1. in time: sooner or later; eventually 迟早；最后；终于 I’ll see him in time. 总有一天我会遇见他。 in time (for sth/to do sth): not late 及时；不迟 She will be back in time to prepare
in/out of time: in/not in the correct time 合/不合节拍 The audience clapped in time to the music. 观众合着音乐的节拍拍手。
2. be harmful to 对…有害 do harm to sb. = do sb. harm 伤害某人，对某人有害处 1) Pollution is especially harmful to animals. 2) Smoking will do you a lot of harm. It does no harm (for sb.) to do… It does no harn for you to open the window.
There is no harm in (sb.’s) doing sth.
There is no harm in (your) opening the window.
3.multiply (数目上)增加，增多；乘；（使）繁殖 1) Our problems have multiplied since last year. 2) 2 and 5 multiply to make 10. 3) 6 multiplied by 5 is 30. = Multiply 6 by 5 to make 30. 4) The plants here multiply rapidly.
? 4.prevent sb from (doing) sth=stop sb from doing sth"阻止...做...” 在主动语态中from 可以省略，被动语态中不行。 ? How to prevent/stop this (from) happening. ? Its nationals may be prevented/stopped from leaving the country. ? keep sb from doing sth中的from无论在主动 语态中还是在被动语态中都不能省略。 “ 阻止...做...”,如果省略from,意思为"让某 人一直做某事" ? He kept me from getting hurt. ? He kept me doing homework.
? 5.puzzle n. 谜；难题 v. （使）迷惑；（使）为 难 ? It's puzzles me. ? feel/ be puzzled about sth. 对某事感到迷惑 ? puzzle over/ about sth. 对某事苦苦思索 ? ? 这个字母使我迷惑不解。This letter puzzles me. ? ? 她对她的未来感到迷惑。She felt puzzled about her future. ? ? 他昨晚冥思苦想一道数学题。He puzzled over/ about a math problem last night. ? puzzling adj. 使迷惑的 puzzled adj. 迷惑的；困 惑的
? 6.break out vt.& vi.（战争、打斗等不愉快 事件）突然发生，爆发; 突然发生，爆发; 向外砸开;也可以表示突然大声叫喊等。 ? The war broke out in 1937. ? A fire break out last night. ? She broke out, “That is too unfair!” ? take place 表示“发生、举行、举办”，一 般指非偶然性事件的“发生”，即这种事 件的发生一定有某种原因或事先的安排。 例如： ? The Olympic Games of 2008 took place in Beijing.
? happen 作“发生、碰巧”解，常指具体事件的发 生，特别指那些偶然的或未能预见的“发生”， 一般用于偶然或突发性事件。例如： ? A storm happened across the river in another country. ? occur 作“发生、想到、突然想起”解，其意义 相当于 happen。例如： ? What has occurred? (= What has happened?) ? come about 表示“发生、产生”，多指事情已经 发生了，但还不知道为什么，常用于疑问句和否 定句。例如： ? When Mother woke up, she didn't know what had come about.
I. Warming up
1.What’s the meaning of the word the science of stars; “Astronomy ”? 2. Do you know the following terms?
star, planet, the sun / moon / earth, solar system 恒星 ?行星 太阳系
3. How many planets are in the solar system?
Scientists now think Pluto is too small to be called a planet.
4. Do you know the correct order of their distance to the sun? nearest to the sun?
farthest to the sun?
5. The names of eight planets. ? Mercury [?m ?:kj?ri] 1) 水星 ? Venus 2) 金星 ? Earth 3) 地球 ? Mars 4) 火星 ? Jupiter [?d ?u:p?t?] 5) 木星 ? Saturn [?s?t?n] 6) 土星 7) 天王星 ? Uranus [?j ??r?n?s] 8) 海王星 ? Neptune [?nep?tu:n,?tju:n]
In this unit, we’ll learn something more scientific. 1.What’s the title of the text?
2. From the title, we can predict that the text may tell us the origin of life on the earth. Do you know some stories about it?
Pangu separates the sky from the earth.
Nvwa made humans.
Read the passage quickly and answer the questions.
1. When did the “Big Bang” happen? 2. What form was the earth after the “Big Bang”? 3. What made up the earth’s atmosphere 4. How did water come into being on the earth? 5. What’s the significance of the presence of water on the earth? 6.What was important to the development of fish? 7. What made possible the rise of mammals on the earth? 8. Why are mammals different from all life forms in the past?
