,省略 if 半倒装。

高考链接 (1)(2011· 福建,29)—It's nice.Never before ______such a special drink! —I'm glad you like it. A.I have had C.have I had B.I had D.had I

答案:C

本题考查倒装与动词时态。句意:“太好

喝了。我以前从未喝到这么特别的饮料! 。”“你能喜欢我 很高兴”。否定词 never 置于句首,句子需用部分倒装, 排除 A,B 两项,又由时间状语 before 可知,句子要用现 在完成时,故 C 项正确。

(2)(2011· 湖南,32)Only after they had discussed the matter for several hours ________ a decision. A.they reached B.did they reach C.they reach D.do they reach

答案:B 本题考查倒装句式。句意:他们只有在讨论 这个问题几个小时后,才决定下来。“Only+状语”放在 句首,主句的谓语动词需用部分倒装形式,由句中的 had discussed 可知此处应用一般过去时态。

(3)(2011· 课 标, 22)Try ________ she might, Sue 新 couldn't get the door open. A.if C.since B.when D.as

答案:D

本题考查连词的用法。句意:尽管苏尝试

了,但她还是打不开门。根据句子结构可知,本题考查 as 引导的让步状语从句,要用倒装语序。其结构为:动词/名 词/形容词/副词+主语+谓语,故 D 项正确。

(4)(2011· 课 标 , 28)Only when he reached the 新 teahouse ________ it was the same place he'd been in last year. A.he realized C.realized he B.he did realize D.did he realize

答案:D

本题考查倒装句。句意:只有当他到达茶

屋时,他才意识到这和他去年去的是同一个地方。“only +状语”置于句首时, 句子用部分倒装语序, D 项正确。 故

(5)(2010· 川 , 9)We laugh at jokes, but seldom 四 ________ about how they work. A. we think C. we do think B. think we D. do we think

答案:D

句意:我们会对一些玩笑大笑不止,但是

却很少去考虑一下这些玩笑说明了什么。否定副词 seldom 位于句首时,主句要用部分倒装;B 项是完全倒装,不符 合句意。

(6)(2010· 江西, 33)Not until he left his home________to know how important the family was for him. A. did he begin C. he began B. had he began D. he had began

答案:A

句意:直到他离开了家时他才意识到家对

他来说是多么重要。not...until...句式变为 not until 放在句 首时,应把主句进行部分倒装。由 left 一词可知应用一般 过去时态。

(7)(2010· 江苏,33)—Is everyone here? —Not yet...Look,there________the rest of our guests! A. come C. is coming B. comes D. are coming

答案:A

句意:—都来了吗?—还没呢。看,剩下

的客人来了。本句采用了倒装语序,主语是 the rest of the guests,故谓语动词用复数形式。

(8)(2010· 陕西,17)John opened the door.There ______ __he had never seen before. A. a girl did stand C. did a girl stand B. a girl stood D. stood a girl

答案:D 当副词 there, here 位于句首时,若句子主 语是名词而非人称代词时,句子要用完全倒装结构,即把 整个谓语放在主语前;此句中 he had never seen before 是 定语从句修饰 a girl.

1.Only when________possible to settle the problem. A.does the chief editor come will it be B.the chief editor comes will it be C.has the chief editor come will it be D.the chief editor comes it will be

答案:B 句意:只有主编来了,才有可能解决这个问 题。“Only+状语”放在句首时,主句需要部分倒装,但 要注意作状语的从句(即状语从句)不能倒装。

2.________the mountain climbers eventually conquered Mountain Qomolangma. A.As the difficulty was great B.Great as the difficulty was C.A great difficulty as it was D.The difficulty was great

答案:B 句意:虽然困难重重,但是这些登山者最终 征服了珠穆朗玛峰。“形容词、副词、名词甚至是动词+ as/though + 主 语 + 谓 语 ” 放 在 主 句 前 面 , 相 当 于 though/although 引导的状语从句。本句中 Great as the difficulty was=Although/Though the difficulty was great。

3.(2006· 浙江) ________by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. A.Only C.Still B.Just D.Yet

答案: 本题题意: A 只有控制成本才能使 Power Data 公司保持对其他公司的竞争优势。only 与介词短语连用位 于句首时,句子采用部分倒装的语序。

4.——It's burning hot today, isn't it? ——Yes.________yesterday. A.So was it C.So it is B.So it was D.So is it

答案:A 本题题意:“—今天热极了,对吗?”“— 是的,昨天也这么热。”表达前后两天的天气情况相同, 采用“so+助动词/情态动词等+(另一个)主语”。考虑时 间概念,由于指的是昨天的情况,所以谓语动词采用一般 过去时。

5.Never in my wildest dreams________these people are living in such poor conditions. A.I could imagine C.I couldn't imagine B.could I imagine D.couldn't I imagine

答案: 本题题意: B 我从未想到这些人的生活条件竟 如此差。 never, not, seldom, hardly 等否定副词位于句首时, 句子要用部分倒装。

6.I've tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means________with my progress. A.the teacher is not satisfied B.is the teacher not satisfied C.the teacher is satisfied D.is the teacher satisfied

答案:D

本题题意:我已经非常努力来提高英语水

平,但老师对于我所取得的进步一点儿也不满意。by no means 等具有否定意义的词或短语置于句首时(除否定词 修饰主语外),句子通常采用部分倒装。

7.At the foot of the mountain________. A.a village lie C.does a village lie B.lies a village D.lying a village

