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非谓语动词作定语和状语


非谓语动词
※不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别: 【典型例题】 1. The picture _______ on the wall is painted by my nephew. A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung 2. The Olympic Games,______in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be first playing 3. The first text books _______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written 【知识点拨】 1.不定式作定语 ① 不定式作定语常用于不定代词或被 the first/next/only/last 等修饰的名词和其他一 些名 词、代词之后。其中,不定式的一般式通常表示一个将来或经常性的动作,完成式则表 示 该动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。 例如:She is always the first (one) to come and the last to leave. ② 如果作定语的不定式与被修饰的名词有动宾关系,在不及物动词后通常要加上适当 的介词. 例如:Let's first find a room to live in / to put the things in. We have nothing to worry about.(=There is nothing for us to worry about.) ③ 不定式作定语修饰一个在逻辑上是其宾语名词时,若在句子中能找到该不定式的逻 辑主语, 则该不定式多用主动表被动,否则,用被动式。 例如:I have a lot of things to do today. ( I ... do ... things) Have you got anything to say at the meeting? ( you... say ... anything) Here is a letter to be taken to Mr. Li. 在 there be 句型中,有时用主动式或被动式意思不同。 比较:There is nothing to do at present.(=We have nothing to do at present.) There is nothing to be done at present.(= We can do nothing at present.) 2.-ing 分词作定语 ① 单个的-ing 分词作定语一般前置,说明名词的性质、特征或用途等,-ing 短语作定语一 般后置;强调动作的单个-ing 分词也常后置。 例如:a sleeping car ( = a car for sleeping ) a sleeping child ( = a child who is sleeping ) the boy standing there ( = the boy who is standing there ) The girl singing is my classmate. ② -ing 分词作定语一般要求其动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生或是在说话时 该动作正在进行,否则,要用从句作定语。 例如:Do you know the boy talking ( = who is talking ) to the teacher? Did you notice the boy sitting ( = who was sitting ) at this desk yesterday? The man shaking ( = who is now shaking ) hands with Mr. Li visited our class yesterday. 比较:误:He is the man visiting our class yesterday. 正:He is the man who visited our class yesterday. 3.-ed 分词作定语 -ed 分词作定语一般表示一个被动或已完成动作,-ing 分词表示一个主动或正在进行的 动作, -ing 分词的被动式则表示一个正在被进行的动作。 例如:a developed/developing country He is a student loved by all the teachers. The building being built will be the third Teaching Building of our school. 4. 像定语从句一样, 分词作定语也有非限制性的, 其作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。 例如:The students, wearing their school uniforms, marched into the playground. The substance, discovered almost by accident,has greatly changed the world. 【知识过关】 1. The computer center,______last year, is very popular among the students. in the school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened
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2. Most of the artists _______ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited 3. There was a terrible noise _______ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 4. Do you know the boy_______ under the big tree? A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying 5. Are you going to attend the meeting _______ tomorrow? A. to be held B. being held C. will be held D. held 6. I like most of the books _______ in this _______ house. A. publishing, publishing B. published, published C. published, publishing D. publishing, published 7. This is one of the questions _______ at the meeting now. A. to discuss B. to be discussed C. being discussed D. discussed 8. Would you please give me a piece of paper _______? A. to write B. to write on C. to write with D. to be written ※、不定式作定语 不定式作定语一般有以下四种情形: ⑴ 用于个体名词后,被修饰的名词作不定式的逻辑宾语 , 同时句子的主语也是不定式动作 的执行者。