2013届湖北高考英语一轮复习基础知识课件：Unit4 Astronomy the science of the stars（新人教版必修3）
佳 作 诵 读
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设你是李华，你的美国朋友 Tom 上个月
来到北京学习。七月份你将去北京参加暑期中学生英语演讲比 赛(speech contest)，你在资料搜集、语言运用等方面遇到了困难。 请根据以下要点给 Tom 写一封电子邮件： 1．询问 Tom 的生活和学习情况；
2．谈谈你的困难并请 Tom 帮忙；
3．告诉 Tom 你打算赛后去看他。
【经典范文】 Dear Tom， I have missed you very much. How about your study and life in China? I should tell you that I have something to be helped by you. In July, I will take part in an English speech contest for middle school students in Beijing in summer vacation. I want to make a speech about American scientist Thomas Edison.
But I don't know about him deeply. Could you tell me some background about him, especially how hard he studied science? Please tell me more about his spirit of devoting himself to_science and_his stories about_the innovation_in science. I wish I could become a scientist like Thomas Edison to invent many new things for the world. And please tell me how to use the American motto, which can make my speech more vivid. I will visit you after the speech contest. Thanks a lot! Faithfully yours! Li Hua
考 点 锁 定
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Ⅰ.重点词汇 1．________ n．天文学________ n．天文学家 2．________ n．系统；体系；制度________ adj.系统的 3．________ n．宗教；宗教信仰
5．________ n．球体；地球仪；地球_____ adj.全球性的
6．________ adj.猛烈的；激烈的________ adv. 猛烈地
8．________ adj.基本的；基础的 9．________ n．出席；到场；存在________ adj.出席的； 存在的 10．________ n．反应；回应________ vi.反应；回应
14．_____ n．谜；难题vt.(使)迷惑_____adj.令人困惑的 15．________ n．生物学________ adj.生物的 16．________ n．万有引力；重力 17．________ n．卫星；人造卫星
20．________ n．质量；团；块；大量_______ adj.巨大的
答案 1．astronomy; astronomer 3．religion 4.theory 2.system; systematic
6．violent; violently 7.atmosphere
10．reaction; react 11.multiply 12.oxygen
13．exist; existence 14.puzzle; puzzling
15．biology; biological 16.gravity 17.satellite
Ⅱ.短语回顾 1．________ time 及时；终于 2．be harmful ________ 对??有害 3．give birth ________ 产生；分娩
4．________ one's turn 轮到某人；接着
5．prevent... ________ 阻止；抑制
6．block ________ 挡住(光线等)
7．cheer ________ 感到高兴；感到振奋
8．a mass ________ 许多；大量
9．break ________ 突发；爆发 10．watch ________ for 密切注视；当心；提防 11．________ that 既然 12．get close ________ 靠近；接近
13．get the hang ________ 掌握，精通
答案 1．in 2.to 8．of 9.out 3.to 4.in 5.from 11.now 6.out 12.to 7.up 13.of
Ⅲ.句式填空 1．what 引导的主语从句 ________(它会变成什么样) was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe.
2．so... that... 如此??以至于??
The earth became ________ (如此猛烈以至于)it was not
clear whether the shape would last or not.
3．it 作形式宾语的用法 This produced a chain reaction, which ________ (使得生命 得以发展)． 4．英语倍数表示法
But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried
________ (两倍远) on the earth and fell over. 答案 1．What it was to become 2.so violent that 3．made it possible for life to develop
高 频 考 点
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考点单词 1．pull n. & vt. 拉(力)；拖；牵引力 They are pulling down those houses to make room for a new hotel.
We waved as the train pulled out of the station.
pull apart 拆开；拆散
pull away (汽车等)开走
pull down 拆毁；摧毁 pull in (车辆)进站 pull out 驶出；退出 pull over 向路边停靠；驶向路边 pull up 停车
I was lucky enough to get on the train before it
[解析]pull out 驶出车站。
2．exist vi.存在；生存 The technology for performing this operation already exists. 做这种手术的技术早已存在。
They are paid hardly enough to exist on.
exist in 存在于??之中 exist on 靠??为生 exist by 靠??生存 There exist... 有??；存在着??
come into existence 开始存在；成立
bring... into existence 使发生；产生
There, in the ancient temple, used to ________
a big bell, which is now missing.
