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2016高考英语新题型名词的考点和练习


名词是英语的主要词汇之一,也是历年高考的重要考点。综合近几年高考对名词的考查,语 法填空题中,每年都出现 1—2 道题。此外,在阅读理解和完形填空中,名词的一词多义、 熟词新意也经常涉及,短文改错中主要考查名词复数,名词所有格和主谓一致。因此,在备 考中一定要结合具体的语境去感悟、 理解名词的辨析、 名词的一词多义以及名词的习惯用法。

一、名词的分类

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抽象名词(Abstract Nouns) 物质名词(Material Nouns) 普通名词(Common Nouns) 集体名词(Collective Nouns) 个体名词(Individual Nouns)

不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns)

可数名词(Countable Nouns)

个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词(Countable Nouns) ,物 质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns) 。 二、名词的数:可数与不可数 学习名词,首先要分清名词的可数与不可数。可数名词是指能以数 目来计算,可以分成个体的人或东西,因此它有复数形式。不可数名词是指不能 以数目来计算,不可以分成个体的概念、状态、品质、感情或表示物质材料的东 西;它一般没有复数形式,它的前面不能用不定冠词 a/an 修饰,若要表示它的 个体意义时,必须与一个名词短语连用,相当于中文里的(数词+量词+名词), 其 中 的 量 词 意 义 视 具 体 的 名 词 搭 配 而 定 。 如 : a piece of bread/paper/furniture/news/advice/information。 一般来说,名词是可数还是不可数,其分类方法与汉语相似,但又不完全相同, 因此不能完全凭汉语的感觉去分类,如:同样为“建议” ,advice 是不可数名词, 而 suggestion 却是可数名词。因此,在学习名词时,要注意积累那些和我们汉 语感觉不同的词。

集体名词有时作单数看,有时作复数看。一般来说,视为整体时 作单数看,突出它的成员时作复数看。 Eg: His family _____ not large. His family ______ all music lovers. 可数名词有单、复数之分。 可数名词的复数形式有以下几种: (1)规则变化: 情况 一般情况 加法 加-s 例词 brothers; schools buses; watches; dishes ladies; countries Boys; ways ;toys; plays 以 o 结尾的词 有生命的词,加-es Potatoes; tomatoes; heroes 无生命的词,加-s 以 f 或 fe 结尾的词 把 f/fe 改成 ves Photos; pianos; zoos halves; leaves; thieves 1. stomach -- stomachs 2:以 f/ef 尾只加-s 的词: proofs; gulfs; cliffs; roofs; serfs; beliefs; chiefs handkerchief(手帕,手绢)的复数形式两者都可以。

以 s, x, ch, sh,结尾的 加-es 词 以辅音+y 结尾的词 去 y 加-ies 以元音+y 结尾的词 加-s

(2)不规则变化: 变内部元音:foot-feet, tooth-teeth, goose-geese ,mouse-mice, man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen 词尾加-en 或 ren:ox-oxen, child-children 有些外来词的不规则复数形式:Eg: analysis-analyses; basis-bases; thesis-theses; crisis-crises medium-media

criterion-criteria;

phenomenon-phenomena;

单复数相同的情况:sheep; deer; means; fish; works; species;以及 由汉语音译表示度量衡、货币等单位的名词。 Eg: yuan, jiao, fen, jin 只有复数形式的情况: trousers(裤子); glasses(眼镜); compasses(圆 规) thanks; clothes; goods; people; cattle “某国人”的复数形式: ?单、复数相同 ?词尾加-s Italians,…… ?变 man 为 men Englishman---Englishmen, Chinese, Japanese, Swiss,…

Africans, Asians, Canadians, Australians,

Frenchman---Frenchmen 但:German---Germans 复合名词的复数形式: 1. 一 般 将 主 体 名词 变 为 复 数 。 father-in-law → fathers-in-law, passer-by→passers-by, looker-on→lookers-on, editor-in-chief → editors-in-chief

2.无主体名词的在词尾加复数。如:grown-ups, good-for-nothings (无用的人) ,go-betweens (中间人) ,look-outs(守望者) 3.由 man, woman,构成的复合名词应将前后两个词都变成复数。 men-doctors, women-drivers, women-singers 注:boyfriends, girlfriends, boy students, girl students
三、名词的转化

1. 一般说来抽象名词为不可数名词,但当抽象名词表示具体的东西时,可用作 可数名词且词义发生变化,主要类型如下: (1) 抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。如:

抽象名词(不可数)

具体化(个体名词,可数名词)

in surprise 惊讶地

a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事

win success 获得成功

a success 一个(件)成功的人(事)

win honor 赢得荣誉

an honor 一 个 ( 件 ) 引 以 为 荣 的 人 (事)