Read the passage quickly and answer the questions.
1. When did the “Big Bang”
It happened several billion
2. What form was the earth after the “Big Bang”? The earth was still just a cloud of dust. 3. What made up the earth’s atmosphere after the earth exploded? Carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and
4. How did water come into being
on the earth?
As the earth cooled down after
it exploded, water came into being.
5. What’s the significance of the presence of water on the earth?
It allowed the earth to
dissolve harmful gases and
acids into the oceans and
6. What was important to the development of fish? oxygen. 7. What made possible the rise of mammals on the earth? The disappearance of dinosaurs made the possible the rise of mammals on the earth.
8. Why are mammals different from all life forms in the past? They gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.
I. Read the passage carefully and match the main idea with each paragraph.
Para. 2 Para. 3
Para. 4 Para. 5
The formation (形成) of the earth. The importance of water for life. A widely accepted theory about the formation of the universe. The arrival of humans and their impact on the earth. The development of plants
and animals on the earth.
Stage 1 : The development of the earth
Stage 2 : The development of life (para 4—5)
Stage 1: The development of the earth (1) After the Big Bang, what was the earth like?
a cloud of dust a solid globe
(2) What happened next? exploded with fire and rock produced water vapour and gases
(3) What did the water vapour and gases form?
the earth’s atmosphere
(4) What appeared as the earth cooled down?
water is important for the beginning of life on the earth.
Why is water so important for the beginning of life?
Because water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases into oceans and seas.
Stage2 The development of life
1.What life developed after water appeared? small plants appears in water
2.What life developed in water next? Shellfish and all sorts of fish
3.What about the life on land?
green plants began to grow on land
4. What life developed next on land?
amphibians on land and in the water forests
5.What life developed after forests appeared?
reptiles appeared dinosaur developed
6.What life developed after dinosaurs? mammals on land
7. What life developed after mammals? small clever animals
1.Who are the small clever animals with hands and feet? 2. Are they taking care of the earth well? Why?
Because they are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space.
The earth may become too hot to live on .
Can you fill in the blanks?
1 small plants in water
shellfish and all 2 sorts of fish 4 insects 5 amphibians 7 8 9 10
3Green plants on land
reptiles dinosaurs mammals humans
Can you put the order of development of life into a time line?
8 3 9 2 6 1 2 1. Insects and amphibians appeared. 3. The earth became a solid ball. 5. Reptiles appeared. 7. The earth was a cloud of dust 9. Shellfish and other fish appeared. 11. Clever animals with hands and feet appeared 10 2. Dinosaurs appeared. 4.Small plants grew on the water. 7 6. Plants began to grow on dry land. 4 8. Water appeared on the earth 1 10. The universe began with a “Big Band”. 11 12. Mammals appeared. 5
Ex.2 on P27
III. Fill in the blanks in the following form.
Time Big Bang
began to form
and combine to create stars and other bodies.
Between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago
●Dust settled into a solid and ______ violent globe. ●The earth exploded to produce its ___________. atmosphere ●The continued presence ________ of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases and _____ acids into the oceans and seas.
Many millions of years later
●The first small plants on the surface of the water oxygen produced _______. ●Early _______ and all shellfish sorts of fish appeared. ●Green plants began to grow on land. amphibians ●Insects and ___________ appeared.
Reptiles Many millions ●________ of years later appeared and they
laid eggs. ●Dinosaurs developed, laid eggs existed for more and _______ than 140 million years. gave birth to rose and ● Mammals ____________
About 2.6 million years ago
●Some smallclever ______ animals with hands and feet appeared and spread all over the earth. Humans produce dioxide too much carbon _______, making the earth too hot.
IV. True (T) or False (F). 1. The earth appeared before the Big Bang happened. F 2. The original atmosphere consisted of nitrogen and oxygen. F 3. The main difference between the earth and other planets is that there is water on the earth. T 4. Life began in water and then on land. T
5. Mammals appeared before the development of dinosaurs. F 6. Dinosaurs could give birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them. F 7. Human beings produce too much carbon dioxide which causes the global warming on the earth. T 8. According to the text, human beings would disappear in the end. F
主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 从句一律保持陈述语序。
在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从 句 (Noun Clauses）。 名词从句的功能 相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主 语、宾语、表语、同位语等，因此根据 它在句中不同的语法功能，名词从句又 可分别称为主语从句(Subject Clause)、 宾语从句(Object Clause)、表语从句 (Predicative Clause) 和同位语从句 (Appositive Clause
Who will win the match is still 主语从句 unknown. I want to know what he has told you.