[解析]There used to exist 过去有……。
3．puzzle n．谜；难题 vt.(使)迷惑；(使)为难 What puzzled me is why they didn't take her advice. 他们为何不接受她的忠告，这使我大惑不解。 in a puzzle 疑惑；困惑
puzzle over 冥思苦想
puzzle out 苦苦思索而弄清楚
be puzzled 感到困惑
be puzzling 令人困惑的
The present situation is ________， and we
are all________about what will happen in the days to come.
[解析]puzzling 令人迷惑的，修饰物； puzzled 迷惑的，
4．mass n．质量；团；块；大量 Her garden is a mass of flowers. 她的花园里种满了花。 I don't like children in the mass.
a mass of＝masses of 大量的；许多的
in the mass 大体上；大致上
the masses 大众；民众
the mass of... 大部分??
【易错提示】 a mass of 和 masses of 后面可以接可数或不可数名词，作 主语时谓语动词的单复数与 mass 的单复数保持一致。
________ work has been done to prevent the
water in the lake being polluted.
A．A plenty of
C．A mass of
B．A number of
D．A great many
[解析]a mass of 大量的，既可以修饰可数名词也可以修饰
5．spread vt.伸展；传播；蔓延 He spread a cloth on the table. 他把台布铺在桌子上。 The fire spread from the factory to the houses nearby.
In 20 years the city has spread quickly to the north.
spread out 散开；伸展；延伸 spread over 遍布在 spread (from...) to (从??)传到，波及到 spread oneself 舒展四肢(躺下)
Paper－making began in China and from
there it ________ to North Africa and Europe.
[解析]spread 传播。 export 出口； spoil 宠坏； carry 运
6．depend vi.依靠 It depends on how you solve the problem. 那取决于你如何解决这个问题。 You can never depend on his arriving on time.
How much is produced depends on how hard we work.
depend on sth./sb.＝rely on 依靠或依赖某人/某物 depend on sb. to do sth. 依靠某人做某事 That depends. 视情况而定。 It all depends. 视情况而定。
live on 以??为主食；靠??生活
feed on (动物)以??为饲料
—Do you think living in the country has
A．Yes, perfectly B．Yes, it is
C．Nothing at all
D．Well, that depends
[解析]that depends 那依情况而定。
7．disappoint vt. 使失望 Don't disappoint me by being late again. 别再迟到了，不要叫我失望。 This accident disappointed our plans.
disappoint sb. 使某人失望
disappoint a hope/plan 希望/计划落空
disappointed adj. 失望的
disappointing adj. 令人失望的 disappointment n. 失望；令人失望的人或事 to one's disappointment 令某人失望的是
Tom never works hard at his lessons, so it's
not ________ to see a ________ look on his face after the exam.
[解析]第一空用surprising 修饰物；第二空用 disappointed
修饰 look。 [答案]D
8．method n．方法，办法；秩序，条理 New methods of production were employed a few years ago. 新的生产方法几年前曾使用过。 We should go over our lessons with methods.
with this method 用这种方法
method of/for (doing) sth. 做??的方法
—________ he didn't eat so noisily!
—He is always that ________. A．If; manner C．If only; way B．Why; kind D．On condition that; method
[解析]第一空用 if only 意为“要是??就好了”；第二空
用 way 表示“方式”。
考点短语 1．cheer up 感到高兴；感到振奋 Try and cheer up a bit; life isn't that bad. 试着高兴一点；生活并不是那样糟糕。
【思维拓展】 cheer sb. up 使某人高兴/振奋 cheer... on 为??加油 Cheers! 干杯！
cheer n. 欢呼声
cheerful adj. 高兴的；快乐的
cheerfully adv. 兴高采烈地
The news that our team won the game
A．cheered us up
C．broke us up
B．cheered up us
D．put us up
[解析]cheer sb. up 使某人高兴，使某人振奋。
2．in time 及时；终于；总有一天 Will you be home in time to see the children before they go to bed? 你来得及在孩子们上床睡觉之前回家看看他们吗？
【思维拓展】 at one time 曾经；一度 in no time 立刻；马上
at no time 绝不 all the time 一直 at all times 随时；永远 for the time being 暂时；目前
from time to time 偶尔 ahead of time 提前
at a time 一次
gain time (钟、表)走得快
You will succeed________because you have
been working hard at your lessons.