这种情况下使用不定式的一般体: [例题] I can’t find a chair ________. A. to sit B. for to sit on C. to sit on D. for sitting I’m not sure which restaurant _______. A. to eat at B. eating at C. to eat on D. for eating ⑵ 用于个体名词后,被修饰的名词作不定式的逻辑宾语 , 但强调的是不定式动作的执行 者 、 发 生 的 时 间 或 地 点 时 , 用 不 定 式 一 般 体 的 被 动 形 式 : 例 题 FIFA has named the 36 referees for the 2012 FIFA World Cup _____ by South Korea and Jap an. A. to be co-hosted B. co-hosted C. being co-hosted D. co-h 题 What countries do you think will be represented at the six-side peace talk ______ in Beiji ng next month? A. to hold B. holding C. being held D. to be held ⑶ 用于个体名词后,和被修饰的名词作不定式的逻辑主语: [例题] She is the first person ________ the idea. A. think of B. thinking of C. to think of D. thought of This report is urgent. We need someone ______ with the typing. A. helping B. to help C. helped D. to be helped ⑷ 用于一些抽象名词后,说明被修饰名词的内容和用途: [例题] Does the way you think of ______the water clean make any sense? A. making B. to make C. how to make D. having made [例题] I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time _____ the last bus. A. catching B. to have caught C. having caught D. to catch ※、现在分词作定语 现在分词作定语时,要注意分词所表示动作发生的时间。大体说来,有下面两种情况: ⑴ 分词表示正在进行的动作,改为定语从句时要用进行时态: [例题] I don`t know the man ________ over there. A. to stand B. standing C. stood D. being stood It seems that I once met with the man _____ us. A. served B. being served C. to have served D. serving ⑵ 如果分词和被修饰名词呈现被动关系,而且,所指动作此刻正在发生,或者是和谓语所 表示的动作同时发生,就用现在分词一般体的被动形式: [例题]
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The old man _______ has been ill for months. A. to operate on B. operate on C. operated D. being operated on The Three Gorge project ______now on the middle reaches of Yangtse River is the biggest d am of its kind. A. to build B. building C. being built D. built ⑶ 分词表示经常性动作或现在(当时)的状态,变为定语从句时用一般时态: [例句] I’ve lived here for twenty years, but I don’t know the family ___ next to my door. A. to live B. living C. lived D. having lived Last year we had a drought ______ 80 days. A. lasted B. lasting C. to last D. being lasted ※、过去分词作定语 过去分词作定语时,分词表示的动作不仅和所修饰的名词呈被动关系,同时,要么发生于 谓语动作之前,要么没有一定的时间性: [例题] From the dates ____ on the gold coin, we decided that it was made five hundred years ago. A. marking B. marked C. to be marked D. having been marked [例题] Any applicant form ______ properly will not be accepted by the company. A. not filled B. not to be filled C. not being filled D. not having been filled [例题] The amount of money _____ for the seriously sick child was soon collected. A. to need B. needed C. needing D. which needed 【典型例题】 1. European football is played in 80 countries, _______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make 2. _______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 3. Tom kept quiet about the accident _______ lose his job. A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to ※不定式作状语 ① 不定式作状语常用来表目的、结果或原因等。 例如:We eat to live, but we don't live to eat. (目的) What has he said to make you so happy? (结果) She burst into tears to hear the bad news. (原因) 注: 表目的的不定式还常与 so as 或 in order 连用, 构成 so as (not) to do 和 in order (not) to do 结构,其中 so as (not) to do 不能用于句首。 例如:To get there in time, we got up very early. = In order to get there in time, we got up very early. = We got up very early (in order/so as) to get there in time. ② 不定式可用于作表语或补语的形容词之后作状语。 例如:I'm sorry to hear that. Be careful not to catch cold . The man is easy to get along with. I don't think the man hard to get along with. ③ 不定式常与 too 或 enough 连用,在句中作状语。 例如:The boy is too young to go to school/ to be sent to school. = The boy is not old enough to go to school/ to be sent to school. ④ 不定式有时用于 so...as to do sth.结构中作状语。 例如:Will you be so kind as to help me with the work? ⑤ 有时, 不定式还可修饰一个句子, 表明说话人的态度。 常见的这类不定式有 to tell you the truth, to be honest, to be franc, to be fair, 等。 例如:To tell you the truth, I don't like the film. 2.-ing 分词和-ed 分词作状语 ① -ing 分词和-ed 分词作状语修饰谓语,多说明动作发生的背景、方式或伴随情况。 如果在逻辑