The fact is that we have lost the game.
The news that we won the game is 同位语从句 exciting.
主语从句 一个句子在复合句中充当主语叫主语从句。 常用引导词： 连接词： that(无词义) whether That he will come and help us is certain. Whether we stay or not makes no difference. 连接代词: who(ever) whom what(ever) which(ever) whose
Who will go to the energy conference is not important.
When and where the test will be given is not decided.
1. 引导主语从句的连词是不能省略的。 That the earth is round is true 2. That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词，而将 that-从句置于句末，例如： It is true that the earth is round. 结构：
a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary that… It is important that… It is obvious that… b. It + be + p.p.+ that-从句 It is believed that… It is known to all that… It has been decided that…
有必要…… 重要的是…… 很明显…… 人们相信…… 从所周知…… 已决定……
c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that ……是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是…… d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that… 似乎…… It happens that… 碰巧…… It occurred to me that … 我突然想起……
2.表示“是否”意义时，一般用whether 而不用 if 引导主语从句，
Whether she will come or not is still a question
3.有时可用形式主语it 代替主语从句： e.g. It is still a question whether she will come or not . It has not been decided yet when they will start .
e.g. When we will start has not been decided yet. .
以what开始的主语从句如果后面的表语是 复数名词，系动词用复数形式。 What he wants to buy are three books and two pens.
1.It is obvious to the students ____ they should get well prepared for their future. A. as B. which C. whether D. that 2. ____ wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. A. Anyone B. The one C. Whoever D. Who
3.It is not immediately clear ____ the financial crisis will soon be over. A. since B. what C.when D. whether
____ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who _____the sports meet will be held depends on the weather. A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That ___ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It
宾语从句 一个句子在复合句中充当宾语就叫宾语从句 连接词： that(无词义) whether if e.g. I don’t know whether (if)you are willing to help me . 连接代词：what(ever) who(ever) whose which(ever) 等 连接副词： when where how why等
特别提示 1.由连接词that引导宾语从句时，that在 句中不担任任何成分。 I’m glad that you have passed the exam . 2. 有些词或词组如hate, love,enjoy,dislike, feel like, appreciate, take(认为),rely on, don’t mind等，习惯上后面跟it做形式 宾语，再接宾语从句。 I take it that you will agree with us.
3.在接复合宾语的句子中，为了保持句子 平衡，用it作形式宾语，而将从句放在 句尾。常带复合宾语的动词有： make/find/see/hear/feel/think等。 I think it necessary that I take plenty of water every day. 4. 某些动词后的宾语从句常用虚拟语气， 如insist，order，request，suggest等。 I suggested that we (should) start before 5 o' clock.
5.必须用whether 引导， 不可用if: 1). 从句后有or not 时，不可用if : I don’t know whether he will come or not . 2). 介词宾语通常用 whether 引导: It depends on whether he is coming or not . 3). 后接动词不定式时。 Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? 4).discuss 后面的宾语从句解释为是否用whether Imagine you are in this situation, and discuss whether you should do something at once.
Whether we stay or not makes no difference. 6）表语从句和同位语从句 The question is whether we can get there on time . 7)当it做形式主语whether / if 都可引导主语从句 It hasnt been decided whether/if we shall attend the meeting.
6. 用who，whom, which(ever), whose,when, what(ever), where, why, how, whoever等关 联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句， 应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。 Do you know how old he is? I want to know what he has told you. She always thinks of how she can work well. She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人，她都会给予热 情的支持。
7. think, believe, imagine, suppose等动词引 起的否定性宾语从句中，要把上述主句中 的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形 式移到主句中。例如： We don’t think you are here. 我们认为你不在这。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做。
如果主句主语为第一人称反意疑问句常与从 句的主语和谓语保持一致；其他情况看主 句。例如： I don't believe she has been to Australia, has she? 我认为她没去澳大利亚，是吗？ I don't believe that he can translate this book, can he ? She thinks that her husband is the best one in the team, doesn’t ？ she
1. I doubt if / whether he will pass the exam. 2. I don’t doubt that we will win the match. 3. Do you doubt that he did it on his own?