D．at a time
[解析]in time总有一天，最终。on time按时；at times 有
时；at a time一次。 [答案]B
3．in one's turn 轮到某人 Thus they have, in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet. 于是，他们接着成为这个星球上最重要的动物。
【思维拓展】 by turns 轮流；依次 in turn 轮流；依次；转而
take one's turn 依次；轮流 take turns to do 轮流做 It's one's turn to do sth. 轮到某人做某事
即境活用11 A．in turn C．in charge
Let's look after her ________. B．in danger D．in advance
[解析]in turn 轮流。in danger 处于危险中；in charge 负
责；in advance 提前。
4．prevent... from 阻止；抑制 Unless we get more funding, we'll be prevented from finishing our experimental programme. 除非得到更多拨款，否则我们不能完成这项实验计划。
【思维拓展】 stop sb. (from) doing sth. 阻止某人做某事 keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事 keep sb. doing sth. 使某人一直做某事
protect sb. from... 保护某人不受??侵袭；挡住；防御
【易错提示】 被动语态中上述搭配中的 from 都不可省略。
Unfortunately, we were prevented ________
the project on time by the terrible weather.
[解析]be prevented from doing sth. 被阻止做某事。
5．block out 挡住、遮住(光线等) The tree in the neighbour's garden blocks out a lot of light. 邻居花园里的那棵树挡住了很多光线。
【思维拓展】 block off sth. 封锁；切断 block sth. in 塞满；使??受阻 block up sth. 堵塞；挡住
a block of＝blocks of 大块/一批??
a block of flats 一幢公寓大楼
—How further do we have to go?
—Exactly, the school is still two ________ away. A．buildings C．streets B．blocks D．corners
6．break out (火灾、战争、疾病)突发；爆发 The experts predict that a new disease will break out this winter. 专家们预言，今年冬天将有一种新的疾病爆发。
【思维拓展】 take place 发生；进行(有计划发生) happen 发生(意外事故发生) occur 发生；突然想起
即 境 活 用 14
It seems that the computer system was
attacked by a new virus that ________ last week.
[解析]break out 爆发。put out 扑灭；come out 出版；get
重点句型 1．They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water and other gases, which were to make the earth's atmosphere. 最终产生了碳、氮气、水蒸气和其他多种气体，从而形成
句中 be to do 结构表示即将发生某事、计划或安排做某事、 要求做某事。
The foreign students are to hold a party to celebrate Christmas Day next Monday.
You are to meet the experts from Hong Kong at the airport.
【思维拓展】 “be about to do” 表示即将做某事，不与任何时间状语连 用；“will ＋ 动词原形”表示将来行为，“预见”或“临时考 虑”将做某事； be going to do 表示打算/计划做某事，或有迹象
Wait for me for a moment; I'm about to set out. 稍等片刻；我马上就动身。
We will put the plan into practice next spring. 我们明年春天实施这个计划。 Look, the clouds are gathering; it's going to rain. 瞧，云彩在聚集；马上就要下雨了。
即境活用15 be generous.
If you ________ her respect, you will have to
A．are going to win
B．are to win
D．are about to win
[解析]条件状语从句只能用 be to do 结构，表示将来。
2．“Oh dear，”I cried, “walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.”
句中 now that 引导原因状语从句，意为“既然，由于”，
相当于since，而且 that 可以省略。 Now that you have finished your work, you'd better have a rest. 既然已经做完工作了，你最好休息一下。
Now that you don't have faith in me, I will never give you any advice.
【思维拓展】 due to 由于，归功于； because of 因为； on account of 由于，因为； owing to 由于，因为；
thanks to 由于，多亏(多作表语或状语)；
as a result of 由于
________ they've got to know each other, I'm
sure they will get along better.
D．As soon as
[解析]now that 既然，用来引出原因状语从句。
3．This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for life to develop.
这是“make it ＋ 形容词/名词 ＋ to do sth.”句型。该句型
中 it 为形式宾语，指代后面的不定式结构，形容词或名词为宾
People in the West make it a rule to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends.
it 作形式宾语，除指代不定式结构外，还可指代 that 引导
They made it clear to the public that they did an important and necessary job. 他们向公众表明：他们所做的工作重要且必不可少。
【思维拓展】 ?名词或形容词 ? ?不带 to 的不定式 make it ＋ 宾语 ＋ 宾语补足语? ?过去分词 ? 介词短语 ?
I made ________ clear that I would support
[解析]make it ＋ 形容词 ＋ to do sth. 句型。
4．But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.
