定语从句 一、定义及相关术语 1、定语从句：修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般跟在它所修饰的先行 词之后。 2、先行词：被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3、关系词：引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等；关系副词有 when, where, why 等。 关系词通常有下列
三个作用：A、引导定语从句； B、代替先行词； C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。 二、关系代词引导的定语从句 1、who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 2、whom 指人，在定语从句中做宾语，常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 【注意】关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替，也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3、which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 4、that 指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或 宾语， 作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 注：that 与 which 用法区别 (1) 只用 which, 不用 that 的情况 (a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时 , 只能用 which 。 ( 错 )The tree, that is four hundred years old, Is very famous here. (b) 介词后用 which, 不能用 that 。 We depend on the land from which we get our food. We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. (2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 (a) 在 there be 句型中，只用 that ，不用 which 。
(b) 在不定代词，如：anything, nothing, the one, all, little, few, much 等作先行词时， 只用 that ，不用 which 。 (c) 先行词有 the only, the very, the same, the last, just 修饰时，只用 that 。 (d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时，只用 that, 不能用 which 。 . (e) 先行词既有人，又有物时。 (f) 先行词指物，在主句中作表语时． 举例： Is this the book that you borrowed in the library? 这是你在图书馆借的那本书吗？ Who that break the window should be punished ． 谁打碎了窗户都要受到惩罚． All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。 5、Whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 【注意】指物时，常用下列结构来代替：the+n.+of+ which The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. = The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? = Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow? 6. 五、关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其用法有相同之处，也有不同之处。具体情况是： 1、as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。 He married her, as / which was natural. He is honest, as / which we can see. 2、 as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、 主句之后， 甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正如、正像”的含义。
As is known to all, China is a developing country. He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 【注意】 ① 当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。 Tom was late for school again and again, which made his teacher very angry. These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. ② 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 He is not such a fool as he looks. This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 二、关系副词引导的定语从句 1、when 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school The time when we got together finally arrived. 2、where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 注： 当先行词是 case， point, stage, situation 等表示状况， 阶段， 某方面的词时也要用 where 3、why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 【注意】关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 关系副词 = 介词 + 关系代词 why=for which where=in/ at/ on/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) when=during/ on/ in/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 三、 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. = The school in which he once studied is very famous. Tomorrow I\'ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. = Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked. This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. = This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 【注意】 1、含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开，介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如：look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. ( 正)
→This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) →The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. （误） 2、若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只可用 whom，不可用 who 和 that；关系代词 指物时只可用 which，不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. ( 正) →The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正) →The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误) 3、 “介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代 词或者数词。 He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 四、关系代词与关系副词的选择 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用 （即所担当的 成分） 。试比较： I know a place where we can have a picnic. →I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. →I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 课堂训练 一、单项选择 1 、 Stephen Hawking believes that earth is unlikely to be the only planet life has developed gradually. A. that B. where C. which D. whose 2、I've become good friends with several of the students in my school I met in the English speech contest last year. A. who B. where C. when D. which 3、The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister ______ she would stay for an hour. A where B who C which D what 4、That’s the new machine ______ parts are too small to be seen. A. that B. which C. whose D. What 5、Wind power is an ancient source of energy we may return in the near future. A. on which B. by which C. to which D. from which 6、——Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut? ——You should try the barber’s I go. It’s only 15. A. as B. which C. where D. that 7、After graduating from college，I took some time off to go travelling， turned out to be a wise decision． A．that B．which C．when D．where 8、 As a child , Jack studied in a village school ,_____ is named after his grandfather.
A. which B. where C. what D. that 9、 The newly built café , the walls of_______ are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, specially after hard work. A. that B. it C. what D. which 10、The old temple _______ roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. Whose 11、I refuse to accept the blame for something ________was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what 13、Children who are not active or diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. A. what B. whose C. which D. that 14、In china, the number of cities is increasing ________development is recognized across the world. A. where B. which C. whose D. that 15、The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of left their village homes for a better life in the city. A．whom B．which C．them D．those 16、Whenever I met her, _________ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who B. which C. when D. that 17、She brought with her three friends, none of I had ever met before. A. them B. who C. whom D. these 18、Because of the financial crisis, days are gone local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. A. if B. when C. which D. since 19、Gun control is a subject Americans have argued for a long time. A. of which B. with which C. about which D. into which 20、The house I grew up ________ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. A. in it B. in C. in that D. in which