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Bladed Hardware Test Module
Dong Fang Steam Turbine Corporation 3-5 Dece

mber, 2008

Garrad Hassan
Technical consultancy services and products for renewable energy projects.

Wind Energy Marine Energy Solar Energy

Why choose Garrad Hassan?
? We’re a recognised worldwide consultancy with 24 years of proven experience ? We’re an independent company at the forefront of developments ? We offer industry standard software solutions

About us
? Founded in 1984 in UK ? Now have offices worldwide ? Local understanding informs global perspective

We’re Independent

? We never take an equity stake in any project or technology! ? so our clients always receive an objective service

About Me
? Thomas Cook ? Bristol-based ? Experience throughout the project lifecycle
– – – – – – – – Systems Engineering & Integration Development Integration & Verification In-Service Support Australian Submarine Corporation BAE Systems / British Aerospace SMS Management & Technology Garrad Hassan & Partners

? Experience with market leaders

? Controller development, implementation & test, client support

Plan
? Today
– – – – – – Introduction to Bladed Hardware Test Module Preparing a turbine model for Hardware Test Basic models & tests Integrating test devices & system under test Extending the Bladed simulation Hardware-in-the-loop testing

? Tomorrow
– – – – – Introducing external controllers Controller design considerations Hardware Test Module plugin authoring - example Other required plugins Tutorial exercises

Some Important Things
? This course is about Bladed Hardware Test Module, not turbine controller development ? The examples used are to help you understand Bladed Hardware Test Module – they are not suitable for use in a real turbine! ? Where something has been simplified, you will see this icon and I will describe how to extend it to a real turbine. ? We have included some things extra to your requirements – we hope you benefit from our expertise and experience.

GH Bladed Hardware Test Module
? Enables GH Bladed turbine simulation for Hardware-inthe-loop testing ? Validation and demonstration of part or all of a Turbine Control System in its deployment state in the Office, Factory and On-site ? Can be employed through-out the project life-cycle including:
? ? ? ? ? ? Test-driven development Sharing testing beyond the software team Acceptance testing Integration testing during factory assembly Commissioning support Verifying component and software changes against known

base-lines ? Demonstration

Example Hardware Arrangement
HMI GH Bladed Hardware Test
Standard MS Windows PC

SCADA
Emulated comms via Ethernet OPC or PLC proprietary data exchange

Controller test interface & Real time Bladed
0 4 8 1 5 9 2 6 10 3 ACINPU T7 11 230 VAC QUALITY Allen-Brad ley 0 4 8 12 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 DCINPU TS 11 15 3 7 24 VDC SINK / SOURC E 0 4 8 12 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 DCOUTP UT 15 3 7 11 24 VDC SOURC E 0 1 2 AC/DCOUT 3 4 5 6 7

RELAY

MicroLogix
1500

DC INPU TS 0 4 8 12 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 24 V SIN K / SOU RCE DC / RELAY OU T

POWER RUN FAULT FORCE BAT.LO CONN 0 DCOMM 048 159 2 6 10 3 7 11 24 V SOU RCE

LSP 28BXB
DCPOWER 24V

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Optional modular physical I/O unit supplied by GH or PC DAQ Cards

Turbine Controller
Physical comms: analogue, digital & pulse train PLC/PC. Ethernet/Fieldbus ports local or remote I/O as required

Example Configuration

Hardware Test Module Architecture

Db

Invoking the Real-Time Simulation
Wind Turbine faults Batch BLADED GUI

Normal use

.plan & .prj

GHTestEnv.bat

.prj

.plan

Real time sync

Rapid cycle test use

Real time sync

Device logs

Simulation results & Post processing

Fixed step solution

Variable step, variable order solution

Equations of motion

Demonstration
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Install the latest version Run a test procedure View a procedure View a device View mappings View scripts Install an optional plug-in

Devices & Variables
? Need to have one device for medium of each thing Hardware Test Module communicates with:
– – – – – – – – – Bladed simulation Controller Ethernet connection Controller Hardware IO Others Unused Script OnDemand ReadContinuously WriteContinuously

? Variables are in one of five usage modes:

Normal and Real-Time Simulations
Normal
? Variable step size and variable order; based on Runge Kutta explicit methods ? Step size and order are determined automatically in order to meet a predicted accuracy requirement ? Numerically efficient ? Rarely needs user intervention

Real Time
? Fixed step size 4th order Runge Kutta explicit method

? User specifies step size ? No guaranteed accuracy; may easily become unstable!

Normal and Real-Time Simulations cont’d
Normal
? Simulation time advances at a variable pace ?

Real Time
? Simulation time advances at a fixed rate (Windows permitting) ? Multi core CPU required ? Multimedia timers used for non blocking wait to keep to real time ? No guard against running slower than real time ? Repeatable simulation rate

? Simulation rate depends on turbine dynamics and nonlinearities

Real Time Simulation
? Two parts to preparing a simulation to run in real time:
– Achieving a reasonable/desirable simulated step size – Making the real time step size match the simulated step size

? We will generally iterate back and forth between these two components

Real Time Simulation
? Four way trade off:
– – – – Model scope Solution accuracy Run in real time Available hardware

? Start with desired model scope ? Keep reducing model scope until it’s possible to find a step size which gives sufficient accuracy and is capable of running in real time ? Establish baseline step size from ‘normal’ Bladed Software Performance output

Real Time Simulation cont’d
Improve simulation fidelity Decrease step size Add high-frequency modes

Improve numerical accuracy Decrease step size Remove high-frequency modes

Improve execution speed Increate step size Remove high-frequency modes Buy better hardware

Real Time Simulation cont’d
? Some realistic limits:
– Windows timing constraints – about 5ms minimum step size – Watch out for some funny chipsets – In practise, it is good to have a sample rate four times the highest frequency component – So Window’s 5ms limit leads to a maximum 50Hz mode in the turbine model, lower if the available hardware cannot sustain the simulation at this rate.