肯定句中用 if / whether
if / whether 1. I doubt _________he is telling the truth.
that 2. We never doubt _________ the plan will be carried out . that 3. Does he doubt _________ you are from Austria? if / whether 4. I’m doubtful _________ he will agree to this.
宾语从句中的连接词that在以下三种情况下不 能省略： ? （1）当that 从句与另一名词性从句并列作 宾语时，第二个that不能省； ? （2）当that作介词宾语时，that不可省掉。 ? （3）用it做形式宾语的宾语从句 ? Everyone knew what happened and that she was worried. ? The reason lies in that she works harder than the others do.
1. He asked ____ for a violin．（MET1992） A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid 2．It is generally considered unwise to give a child _____he or she wants. (NMET1997) A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 3. She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do ____ it takes to save her life. A .whichever B. however C .whatever D. whoever
4. The true value of life is not in ______, but _______. A. which we get; what give we B. what we get; what we give C. which do we get; what do we give D. how we get; that we give 5. Have you seen Mary lately? My boss wants to know _______. A. how she is getting along B. how is she getting along C. what she is getting along D. what is she getting along
6. I don't doubt ________ he'll come. A. that B. if C. what D. whether
7. Does anybody know __ we will have a sports meeting this weekend or not. A. if B. where C. whether D. that
表语从句 一个句子在复合句中充当表语就叫表语从句. 连接词:that/whether/as if/as though/because 连接代词：who/whom/what/which/whose 连接副词：when/where/how/why The problem is that I am short of money. The question is how we can get there . It looks as if it is going to rain.
特别提醒 1. 主句的主语是advice,suggestion,order， request等名词时，表语从句的谓语要虚拟。 His suggestion is that we (should) go now. 2.主句的主语是reason时，表语从句常用that； 若表原因用because，表结果用why. The reason for his absence was that he was ill. He forgot it. That was why he didn't call me. He didn't call me. That was because he forgot
1. What the doctors really doubt is _____ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon．（上海01年春季招生） A. when B. how C. whether D. why 2. I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. Is that ______ you had a few days off ? ( NMET1999) A. why B. what C. when D. where 3. ____ she couldn’t understand was _____ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; why C. What; because D. Why; that
4. Go and get your coat．It's ____ you left it． A. where B. there C. here where D. where there
5. The city is no longer ________. A. what it is B. that it used to be C. which it was D. what it used to be 6.The problem is_______ he has enough time. A. if B. whether C./ D. that
what引导名词性从句时在从句中充当句子 成分,如主语,宾语,表语等. that在句子中只起连接作用,没有意义. (1) What you said yesterday is right. (2) That the earth goes around the sun is well-known to everybody.
找出下列句子中的错误，并总结出规律： 1. Can you tell me how many students are there in your class? Can you tell me how many students there are in your class? 2. I don't know where has he gone. I don't know where he has gone. 3. The owner of the shop came to see what the matter was. The owner of the shop came to see what was the matter. 规律一：名词从句中须使用陈述语序！
找出下列句子中的错误，并总结出规律： 4. We suggested that we would go to the cinema. We suggested that we (should) go to the cinema.
6. His proposal that we went there on foot is acceptable.
His proposal that we (should) go there on foot…...
7. If we will have a meeting hasn't been decided yet. Whether we will have a meeting hasn’t been decided yet.
8. It depends on if the weather is suitable for us to do it. It depends on whether the weather is …... 9. The question is if he himself will be present at the meeting. The question is whether he himself will be present …... 10. He asked me if I could go with him or not. He asked me whether I could go with him or not. 规律三：4种情况只能用whether ： （1）位于句子开头； （2）前面有介词； （3）引导表语从句； （4）与or not连用。
1. I think that worthwhile that we spent so much money it on these books. 2. That is hard to decide when and where we will held our it sports meeting. 3. Everybody considers it impossible which he wants to finish the job in such a short time. that 4. It doesn’t matter that you will come or not. whether
规律四：主语从句和宾语从句在适当的情况 下可以借助 “it” 而后置。 问题：想想看是什么“适当的情况”？