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上句中的主语与分词有主谓关系,用-ing 分词,有动宾关系则用-ed 分词。 例如:We enjoyed ourselves in the park, singing and dancing. Built in 1900, the house is now 100 years old. ② -ing 分词和-ed 分词都可作原因或时间状语, 其作用相当于一个相应的状语从句。 如果在逻辑上句中的主语与分词有主谓关系,用-ing 分词,有动宾关系则用-ed 分词。 例如:Being so poor in those days, they couldn't send the boy to school.(原因) Born in a poor family, the boy could not go to school. (原因) Hearing the bad news, she burst into tears. (时间) Seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful. (时间) 3.-ing 分词有时可作结果状语。 例如:Her husband died in the war, leaving her a widow with three children. We got up very early, arriving at the hospital ahead of time. 4.-ed 分词有时用作条件状语,其作用相当于一个条件状语从句。 例如:Given more time, we could have done it much better. 5. 如果不定式或分词表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作之前发生, 该不定式或分词用完 成式。 例如:I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble. Having never/Not having met the man before, I couldn't recognize him at first. Having finished my homework, I went to play football. 【知识过关】 1. She set out soon after dark _______ home an hour later. A. arriving B. to arrive C. having arrived D. and arrived 2. "Can't you read?" Mary said _______ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing 3. _______ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 4. She is upstairs _______ letters. A. writes B. is writing C. write D. writing 5. The secretary worked late into the night, _ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing ※不定式作状语 【名题 1】 _____ their service, the workers of the hotel are active in learning English. A. Improving B. To improve C. Improved D. Having improved 【名题 2】 ______ time and labour, cartoonists generally draw the hands of their characters with only t hree fingers and a thumb. A. To save B. Saved C. Saving D. Having saved 【名题 3】 —Mum. Why do you always make me eat an egg every day? —_______ enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up. A. Get B. Getting C. To get D. To be 2 . 不 定 式 作 结 果 状 语 不 定 式 作 结 果 状 语 时 放 于 句 末 , 其 前 面 时 常 有 副 词 only (In the last analysis or final outcome:—最后的分析,最终结果: ) : 【名题 4】 The American troops tried many times to break into the mosque, _______each time. A. beaten back B. only to be beaten back C. being beaten back D. having been beaten back 3.不定式作原因状语 用作原因状语的不定式一般放于句末,偶尔也见于句首。说明谓语 动作或状态产生的原因: ※现在分词作状语 使用现在分词作状语时,分词动作的执行者必须是句子的主语。通常有以下三种题型: 1.作伴随状语,表示分词动作同句子谓语动词所表示动作同时进行: 【例题 6】 ______ the merry tune, Jack fixed the tire. A. Whistling B. To whistle
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C. Whistled D. Having been whistled 【例题 7】 All night long he lay awake, _______ how to drive the American invaders back home. A. to think B. thinking C. thought D. being thought 2.作原因状语。例如: 【名题 8】 ______good , the food was sold out soon. A. Tasting B. Tasted C. Being tasted D. Having been tasted 【名题 9】 —A traffic jam? —Oh, no. _______, the right side of the road is closed for the time being. A. To be repaired B. Being repaired C. Repaired D. Having repaired 现在分词短语作原因状语,尤其见于 be,feel,know,recognize,fear 等状态动词的现 在分词(短语),以及现在分词的否定式用作状语时。例: ⑴ Seeing the door locked, he realized that he would have to turn back in vain again. ⑵ Not knowing her address, I can’t write to her to express my gratitude to him. ⑶ Not having finished her work, she had to work extra hours. ⑷ They sent us their statement, hoping to get our support. 3.作时间状语,相当于 when 引起的从句: 【名题 10】 ______the big snake, the little girl stood under the tree _____ out of her life. A. Seeing; frightened B. Seeing; frightening C. Seen; frightened D. To see; frightening 【名题 11】 _______ to her apartment, she found her necklace missing. A. To return B. Returned C. Being returned D. Returning 如果两个动作是同时发生,多用 when 或 while 加分词这种结构,例: ⑴ Be careful when crossing the street. ⑵ When leaving the room, she forgot to lock the door. ⑶ She got to know them while attending a conference in Beijing. ⑷ Don’t mention this while talking to him. 4.