Failure is the mother of success. a failure 一个(件)失败的人(事) 失败是成功之母. have pity on sb. 怜悯某人 with pleasure 乐意 a pity 可惜的事情 a pleasure 乐事

beauty(美,美貌)

a beauty(一个美人/物)

comfort(舒适,安慰)

令人安慰的人或事

danger(危险)

危险的人或事

(2) 抽象名词与 a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、 行为或类别。请对比: After several years' self study he acquired a great deal of knowledge. A knowledge of English is a must in international trade. Have you had any experience of teaching English? I had a rather different experience the other day. Walk is a good form of exercise. Would you like to have a walk (swim, bath, talk) with me? It is a waste of time reading such a novel. There is too much waste in this factory.

英语中有许多对词,一个可数,一个不可数。 a poem(一首诗) a machine(一台机器) a job(一件工作) a laugh(一个笑声) a permit(许可证) a garment (一件衣裳) a bag(case) (一件行李) a loaf (一只面包) a hair(一根头发) poetry(诗歌总称) machinery(机器总称) work(工作) laughter(笑声) permission(允许) clothing(衣裳总称) luggage, baggage(行李) bread(面包) hair(头发)

【易错警示】 有些抽象名词不能具体化使用,即使有形容词修饰,也不能和不 定冠词连用。 这类名词有: fun, advice, information, health, progress, wealth, news, weather,homework,等。

2. 物质名词是不可数名词, 但表示数量或种类之多时, 可以用作可数名词。 如: (1) 物质名词有形或数的相应物体,有单、复数。

some coffee 一些咖啡

a coffee 一杯咖啡

some drink 一些饮料

a drink 一杯饮料

his hair 他的头发

a few white hairs 几根白发

glass 玻璃

a glass 一只玻璃杯

(2) 物质名词有形容词修饰时,前面要使用不定冠词。 have breakfast have a wonderful breakfast The road is covered with snow. They have a heavy snow every year. Time and tide wait for no man. We had a wonderful time last night.

3. 有复数形式的不可数名词 (1) 有些抽象名词有时以复数形式出现,表示具体化,意义发生变化或构成固定 短语。如: use one's brains 动脑筋 遇到各种困难

meet with difficulties make preparations in high spirits good manners Many thanks.

做准备 情绪高涨 有礼貌 非常感谢。 不劳无获。

No pains,no gains.

congratulations possessions surroundings

祝贺 所有物,财产 环境

(2)

有些物质名词以复数形式出现,表示数量之多,范围之广。如:

burst into tears 大哭起来 miles of golden sands 绵延几英里的金黄色沙滩 burn to ashes 烧成灰烬

四、名词的格 1. 's 所有格的特殊表达形式 (1) 用于表示时间、 距离、 价格、 重量等的名词后。 如: today's newspaper, five minutes' walk(drive),five pounds' weight, ten dollars' worth of apples。

(2) 用于表示国家、世界、城市等地方的名词后。如:the earth's plant, the world's population, China's industry, New York's parks。 (3) 表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格后省去 shop,house 等名词。如: the tailor's 裁缝店,the barber's 理发店,go to the doctor's 上诊所。 2. of 所有格 (1) 基本形式:a friend of Tom's some/two students of mine (2) 表示赞扬、批评或厌恶等感情色彩时,of 所修饰的名词前通常有指示代词 that/this/these/those, 但不能用 the。如: That invention of hers belongs to the world. 她的那项发明是属于全 世界的。(表赞赏) 五、名词作定语 名词作定语是现代英语较为简洁的修饰语表达方式,根据习惯搭配可归为以 下几类: 表示中心词的用途、功能、材料。 stone wall, shoe shop, coffee cup

表示中心词的时间、地点、称呼。 summer school, evening dress, street light 表示中心词的类别、对象、身份。 bike key, animal trainer, woman driver 注意: 1. 名词作定语时,一般用其单数形式,且不随后面的名词的单复数产生变化。 如: two pencil? boxes, girl friends 但是,少数的名词作定语却用复数形式,如: sports shoes 运动鞋 clothes shops 服装店 a sales girl 女销售员 a greetings card 贺卡 a customs officer 海关人员 2. man 和 woman 作定语要注意其单复数形式的变化。 a man doctor—men doctors; a woman engineer—women engineers 3. 名词作定语和所有格作定语的区别。 the girl friend 女朋友—the girl's friend 那位女孩的朋友 the woman driver 女司机—the woman's driver 那位妇女的司机 4. 名词作定语和形容词作定语的区别。 名词作定语主要说明物质的材料、来源或对象;形容词作定语主要起修饰、 限定的作用。 gold watch 金表; golden sunshine 金色的阳光

heart trouble 心脏病;hearty welcome 热忱的欢迎 convenience food 快餐;convenient food 制作方便的食品 六、名词在具体语境中的辨析 由于现在的高考越来越注重在语境中考查词汇的使用能力,因此在语境中对 名词进行辨析使用已成为单项填空和完形填空对名词的热点考查项目。如:

1. [2010·天津卷] James took the magazines off the little table to make _______ for the television. A.room B.area C.field D.position make room for 腾地方。room 意为“空间”

【解析】 A

考查名词辨析。

等于 space,为不可数名词。

2. [2010·安徽卷] I haven't seen Sara since she was a little girl , and she has changed beyond A.hearing 【解析】 C B.strength . C.recognition D.measure

考查介词与名词搭配。句意为:Sara 是小孩子的时候我见过,

后来就没见过她, 她变得让人认不出来了。 beyond recognition 变得面目全非。

3. [2010·湖北卷] For two weeks,Mark accompanied Susan to and from work each day. He taught her how to rely on her other 40 , specifically 41 .

her hearing, to determine where she was and how to adapt to her new 40.A. feelings 41.A. position 【解析】 40.D B.organs C.skills D.senses D.role

B.environment

C.status

41.B

(Susan 失明之后,)丈夫教她如何依靠她的其他感觉

尤其是听觉来判断她身处何处和如何适应新的环境。

1. 【误】 There is fierce competition between the three shoes shops in the street. 【正】 There is fierce competition between the three shoe shops in the street. 【解析】 此处指商店的性质,用单数形式。

2. 【误】 Happy birthday, Peter, and many happy return of the day! 【正】 Happy birthday, Peter, and many happy returns of the day!

【解析】 这是一句固定的生日祝福语, “祝你生日快乐, 长命百岁” 。 returns 在此处便是约定俗成的用法。

3. 【误】 He works in a child hospital. 【正】 He works in a children's hospital. 【解析】 有些名词作定语表示名词的适用范围时,习惯上用名词复数的 's 所有格形式,如:a children's magazine (= a magazine for children);men's clothes (= clothes for men)。

4. 这位经理有良好的商业意识,因此公司经营良好。 【误】 The manager has got a good business idea, so the company is doing well. 【正】 The manager has got a good business sense, so the company is doing well. 【解析】 idea 指对某件具体事物的看法或想法,显然不符合语境。 sense 意识,??感。

短文改错中名词的考点
考点 1 单复数或所有格错误
[典例 1] The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier.(2015· 全国Ⅰ) 分析 由后面的定语从句 we breathe 可知,此处先行词的意思是“空气”,air 当“空气” 讲时为不可数名词。故 airs 改为 air。 [典例 2] One day,little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent.It was...his parents were missing...Tony saw his parents.(2015· 全国Ⅱ) 分析 从后文可以看出 Tony 的父母一起和他去的商店,后文两次出现 parents,所以应该将 parent 改为 parents。 [典例 3] When I finally arrived at my friend he lent me lots of clothes.(2011· 新课标全国) 分析 根据句意可知,当我最后到达“我朋友的家”(my friend’s),他借给我许多衣服。故 friend 应改为 friend’s。

考点 2 词性转换错误
[典例 1] This made for the grow in the porcelain industry.(2013· 新课标全国Ⅱ) 分析 定冠词 the 后面应跟名词形式,故 grow 应改为 growth。 [典例 2] He has ruined his healthy.(2013· 辽宁) 分析 在形容词性的物主代词后应用名词,所以应把 healthy 改为 health。

方法归纳 遇到名词首先注意区分名词是可数名词还是不可数名词;其次还可以根 据名词前的修饰语或谓语动词的单复数来判断。此外,还要注意名词的所有格。常 考考点如下:,?1?在 several,few,many,one of,a couple of,three,one and a half, a large number of,scores of,dozens of 等词语后,或虽没有这些词但语境提示我们, 本应接复数可数名词的,但文中却用了单数。 ,?2? 像 advice , fun , homework , information,news,progress,equipment,furniture,baggage,luggage,jewellery, clothing 等不可数名词是没有复数形式的,但在文中却用了复数。,?3?该用名词的所 有格,而没有用。

改错(每小题 1 处错误) 1.As I told you last time,I made three new friend here. (2015· 四川) ________________ 2.My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made of glass. (2015· 浙江) ________________ 3.Mum taught me some basic step of baking. (2015· 陕西) ________________ 4.We’ve called several time about Cleo’s early morning barking. (2014· 辽宁) ________________ 5.No one in the carriage had previously spoken to or even noticed the ticketowner before.Yet they had so quickly offered the strangers their help. (2014· 浙江) ________________ 6. For example, we can do reading for one and a half hour and play sports for one hour every day. (2014· 新课标全国Ⅱ) ________________ 7. Today we had a chemistry test....The teacher was angry because we had the same answers in the tests. (2013· 四川) ________________ 8.Within the next few minute,my grandfather also caught a fish. (2013· 陕西) ________________ 9.You told me the name of different plants and their characteristics. (2012· 重庆) ________________ 10.Mom,I know I have never expressed my thank to you before. (2012· 四川) ________________

