江苏省 2014 届高三英语（牛津版）一轮复习攻略训练：阅读理解（16）
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C 和 D）中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项涂 黑。 A The latest research suggests that the key factor separating geniuses from the merely accomplishe
d is not I.Q., a generally bad predictor of success. Instead, it’s purposeful practice. Top performers spend more hours practising their craft. If you wanted to picture how a typical genius might develop, you’d take a girl who possessed a slightly above average language ability. It wouldn’t have to be a big talent, just enough so that she might gain some sense of distinction. Then you would want her to meet, say, a novelist, who coincidentally shared some similar qualities. Maybe the writer was from the same town, had the same family background, or shared the same birthday. This contact would give the girl a vision of her future self. It would give her some idea of a fascinating circle who might someday join. It would also help if one of her parents died when she was 12, giving her a strong sense of insecurity and fuelling a desperate need for success. Armed with this ambition, she would read novels and life stories of writers without end. This would give her a primary knowledge of her field. She would be able to see new writing in deeper ways and quickly understand its inner workings. Then she would practise writing. Her practice would be slow, painstaking and error-focused. By practising in this way, she delays the automating process. Her mind wants to turn conscious, newly learned skills into unconscious, automatically performed skills. By practising slowly, by breaking skills down into tiny parts and repeating, she forces the brain to internalize a better pattern of performance. Then she would find an adviser who would provide a constant stream of
feedback, viewing her performance form the outside, correcting the smallest errors, pushing her to take on tougher challenges. By now she is redoing problems—how do I get characters into a room—dozens and dozens of times. She is establishing habits of thought she can call upon in order to understand or solve future problems. The primary quality our young writer possesses is not some mysterious genius. It’s the ability to develop a purposeful, laborious and boring practice routine; the latest research takes some of the magic out of great achievement. But it underlines a fact that is often neglected. Public discussion is affected by genetics and what we’re “hard-wired” to do. And it’s true that genes play a role in our capabilities. But the brain is also very plastic. We construct ourselves through behavior. 56. The passage mainly deals with . B. the relationship between genius and
A. the function of I.Q. in cultivating a writer success C. the decisive factor in making a genius
D. the way of gaining some sense of distinction .
57. By reading novels and writers’ stories, the girl could A. come to understand the inner structure of writing B. join a fascinating circle of writers someday C. share with a novelist her likes and dislikes D. learn from the living examples to establish a sense of security 58. In the girl’s long painstaking training process, ________. A. her adviser forms a primary challenging force to her success. B. her writing turns into an automatic pattern of performance C. she acquires the magic of some great achievement
D. she comes to realize she is “hard-wired” to write 59. What can be concluded from the passage? A. A fuelling ambition plays a leading role in one’s success B. A responsible adviser is more important than the knowledge of writing. C. As to the growth of a genius, I.Q. doesn’t matter, but just his/her effort. D. What really matters is what you do rather than who you are. B Have you ever picked a job based on the fact that you were good at it but later found it made you feel very uncomfortable over time? When you select your career, there's a whole lot more to it than assessing your skills and matching them with a particular position. If you ignore your personality, it will hurt you long-term regardless of your skills or the job's pay. There are several areas of your personality that you need to consider to help you find a good job. Here are a few of those main areas;
1) Do you prefer working alone or with other people?
There are isolating （使孤立） jobs that will drive an outgoing person crazy and also interactive jobs that will make a shy person uneasy. Most people are not extremes in either direction but do have a tendency that they prefer. There are also positions that are sometimes a combination of the two, which may be best for someone in the middle who adapts easily to either situation.
2) How do you handle change?
Most jobs these days have some elements of change to them, but some are more than others. If you need stability in your life, you may need a job where the changes don't happen so often. Other people would be bored of the same daily routine.
3) Do you enjoy working with computers？
I do see this as a kind of personality characteristic. There are people who are happy to spend more than 40 hours a week on a computer, while there are others who need a lot of human interaction throughout the day. Again, these are extremes and you'll likely find a lot of positions somewhere in the middle as well.
4) What type of work environment do you enjoy？
This can range from being in a large building with a lot of people you won't know immediately to a smaller setting where you'll get to know almost all the people there fairly quickly.
5) How do you like to get paid?
Some people are motivated by the pay they get, while others feel too stressed to be like that. The variety of payment designs in the sales industry is a typical example for this. Anyway, these are a great starting point for you. I've seen it over and over again with people that they make more money over time when they do something they love. It may take you a little longer, but making a move to do what you have a passion for can change the course of your life for the better. 60. What is the missing word about a job search in the following chart? A. Design. B. Changes. C. Cooperation. D. Hobbies.
