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Ansys电磁分析官方培训教材


Chapter 2
Section 2

Two Dimensional Magnetostatics

Concepts for EMAG Simulation
A ? Boundary conditions at the edge of the model are to represent: – Flux norm

al – Flux parallel – Periodic design * B ? Even ? Odd Implementing the boundary conditions depend on the element formulation – Vector (2D or 3D) – Scalar (3D) – Edge based (3D)

B

?

Iron

A

Air

Coil (typical)

* To be covered later in Chapter 2
January 30, 1999

Planar Model of a Simple Magnetizer
2.2-2

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

? ?

The magnetic vector potential (MVP) will used for the 2D magnetostatic and AC and transient applications This formulation is referred to as the MVP since the flux density (B) is related to a vector potential (A)

B = Curl(A)
? ? For the 2D application A only has the Z component, or in ANSYS the “AZ” degree of freedom This affects the interpretation of the boundary conditions at the edge of the model – Constraining AZ-Dirichlet condition: flux will be parallel to the edge of the model – Natural boundary condition-Neumann condition: flux will be normal to the edge of the model
ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

January 30, 1999

2.2-3

?

Condition for flux parallel along A-A is identified by – Model for left side and right side of A-A are identical ? Shape of the geometry ? Material properties – Excitation for left side is 180 out of phase with the excitation for the right side

A
Pole Face

B

B

?

Boundary condition at the plane of symmetry – Constraint must be applied along A-A A
Half Symmetry model of the simple magnetizer

Preproc.>loads>apply>boundary>flux par’l>lines

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-4

?

Results of the half symmetry model compared to the full model – Flux density distribution is identical – Magnitude of Lorentz force on the coil shown is identical – Stored energy is 1/2 – Force on pole face is 1/2 – Applied current density is the same as for the full model

Half Symmetry model of the simple magnetizer

Coil (typical)

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-5

?

Condition for flux normal along B-B is identified by – Model for top and bottom sections of B-B are identical ? Shape of the geometry ? Material properties – Excitation for top and bottom is identical B B
Quarter symmetry model of the simple magnetizer

?

Boundary conditions at the plane of symmetry (B-B) – No action required for 2D Magnetic Vector Potential (MVP)-the formulation for 2D simulations – Applied current is the same as for the full model
January 30, 1999 ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-6

?

Results of the half model compared to the full model – Flux density distribution is identical – Stored energy is 1/4 – Lorentz force on the coil shown is 1/2 – Force acting on pole face is 1/2 B
Quarter symmetry model of the simple magnetizer

B

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-7

?

Element types plane13 and plane53 are used to simulate the magnetic field in 2D models – Plane13: 4 noded quadrilateral ? Coupled field degrees of freedom: temperature, structural, magnetic ? Current is in the Z direction ? B varies linearly ? Useful for many applications: ? Actuators ? Linear or rotary ? Machines under load ? Cogging torques for most machines
January 30, 1999

Plane13

? Transformers ? Bus bars ? Sensors ? linear or arbitrary ? Permanent magnet systems
2.2-8

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

– plane53: 8 noded quadrilateral ? Coupled field degrees of freedom: – Magnetic – Coupling to circuit elements ? Current is in the Z direction ? B can vary quadratically ? Recommended element for general use ? Useful for many applications requiring additional accuracy – field quality analysis – cogging torque for large machines
January 30, 1999 ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172) 2.2-9

Midside nodes

?

Process to define an element type and the element options for the Plane13 for the model domain Preproc>element type> add/ edit/delete

? ?

Select ADD Select the ..Quad 4nod13

Reference number to be used in assigning the area attributes

? Select OK
January 30, 1999 ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172) 2.2-10

? ?

Element options are selected once the element type has been defined Element options control: – Degree of freedom (AZ) for 2D DC simulations – Type of 2D simulation ? Axisymmetric ? Planar Select Options

?

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-11

Reference No. to be used in the attributes for the areas For DC simulations

Type of geometry

? Select OK

The stress/strain structural options are available, since the plane13 is used in couple field simulations

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-12

– Comparison of planar and Axisymmetric – End effects ? Planar: not included ? Axisymmetric: automatically included – Sign convention for direction of positive current Planar: +Z current is OUT
Flux Density Vector plots Iron Plate

Axisymmetric: +Z current is IN

Iron Ring

COIL +Current is applied in both cases

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-13

– Interpretation of the flux lines ? Planar: AZ is contoured ? Axisymmetric: r AZ is contoured

Planar or Axisymmetric ?

Planar or Axisymmetric ?

Armature

Coil

Stator

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-14

– Interpretation of forces, energy, inductance ? Planar: Per unit length ? Axisymmetric: Full circle values – Forces: ? Axisymmetric: – No net radial – The per radian value is not zero (for buckling of coils)

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-15

? Process to define an element type and the element options for the Plane53 for the model domain Preproc.>element type>add/ edit/delete ? Select Add ? Select the ..Quad 8nod53

Element type is incremented-to be used for area attribute assignment

? Select OK
January 30, 1999 ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172) 2.2-16

? Element options are selected once the element type has been defined ? Element options control: – Stranded coil-voltage fed option * – Connects circuit elements to finite element domain* – Degree of freedom for 2D DC simulations for motion
From the Help engine for plane53-the moving conductor *Covered in the AC application

? Select OK
January 30, 1999 ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172) 2.2-17

?

To use the velocity affect-additional information is required – Defined in the Real Constants and it is most convenient to define this data at the time the element options are being selected Preproc>real constants...

Select

January 30, 1999

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-18

Element type No. is required for area attribute assignment

Real Constant Set No. is required for area attribute assignment

Velocity units: ? Select OK
January 30, 1999

meters/sec

Angular velocity units: rad/sec

ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALYSIS with ANSYS/Emag Release 5.5 (001172)

2.2-19


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