答案:B 本题题意: 山脚下有个村庄。表示地点的 介词短语放在句首,且主语为名词时,为表达生动或使句 子均衡而采用完全倒装。

8.Only then________how much damage had been caused. A.she realized C.had she realized B.she had realized D.did she realize

答案:D

本题题意:仅仅在那时她才意识到所造成

的损害是那么的严重。only 位于句首,修饰副词,介词短 语或状语从句时,句子采用部分倒装的语序; 此外,根据 时间状语 then 可以确定句子采用一般过去时。

9.Just in front of our house______with a history of 1,000 years. A.does a tall tree stand B.stands a tall tree C.a tall tree is standing D.a tall tree stands

答案:B 表示地点的介词短语,常将其放在句首,构 成全部倒装,用于强调;注意,此时句子的谓语动词通常 是不及物动词且主语为名词。

10.________about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research. A.So curious the couple was B.So curious were the couple C.How curious the couple were D.The couple was such curious

答案:B 考查 so/such...that 句型的倒装句式。主句 倒装, that 从句主谓不倒装。

11.(2008· 东北)________rapid progress has he made that we all admire him. A.Very C.Such B.So D.Too

答案:C 句意:他取得了如此大的进步以至于我 们都很佩服他。such 后可加形容词再加单数名词、复 数名词或不可数名词。

12.Never before________in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. A.has this city been B.this city has been C.was this city D.this city was

答案:A

表示否定意义的词或词组放在句首,句子

要采用倒装语序。排除选项 B,D;此外,before 通常和完 成时连用,排除选项 C。

13.________, Garolina couldn't get the door open. A.Might she as try B.As she might try C.She might as try D.Try as she might

答案:D

本题题意:虽然她可能尝试过了,但仍然

无法打开门。 本题考查 as 引导的状语从句采用倒装语序的 情况。 as 比用 though 或 although 来引导让步状语从句, 用 语气强,更有表现力;此时,从句常放在句首,采用倒装 语序。从句中的表语、状语或动词原形置于句首。若表语 是名词,前置时要省略冠词。

14. ________, he talks a lot about his favorite singers after class. A.A quiet student as he may be B.Quiet student as he may be C.Be a quiet student as he may D.Quiet as he may be a student

答案:B 本题考查 as 引导的让步状语从句倒装的情 况。从句常放在句首,采用倒装语序。从句中的表语、状 语或动词原形置于句首。若表语是名词,前置时要省略冠 词。

15.Mary never does any reading in the evening, ________. A.so does John C.John doesn't too B.John does too D.nor does John

答案:D

本 题 考 查 连 词 nor 引 导 的 倒 装 句 ,

neither/nor+情态动词或助动词+主语。该结构表示前边 所说的情况也同样适合于后者。

16.—Father, you promised! —Well, ________.But it was you who didn't keep your word first. A.so was I C.so I was B.so did I D.so I did

答案:D “主语+do 的适当形式+so”,表示“按 照要求或计划等做了某事”,so 代替上文的内容。

17.—Maggie had a wonderful time at the party. —________, and so did I. A.So she had C.So she did B.So had she D.So did she

答案:C “So+主语(与前句的主语一致)+助动词、 情态动词”等,表示“赞同”,译作“??的确如此”。

18.—Well. I do think the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal which can run very fast. —________. A.So it is C.So does it B.So is it D.So it does

答案:A

本题题意:“—嗯,我的确认为兔子是一

种美丽,温顺,奔跑速度快的动物。”“—是的。”“So +主语(与前句的主语一致)+助动词、 情态动词”等, 表示 “赞同”,译作“??的确如此”。

19.In the dark forests________, some large enough to hold several English towns. A.stand many lakes C.many lakes lie B.lie many lakes D.many lakes stand

答案:B 本题题意:湖泊位于黑暗的森林中。表示地 点的介词短语,常将其放在句首,构成全部倒装,用于强 调;注意,此时句子的谓语动词通常是不及物动词。此外, lie=to occupy a position or place 表示“(城镇、 自然特征等) 位于,坐落于 (一个位置或地方 )”。stand=to be in a particular place; to be placed or situated 表示“位于某处; 被放置于某处”。

20.On top of the books________the photo album you're looking for. A.is C.has B.are D.have

答案:A

表示地点的介词短语,常将其放在句首,

构成全部倒装,用于强调;注意,此时句子的谓语动词通 常是不及物动词。此外,句子的主语为 the photo album, 根据主谓一致原则,选择 is。

21.So little________with each other that the neighboring countries could not settle their difference. A.they agreed C.did they agree B.agreed they D.they did agree

答案:C

so/such...that... 句 型 中 , “so/such +

adj./adv”部分放在句首,该部分须部分倒装。

22. would never come to this restaurant again. The —I food is terrible! —________. A.Nor am I C.Same with me B.Neither would I D.So do I

答案:B 本题考查 neither/nor 引导的倒装句,该结 构表示前边所说的情况也同样适合于后者。

23.Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else________such a beautiful palace. A.can you find C.you can find B.you could find D.could you find

答案:A

表示否定意义的词或词组放在句首,句子

要采用倒装语序。

24.Of the making of good books there is no end; neither________any end to their influence on man's lives. A.there is C.is there B.there are D.are there

答案:C

本题题意:好书的制作不会结束,它们对

人类生活的影响也不会结束。表示否定意义的词或词组放 在句首,句子要采用倒装语序。注意,neither...nor 在句首 时,前后两句都需倒装。


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