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Unit 3 words and expressions

## 2. Words and Expressions 1. tempt: vt. attract, lure *The warm sun tempted us to go swimming. 又一道菜吸引了我们,但我们还是拒绝了。 (= A second helping tempted us, but we refused the offer.) Pattern: be tempted to do sth. 很想做某事 *He was tempted to walk out after supper. 我很想问问刚才发生了什么事。 (= I am tempted to ask what happened just now.) 2. generalize: make a general statement (about); to form an opinion after considering a small number of facts *Don’t generalize; it isn’t fair to say all women drivers are bad just because one knocked you known. 你遇到三个有钱的中国商人就匆忙下结论说所有的中国人都富有,这是不对的。 (= It is wrong for you to generalize hastily that all the Chinese are wealthy after you meet three rich Chinese businessmen.) 3. (L.1) intrigue: 1) vt. arouse the interest or curiosity of; fascinate, puzzle *Hibernation has long intrigued biologists. (= The food is an intriguing combination of German and French.) 这条新闻引起了我们大家的兴趣。 (=The news intrigued all of us.) 2) vi. make a secret plan; to engage in secret or underhand schemes; plot *The ministers were intriguing for their own gains. 那些政客因阴谋反对政府而被监禁。 (= Those politicians were imprisoned for intriguing against the government.) Collocation: intrigue against the government intrigue with intrigue sb. out of office vt.

密谋反对政府 与…合谋 用阴谋革除某人职位

4. (L.3) intolerant: adj. unable or unwilling to endure *He was intolerant of ignorance. 青蛙经受不住严寒的天气。 (= Frogs are intolerant of severe old weather.) CF: intolerable & intolerant 这两个词都是形容词,词根都是 tolerate, 但词义不同。 intolerable 是 “令人无法忍受的”,近义词为 “unbearable”。 例如:His behavior at the

dinner party is intolerable. 他在晚宴上的行为令人难以忍受。 intolerant 为 “不宽容的, 偏狭的” ,近义词为 “bigoted, impatient”。例如:The man is intolerant of opposition. 这个人不能容忍别人反对他。 5. (L. 5) ultimate: adj.

1) final, eventual, last * We are hoping for the ultimate victory. 工会领导人宣称他们斗争的最终目的是要增加工人工资和改善工作条件。 (=The union leaders declared that the ultimate aim of their struggle was to pay increase and improved working conditions for the workers.) 2) fundamental; elemental *It is an ultimate truth that Tibet is a part of China. 3) utmost; extreme *He felt the ultimate insult when she said such words to him. 6. (L. 10) civilized: adj. 1) showing moral and intellectual advancement; humane, ethical, and reasonable 恐怖分子袭击纽约的世贸中心震惊整个文明世界。 (=The terrorists attacking the World Trade Center in New York shocked the civilized world.) 2) cultured; polished; polite and good-mannered *Such a civilized behavior is praiseworthy. 7. (L.12) arrogant: adj. unpleasantly self-important, over-proud

*The nobleman has an arrogant contempt for the weak. 老板的儿子对所有的雇员都傲慢无礼。 (= The boss’s son was arrogant to all the employees.) 8. (L. 13) incorruptible: adj. honest and upright

*The president ordered that all his subordinates should be incorruptible. 史密斯学生廉正不阿的人。 (= Mr. Smith is a man of incorruptible integrity.) 9. (L. 14) compulsive: adj. caused or conditioned by compulsion or obsession *Compulsive drinking is bad for one's health. 这项研究得出结论:美国大约共有四百四十万嗜赌成瘾者。 (= The study concluded that there are about 4.4 million compulsive gamblers altogether in

the U.S.) Pattern: have a compulsive desire to do sth. 情不自禁想做某事

NB: compulsive 和 compulsory 都是形容词, 词根相同且形似, 但意义不同。 前者指 “随 心所欲、不加节制的”;后者指 “强制的、必须的”。例如: compulsive smoking 不加节制的吸烟 compulsive gambler 嗜赌成瘾者 compulsory education 义务教育 compulsory course 必修课程 10. (L. 14) assail: vt. 1) attack violently (= The army assailed the town before the daybreak.) 2) cause sb. to experience unpleasant thoughts or feelings; trouble * He was assailed with worries about his son’s illness. 11. (L. 19) hideous: adj. having a terrible effect on the senses, esp. shocking to the eyes or ears