1. —Don't be so naughty! Be your ________. —Got it. A.manners B.age C.behavior D.politeness 2. —How can I use this MP5? —Well, just refer to the __________. A.directions C.expressions B.explanations D.introductions

3. In Rome, it's a common _______ to have a shot of espresso after breakfast. A.practice B.taste C.sense D.customs 4.The top leaders of the two countries are holding talks in a friendly __________. A.atmosphere B.state C.situation D.phenomenon 5. —Hi,this way, please. —OK. I sometimes have no sense of _________ when I arrive at the crossroads. A.position B.direction C.situation D.condition 6. Shelly had prepared carefully for her English examination so that she could be sure of passing it on her first _______. A.intention B.attempt C.purpose D.desire 7. Mr. Brown thought it would be a good idea to have ________ from his workers to improve his plan. A.summaries C.comments B.enquiries D.connections

8. Don't try to persuade your boss,and he won't have the ________ of employing me—a fresh student. A.intention B.attention C.sense D.attraction 9. What's the ________ having a public open space where you can't eat, drink or even simply hang out for a while? A.sense B.matter C.case D.opinion 10.I bought a dress for only 10 dollars in a sale;it was a real ________.

A.exchange B.bargain C.trade D.business 11.If you ask why I plan to study in the United States,the only answer is that it is a (n) ______ for me. A.puzzle B.advantage C.challenge D.average 12.—Shall we go out for a walk? —Sorry. This is not the right ________ to invite me. I am too tired to walk. A.moment B.situation C.place D.chance

13.To make members of a team perform better, the trainer first of all has to know their ________ and weaknesses. A.strengths B.benefits C.techniques D.values

14.It is well known to us all that in China pigeons stand for peace. However, in India the wheel in its national flag is also a ________ of peace. A.example B.sign C.mark D.symbol 15.One thousand dollars a month is not a fortune but will help cover my living ________. A.bills B.expenses C.prices D.charges

1.(2011· 福建毕业班检测)Any help from you will be greatly appreciated.Please give me a reply at your earliest________. A.interruption C.consideration B.instruction D.convenience

2.(2011· 浙江金华十校联考)If you ask why I plan to study in the United States,the only answer is that it is a(n) ________for me. A.puzzle C.challenge B.advantage D.average

3.(2011· 浙江金华十校联考)The conference has been held to discuss the ________of global warming on people’s lives all over the world. A.importance C.protection B.effects D.attitudes

4.(2011· 潍坊教学质量抽样监测)I am really a bit worried because I have no idea what my parents’ ________will be to my poor examination result. A.expression C.appearance B.reaction D.expectation

5.(2011· 陕西教学质量检测)There is no________in going to school for the students merely to learn some facts. A.doubt C.point B.mind D.wonder

6.(2011· 郑州第二次检测)Here are some ________for you to follow when you take a test in chemistry. A.patterns C.topics B.tips D.efforts

7.(2011· 海南五校联考)Mr Li has some trouble sleeping,so drinking a glass of milk before going to bed every night is his common________. A.practice C.experience B.knowledge D.duty

8.(2011· 福建检测)—Paul has gone abroad to try his luck. —In my________,his decision is not wise. A.word C.sight B.view D.way

9.(2011· 安徽合肥第一次质检)My English teacher is really very kind.I’ll never forget the________he has done me. A.favor C.help B.deed D.value

10.(2011· 杭州检测二)According to a UN report,30 percent of the world’s population have no________to clean drinking water and health care. A.means C.channel B.approach D.access

11 . (2011·郑州一模 )It was reported that the problem had been settled without much________. A.affect C.effect B.affair D.effort

12 . (2011· 宝 鸡 检 测 一 )The speech that Mr Smith made today gave a strong________on the students. A.expression C.reputation B.impression D.expectation

13.(2011· 皖南八校第二次联考)Our government has decided to give________to those environmentally-friendly businesses in many aspects. A.profit C.preference B.interest D.advantage

14.(2011· 长春第一次调研)Finding a girl struggling in the water,he threw himself into the water without________. A.hesitation C.order B.suggestion D.asking

15.(2011· 西安检测)—How do you like the scenery (景色) here,Mr Black? —Wonderful indeed.Beyond all________,I suppose. A.explanation C.description B.introduction D.instruction


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