(1)“A ＋ 谓语动词 ＋ 倍数 ＋ 形容词或副词的比较级 ＋
than ＋ B”表示“A比B大(长、宽、高等)多少倍”。 (2)“A ＋ 谓语动词 ＋ 倍数 ＋ as ＋ 形容词或副词的原级 ＋ as ＋ B”，表示“A是B的多少倍”。
谓 语 动 词
(height/length/width, etc.) ＋ of ＋ B”表示“A是B的多少倍”。
(4)“A ＋ 谓语动词 ＋ 倍数 ＋ what 从句”。
They have three times as many cows as we have.
This table is 3 times as big as that one.
＝This table is twice bigger than that one.
＝This table is 3 times the size of that one. 这张桌子是那张的3倍大。
this old house in downtown better than the huge one in the
country, but it costs almost________.
A．twice as much B．twice as many
C．twice so much
D．twice so many
[解析]倍数的表达法为：twice the ＋ 名词 ＋ of；倍数＋ as＋形容词原级＋as；倍数＋形容词的比较级＋than。修饰不可 数名词用 twice as much。 [答案]A
课 堂 双 基
紧 扣 考 点·· · · · · · · · · · · · · 跟 踪 训 练 ·············· ·············
Ⅰ.词义辨析 1．AIDS is a disease that breaks down the body's immune ________. A．situation B．origin
[解析]system体系，系统。situation 情形；origin 起源；
2．________ crimes such as murders or robberies are on the increase in this district.
[解析]violent 暴力的。genuine 真诚的；fundamental基本
的；secure 安全的。 [答案]B
3．The ________ at home has been depressing since they had that fight.
[解析]atmosphere 气氛。background 背景；emergency
4．The festival has been a great success, ________ last year when it rained non-stop.
[解析]unlike 与??不同。besides 另外；beyond 超出；
despite 尽管。 [答案]D
5 ． The Government fears the strike may produce a ________ reaction in other industries.
[解析]chain 连锁。float 漂；series 系列；atom 原子。
6．If you ________ three by three, you get nine. A．multiply C．seek B．puzzle D．combine
[解析]multiply 乘。puzzle 使迷惑；seek 寻求；combine
7．There is no evidence that life ________ on other planets. A．responds C．explodes B．exists D．sinks
[解析]exist 存在。respond 回答；explode 爆炸；sink 下沉。
8．For the sake of her daughter's health, she decided to move to a warm ________.
[解析]climate气候。weather 天气；temperature 温度；
9．Three people were killed when their car ________ into a lorry.
[解析]crash 撞击。charge 负责，充电；balance 使平衡；
10．The sound of her voice came ________ down from an upstairs window.
[解析]float 漂。settle 安定；block 堵塞；pack 打包。
in one's turn; as far as; now that; in time; break out; watch out; block out; get the hang of; give birth to; cheer up
1．Don't worry—I'm sure things will get better ________. 2．We congratulated her on ________ a fine healthy baby. 3．Class Three should be responsible for raising the red flag this week________.
4．The wall ________ all the light. It should be pulled
down. 5．She told her child to ________ when crossing the street.
6．Using the computer isn't difficult once you ________ it. 7．________ you are grown up, you should not rely on your parents. 8．Should another world war ________， what would
become of human beings?
9．The crowd ________ when they saw the teams arrive. 10．I'll go with you ________ the station for company.
答案 1．in time 2.giving birth to 4．blocks out 7．Now that 5.watch out 8.break out 3.in its turn 6.get the hang of 9.cheered up
10．as far as
Ⅲ.单词拼写 1．It cost him more than one ________ (十亿) dollars to complete the project. 2．“What happened？”John's mother asked him in a
________ (温和的) voice.
3．Before the Earth's protective ________ (大气层) was formed, there was no life except in the sea. 4．With the________ (引力) of the moon and the sun each day, tides (潮汐)roll in and roll away.
5．Man-made ________ (卫星) are used for sending and receiving messages.
6．Smoking ________ (增加) the risk of heart attacks and
other health problems.
7．Eating too many desserts can be ________ (有害的) to
one's teeth. 8．Global warming and ________ (气候) change problems are perhaps the greatest threats to our planet.
9．According to the ________ (理论) of relativity (相对论), nothing can travel faster than light.
10．Most of the evidence had been destroyed. ________ (因
此), it was almost impossible to prove him guilty.
答案 1．billion 2.gentle 3.atmosphere 4.pull
5．satellites 6.multiplies 7.harmful 8．climate 9.theory 10.Thus