*He suffered a hideous fate when the enemy caught him. 昨天我做实验时听到附近建筑工地上传来可怕的噪音。 (= When I was doing my experiment yesterday, I heard hideous noises from the nearby construction site.) 12. (L. 23) evasion: n. 1) the act of getting out of the way or escaping *The prisoner’s evasion of the lawyer’s questions convinced the jury he was guilty. 逃避责任是可鄙的。 (= Evasion of one’s responsibility is contemptible.) 2) a statement or action that avoids what should be said or done *The minister’s speech was full of evasions. 他用含糊的遁词来回答别人对他的理论所做的批评。 (= He responded to criticism of his theory with vague evasions.) 13. (L. 25) proclaim: vt. announce publicly or officially *New regulations on the wages for holiday jobs in the college were proclaimed. 1949 年 10 月 1 日,毛泽东在北京庄严宣布中华人民共和国成立。 (= On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao solemnly proclaimed in Beijing the founding of the People’s Republic of China.)


proclaim a law proclaim war against publicly proclaim

公布一项法令 对…宣战 公开宣布

14. (L. 29) credibility: n. the quality, capability, or power to elicit belief *No one doubted the credibility of the report made by the research group. “美国的信誉不能被丢掉,尤其是不能被这些领袖们丢掉。 ”亨利· 基辛格博士说。 (=“America's credibility must not be squandered, especially by its leaders.” Dr. Henry Kissinger said.) CF: credible & credulous 两者都是形容词,有共同的词根,但意义不同。前者指的是“可信的,值得信赖的” , 后者指“轻信的,易于相信别人的” 。相似地,credibility 和 credulity 都是名词,但意 义不同,前者为“可信度” ,后者为“轻信度” 。 credible credibility credulous incredulous incredible credulity

Fill the blanks with the words given in the box above. (1)He was enough to believe the manufacturer's claims. (2)John has made _________ progress this semester. (3)Scientists are ___________ about ghosts. (4)The judge concluded that he was innocent because he had a _______ witness. (5)His theory is lack of _______ in reasoning. (6)The vendors who sell fake commodities live on the ________ of the people. (Key: = (1)credulous (4)credible

(2)incredible (5)credibility

(3)incredulous (6)credulity )

15. (L. 31) unsolicited: adj. not asked for, unrequested, unsought *Jane doesn’t like to comment on others, and never gives unsolicited opinions. 就这个有争议的问题, 如果没有人问我,我不会主动发表意见。 (= I won’t air unsolicited opinions on this controversial issue.) 16. (L. 33) eloquent: adj. 1) able to make good speeches that influence the hearers *Chris is an eloquent speaker and he had an excellent performance in the recent debate. 马丁·路塞·金是位雄辩的演说家, 他在 1963 年发表了著名的演说“我有一个梦想” 。 (= Martin Luther King was an eloquent orator, and he delivered a famous speech “I Have a Dream” in 1963.) 2) expressive or showing sth. very strongly though without words