61. What does the underlined sentence in paragraph one mean? A. Before you select your job, you should assess your skills and match them with your position B. There are more important things than assessing skills and match them with the position when
you select job. C. Nothing is important than assessing skills and match them with the position when you select job. D You should ignore your skills when you select job. 62. What is the best title for this passage? A. Lifestyles and Job Pay C. Job Skills and Abilities B. Jobs and Environment D. Personalities and Jobs C Disappointed with delays in Sacramento (the capital of California), Bay Area officials said Thursday they planned to take matters into their own hands to regulate the region’s growing piles of electronic waste. A San Jose council woman and a San Francisco supervisor said they would propose new local plans aimed at controlling electronic waste if the California law-making body fails to act on two bills delayed in the Assembly. They are among a growing number of California cities and countries that have expressed the same intention Environmentalists and local governments are increasingly concerned about the danger caused by old electronic devices and the cost of safely recycling those products. An estimated 6 million televisions and computers are stocked in California homes, and an additional 6,000 to 7,000 computers become outdated every day. The machines contain high levels of lead (铅) and other dangerous substances, and are already banned from California landfills. A bill by Senator (参议员) Byron Sher would require consumers to pay a recycling fee of up to $30 on every new machine containing a cathode ray tube. Used in almost all video monitors and televisions, those devices contain four to eight pounds of lead each. The fees would go toward
setting up recycling programs, providing grants to non-profit agencies that reuse the tubes and rewarding manufacturers that encourage recycling. A separate bill by Los Angeles-area Senator Gloria Romero would require high-tech manufacturers to develop programs to recycle so-called e-waste. If passed, the measures would put California at the forefront of national efforts to manage the refuse of the electronic age. But high-tech groups, including the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group and the American Electronics Association, oppose the measures, arguing that fees of up to $30 will drive consumers to online, out-of-state shops. “What really needs to occur is consumer education. Most consumers are unaware they’re not supposed to throw computers in the dust bin,” said Roxanne Gould, vice president of government relations for the electronics association. Computer recycling should be a local effort and part of residential waste collection programs, she added. Recycling electronic waste is a dangerous and specialized matter, and environmentalists maintain the state must support recycling efforts and ensure that the job isn’t contracted to junk dealers who send the poisonous parts overseas. “The graveyard of the high-tech revolution is ending up in rural China,” said Ted Smith, director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. His group is pushing for some refinement to Sher’s bill that would prevent the export of e-waste. 63. How would Bay Area officials deal with the problem of e-waste? ____________. A. To get enough support to pass the delayed bills. B. To persuade the lawmakers of the California Assembly. C. To make relevant local regulations by themselves. D. To put pressure on manufacturers of electronic devices.
64. What do the two bills delayed in the California Assembly both concern? ____________. A. The reprocessing of the huge amounts of electronic waste in the state. B. The regulations on dumping dangerous substances into landfills. C. The funding of local initiatives to reuse waste electronic devices. D. The sales of the second-hand electronic devices to foreign countries. 65. High-tech groups believe that if an extra fee is charged on every TV or computer purchased in California, consumers will ______________. A. hesitate to upgrade their computers C. strongly protest against such a charge B. abandon online shopping D. buy them from other states
66. We learn from the passage that much of California’s electronic waste has been ____________. A. dumped into local landfills C. collected by non-profit agencies D A new argument has been put forward as to whether penguins are disturbed by the presence of tourists in Antarctica. Previous research by scientists from Keil University in Germany monitored Adelie penguins and noted that the birds’ heart rates increased dramatically at the sight of a human as far as 30 meters away. But new research using an artificial egg, which is equipped to measure heart rates, disputes this. Scientists from the Scott Polar Research Institute at Cambridge say that a slow moving human who does not approach the nest too closely, is not viewed as a threat by penguins. The earlier findings have been used to partly explain the 20 per cent drop in populations of certain types of penguins near tourist sites. However, tour operators have continued to insist B. exported to foreign countries D. recycled by computer manufacturers
that their activities do not adversely affect wildlife in Antarctica, saying they encourage non-disruptive behavior in tourists, and that the decline in penguin numbers is caused by other factors. Amanda Nimon of the Scott Polar Research Institute spent three southern hemisphere summers at Cuverville Island in Antarctica studying penguin behavior towards humans. “A nesting penguin will react very differently to a person rapidly and closely approaching the nest,” says Nimon. “First they exhibit large and prolonged(延长) heart rate changes and then they often flee the nest leaving it open for predators (掠夺者) to fly in and remove eggs or chicks.” The artificial egg, specially for the project, monitored both the parent who had been ‘disturbed’ when the egg was placed in the nest and the other parent as they both took it in turns to guard the nest. However, Boris Culik, who monitored the Adelie penguins, believes that Nimon’s findings do not invalidate his own research. He points out that species behave differently – and Nimon’s work was with Gentoo penguins. Nimon and her colleagues believe that Culik’s research was
methodologically flawed （使无效） because the monitoring of penguins’ responses needed capturing and restraining（控制） the birds and fitting them with heart-rate transmitters. Therefore, argues Nimon, it would not be surprising if they became stressed on seeing a human subsequently. 67. According to the passage, what overall message is presented? A. No firm conclusions are drawn. B. Neither Culik’s nor Nimon’s findings are of much value. C. Penguin reduction is closed related to tourist behavior. D. Tourists are not responsible for the fall in penguin numbers. 68. Which ONE argument of the following is stated in the passage? A. Penguins are harder to research when they have young.
B. Tour operators should encourage tourists to avoid Antarctica. C. Not all penguins behave in the same way. D. Penguins need better protection from tourists. 69. What do you notice about the views presented in the passage? A. They are groundless. C. They are descriptive. B. They are factual. D. They are conflicting.
70. What does the underlined word (final line) probably mean? A. later on 55-59.C AB D 60-62 CBD B. calmly 63-66 CADB C. separately 67-70 ACDA D. in the same place