如果分表示的动作发生于谓语所表示的动作之前,就用分词的完成体: 【名题 12】 ______ such heavy pollution already, it may not be too late to clear up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered 【名题 13】 ______a seat, she left her books on it. A. Found B. Finding C. To find D. Having found ※过去分词作状语 过去分词作状语,用来说明谓语动作发生的背景或情况,通常有以下几种题型: 1.作原因状语,相当于一个原因状语从句: 【名题 15】 ______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 2.表示一个假设情况,相当于一个条件从句: 【名题 16】 ______ in this way, the situation doesn’t seem so disappointing... A. To look at B. Looked at C. Looking at D. To be looked at 【名题 17】 _______ with developed countries, we still have a long way to go. A. To compare B. Compared C. Comparing D. Being compared 4. 一般情况下非谓语动词作状语时, 要求非谓语动词表示的动作和谓语动词的主语相同, 但也有少数分词短语实际上已经成为固定结构,表示说话人对说话内容所持的态度。如: 【名题 18】 ______the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation. A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given 这种评说性的独立成分作状语,其逻辑主语不要求和句子的主语保持一致。这种情况下, 分词短语的逻辑上的主语和句子的主语是不一致的,可以看作是一种独立成分.例:
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⑴ Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. ⑵ Considering his age, the child reads well. ⑶ Taken as a whole, there is nothing wrong. ⑷ Given their inexperience, they have done a good job. 5. 分词作状语时, 有时前面可以加上一个连词。 连词 than, as, once, if, unless, though, even if 等之后,均可以接一个过去分词作状语,这时,分词的逻辑主语是分词的动作对象。 【名题 19】 The research is so designed that once _______nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 【名题 20】 When _______, the museum will be open to the public next year. A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed 【名题 21】 ______ who she was, she said she was Mary’s cousin. A. Asked B. When asked C. When asking D. Asking 例:⑴ Once recovered, he went all out to do his work. ⑵ Though beaten by the opposite team, the players didn’t lose heart. ⑶ If carefully done, the experiment will be successful. *注意:①有些非谓语动词短语,其形式的选择不受上下文的影响,称作独立成分。现在分 词可作独立成分,表明说话人的观点、态度或出发点,一般置句首。其逻辑主语通常是说话人 而非句子的主语。由于其逻辑主语与句中成分无关,故有叫“悬垂分词”或“无依附的分词”, 也可叫“评注性状语”。常用者有:generally/ frankly/ strictly /truly/ broadly speaking, judging from, taking ...into consideration 等。某些现在分词实际上已变为介词或连词:considering 考虑到, regarding 关于, according to 根据,providing/ provided 如果,supposing 假如,还有 如:judging from, considering, given, believe it or not to be honest, to tell you the truth to make matters /things worse . __________, I don't like her sister. A. Telling the truth B. Been told the truth C. To tell the truth D. To tell the true ②非谓语作状语时,主语必须是非谓语的逻辑主语;如果不是,非谓语需要有在他前面加上 自己的主语,构成独立主格结构。 Weather permitting, we'll have a field trip tomorrow . Mother being ill,I had to stay at home to look after her 1. It __________ heavily, the outing had to be put off. A. being rained B. being raining C. raining D. rains 2. __________, I went out for a walk. A. There was nothing to do B. There being nothing to do C. There had nothing to do D. There were nothing to do 3 In order to protect our planet, _____. A. all kinds of pollution should be reduced B. we should reduce all kinds of pollution C. the environment should be protected first D. it’s important to protect our environment 4 The foreign tourists have visited many scenic spots in Shanghai, _____ as interpreter. A. the guide acts B. the guide acting C. acting D. acted 5 While listening to pop music, _____. A. she felt asleep B. the light went out C. someone knocked at the door D. and she couldn’t help laughing 6 Having been attacked by terrorists, ______. A. doctors came to their rescue B. the tall building collapsed C. an emergency measure was taken D. warnings were given to tourists A Many people looked at him B So many eyes fixing on him
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