*The healthy appearance of the children is eloquent enough of the wealth of the nation. 17. (L. 34) indulge: allow oneself or sb. else to have too much of sth. enjoyable *I indulge my interests in flowers for several years by planting a large garden. (=The football fans indulged their patriotism, waving flags and singing their national anthems.) 他对他的孩子太放任了。 (= He indulges his children too much.) Pattern: indulge in 沉湎于 *Some students indulge in playing computer games. 在那里可以尽情钓鱼、游泳和跳舞。 (= Fishing, swimming and dancing can be indulged in there.) 18. (L. 35) mellifluous: adj. (of words, music, or a voice) sounding pleasant and flowing * The girl stood by the door, singing with a mellifluous voice. “您需要什么饮料?”空姐问我,声音甜美。 (= “What kind of drink do you want?” The stewardess asked me with a mellifluous voice.) 19. (L. 38) irritation: n. the condition of being irritated; vexation *The manager tried to conceal his irritation at the foreman’s delay. 有了私人小汽车,也就没有了等候公共汽车或出租车带来的烦恼。 (= With a private car, there will be no irritation caused by waiting for buses or taxies.) 20. (L. 39) shelter: v. 1)provide cover or protection for *The film shelters the plant from direct sunlight. 2) find protection, take an enclosure offering protection 下雨了,人们在商店的门口躲雨。 (= In the rain people were sheltering in the doorways of shops.) 21. (L. 40) rationalize: v. give reasons for *How do you rationalize your research methods? 他想证明错不在他, 但他显然是在找借口自圆其说。 (= He tried to prove that he was not at fault, but he was obviously rationalizing.) 22. (L. 44) disapprove of: v. have or express an unfavorable opinion about *Professor Smith disapproves of students taking part-time jobs. *玛莉她想做个演员,然而父母不赞同她的想法。 (= Mary wants to be an actress, but her parents disapprove of the idea.) vt.

23. (L. 44) holler: v. yell, shout, complain * “You are late again,” the boss hollered at the worker. * “Let go”, the policeman hollered at the robber who was gripping the woman’s arm. 24. (L. 45) dodge: v. avoid by a trick or in a dishonest way *The politician kept dodging the reporters’ questions at the press conference. *Tom boasts of dodging military service by feigning illness. 25. (L. 54) mood: n. a state of feelings at a particular time (= His moods change very quickly; one moment he is cheerful, and the next complaining about his life.) *阳光明媚的早晨使我心情愉快。 (=The beautiful sunny morning put me in a happy mood.) Collocation: in the mood to do sth. /for sth. a man of moods in a melancholy mood in a merry mood 想做某事; 有做某事的兴致 喜怒无常的人 闷闷不乐 心情愉快

CF: mood, humor & temper 这三个词都是名词,都含“心情”“情绪”的意思。 、 mood 指“在某一特定时间内由某种感情或欲望而引起的心情或心境”, 如: She is in a merry mood. 她心情愉快。 humor 指“在某一特定时间内由性情或感觉而决定的心境”, 特指“某一时刻的心情”, 如: He wept and laughed as his humor moved him. 他因情绪波动而又哭又笑。 temper 除指“心情”“情绪”外, 尚有“性情”“脾气”的含义, 如: 、 、 He has a good/bad temper. 他脾气好/不好。 26. (L. 60) assert: vt. defend or maintain (one’s rights, etc.) *The teacher asserted his control over the students by making them be quiet. (= He asserted in the court that he was innocent.) Collocation: assert one’s right to do sth. assert sth. to be true assert national independence n. 维护做某事的权利 断言某事是真实的 维护民族独立

27. (L. 68) intimacy:

the condition of being intimate and close (followed by with/between) *Intimacy between teachers and students is not recommended. 他是日本通, 很可能被委派为驻日大使。 (= His intimacy with Japan makes him the likely choice as ambassador to that country.)

28. (L. 75) supersede: v. take the place of; displace *The old methods have been superseded by the new. 机器的使用已经取代了手工劳动。 (=The use of machinery has superseded manual labor.) 29. (L. 79) marital: adj. of or relating to marriage *None of us know his marital status. 布朗先生是位现代社会婚姻问题专家。 (= Mr. Brown is an expert in marital problems in the modern society.) Collocation: marital relations marital problems marital status marital discord 婚姻关系 婚姻问题 婚姻状况 夫妻不和

30. (L.82) devastating:adj. 1) completely destructive *The storm that attacked the village was devastating. 2) (informal) very good *His jokes were completely devastating. 她美极了。 (=She looks devastating.) 33. (L. 83) presumptuous:adj. going beyond what is right or proper; excessively forward *He is presumptuous enough to think that everybody worships him. 他这样做太放肆了。 (= It is too presumptuous of him to do so.) 34. (L. 86) juggle: v. 1) keep (more than two activities, for example) in motion or progress at one time *Sally managed to juggle a full-time job and homemaking. 2) deal with, esp. with ingenuity or by deception 会计因涂改公司的账目而入狱。 (= The accountant went to prison for juggling his firm's accounts.) 35. (L. 95) concede: acknowledge, often reluctantly, as being true, just, or proper; admit * He conceded us the right to walk through his land. (=The Conservative Party conceded defeat as soon as the election results were known.) v.

36. (L. 103) adamant: adj. impervious to pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding. (=He's so adamant that however hard I tried to persuade him to join us he did not change his mind.) 总统下了决心,坚决惩治那些贪官污吏。 (= The president is adamant in his determination to punish the corrupt officials.) 37. (L. 113) sticky: adj. 1) having the property of adhering or sticking to a surface; adhesive. *The boy’s fingers are sticky with sweets. *She fell in the sticky mud and could not get out of it. 2) painful or difficult; awkward *The nuclear problem of DPRK is a rather sticky diplomatic problem. Collocation: a sticky day a sticky situation sticky weather a sticky diplomatic problem 38. (L. 117) contradictory: adj. 闷热的一天 困难的境地 湿热的天气 一个棘手的外交问题

involving, causing opposite opinions or inconsistency *The politician’s statement was contradictory to the one he had made earlier in the same week. 你刚才所说的话与事实相矛盾。 (= What you said just now is contradictory to the fact.) 39. (L. 126) resort: 1. n. 1) a place frequented by people for relaxation or recreation *This fast food restaurant is one of his favorite resorts. 2) a person or thing that one goes or turns to for help, support, etc. *Her only resorts when she is alone are sewing and watching TV. Collocation: a health resort 疗养地 a pleasure resort 游乐胜地 a summer resort 避暑地 have resort to force 诉诸武力 the last resort 最后手段; 最后的解救办法 without resort 无计可施 2. vi. make use of, turn to… for help (followed by to) * The government resorted to censorship of the press. (= She resorted to stealing when she had no more money.)

#Step 4

After Reading
1. Useful Expressions 2. Sentence Translation 3. Flow Chart 4. Dictation 5. Role Play 6. Debate 7. Writing 8. Proverbs and Quotations

## 1. Useful Expressions 1. 在…条件下 under … condition(s) 2. 在…情形下 under...circumstance(s) 3. 得出结论 reach a conclusion 4. 社交性谎言 social lies 5. 文明的方式 civilized way 6. 正直无畏 incorruptible and brave 7. 以…袭击 assail…with 8. 基本赞同 basically agree 9. 相貌平平的孩子 homely kid 10. 饭菜太丰富了 cook up a storm 11. 生来不会那一套 not be made that way 12. 虚假的赞美 false praise 13. 息事宁人的谎言 peace-keeping lies 14. 使某人免受 shelter sb. from 15. 避免麻烦 keep trouble at bay 16. 逃避责任 dodge responsibility 17. 碰上堵车 get/be caught in traffic jam 18. 想要做某事 be in the mood to do sth. 19. 隐瞒事实 conceal the fact 20. 行使权利 assert one’s right 21. 根据 on the grounds of/that 22. 有风流韵事 have an affair 23. 出卖某人 betray sb. /give sb. away 24. 棘手的问题 sticky issue 25. 露馅 give oneself away 26. 最后一手 the last resort ## 2. Sentence Translation Translate the following sentences into English, using the words and phrases given in the brackets. 1. 动物保护主义者不赞成用动物做试验。(disapprove of) (= Animal conservationists disapprove of experimenting on animals.)

2. 教育家告诫父母们不要过于纵容孩子。(indulge) (= The educators warned the parents not to indulge their children too much.) 3. 事故发生后的记者招待会上,煤矿老板一直在躲避记者的提问。(dodge) (= At the press conference after the accident, the boss of the coal mine kept dodging the reporter’s questions.) 4. 新首相刚上任就面临一个相当棘手的外交问题。(sticky) (= Soon after he took office, the new prime minister was faced with a rather sticky diplomatic problem.) 5. 法庭上,被告坚持认为自己无罪。 (insist on) (= At the court, the defendant insisted on his innocence.)

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