Bladed Dynamics
? Modal blade bending ? Modal tower bending, including multi-member modal dynamics and foundation flexibility ? Drive train torsion ? Yaw degree of freedom ? Power converter time constant ? Pitch actuator dynamics & blade pitch degree of freedom ? Measurement dynamics ? Aerodynamic stall and wake ? (Generator and network electrical dynamics)

Bladed discontinuities
? State related
– – – – – – Yaw bearing stick/slip friction Shaft brake stick/slip friction Pitch bearing stick/slip friction Gearbox mechanical losses stick/slip friction Teeter end stops Pitch failure modes

? Time related
– Built-in shutdowns – Built-in safety system & faults

? Investigate and remove all unnecessary discontinuities

Other Bladed Timing Considerations
? Synchronisation
– Delaying Bladed startup time with the StartBladed channel – Delaying the test procedure to allow for Bladed startup with the Bladed_CurrentTime variable.

? Running batch calculations from within Bladed ? Plotting and post-processing with Bladed ? The DTC turbine model
– Already runs in real-time on a reasonable spec PC

Introducing the Script Controller
? A very basic turbine controller implemented as a Bladed Hardware Test Module script. ? This controller is not suitable for a real turbine! It is not tuned to any of the turbine dynamics, it just regulates pitch and torque demand to achieve the generator speed set-point. ? Using this controller on a real turbine will quickly damage or destroy it. ? GH has delivered a full control algorithm design which should be used on the real DTC turbine

Introducing the Script Controller
? Collective pitch control ? Pitch-speed control is through a variable-gain PI controller ? Torque-speed control is through an interpolated look-up table ? This algorithm is not intended to show how a real controller works – it is intended to give us something to use with Hardware Test Module. ? The real controller algorithm contains numerous filters to damp various oscillations and improve power quality. ? The script controller is meant to be very easy to work with and develop.

Device Connections
? Recall that each device has a set of variables associated with it. ? Variables ‘belong’ to a device, but are available in all script and mapping contexts and in the test procedure. ? To make a controller work, we need to connect variables on the controller with variables on the simulation. ? Hardware Test Module provides flexibility in how controllers are connected to the simulation and other pieces of hardware. ? Note that variables marked ‘Unused’ are not available in any context!

Device Connections

Device Connections Cont’d
? Mappings
– Provide a user interface for entering connections – The user interface isn’t very nice to use – Mappings can only exist on the device of the target channels – If you delete a device, you lose all the mappings

Device Connections Cont’d
? Scripts
– Provide a programming interface for building connections – Can be attached to any device in the test plan – We usually pick a device that is not going to be deleted – the Bladed Simulation device.

Demonstration

Extending the Bladed Simulation
? ? ? ? Some things are not simulated in the Bladed simulation Not all controllers are the same! We can introduce new elements to the simulation with Hardware Test Module scripts. Example: A simple safety chain
– Introduce two new inputs on the controller: Controller_SafetyChainTripped, Controller_SafetyChainReset – Introduce a new internal variable for the controller: Controller_ActiveFinePitch. – When Controller_SafetySystemTripped is set to true, force the pitch demand to feather pitch (90 degrees) – When Controller_SafetySystemReset is set to true, allow the pitch demand to range freely. – Modify the test procedure to trip the safety system and then reset it.

?

This is not a real safety chain!

Extending the Bladed Simulation Cont’d
? Triggering the safety system from overspeed detection ? Add a new channel, Script_SpeedError ? Add a script to check when Bladed_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed exceeds some setpoint ? Trigger Controller_SafetyChainTripped

Extending the Bladed Simulation Cont’d

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
? This concept of re-routing channels can be used to connect arbitrary parts of the turbine ? Re-route channels to use the real hardware instead of the simulation ? Eg. to use a real pitch actuator:
– Connect the controller pitch demand (Controller_DemandedPitchAngle) to the pitch actuator interface – Connect the controller measured angle (Controller_MeasuredPitchAngle) to the pitch actuator interface – These may be either directly or through Hardware Test Module – Remove the pitch actuator model from Bladed – Route Controller_MeasuredPitchAngle to Bladed_BladeXDemandedIndividualPitchPositionOrRate

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Cont’d

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing Cont’d
? To do this through Hardware Test Module, we need an interface to the pitch actuator ? Pitch actuators commonly use CANOpen, Modbus, Profibus, Profinet etc, but some odd ones turn up ? GH can provide custom plug-ins for clients ? Clients can write custom plug-ins using the plug-in interface – covered tomorrow

Questions & Answers

Day 2
? ? ? ? ? Introducing external controllers Controller design considerations Hardware Test Module plugin authoring - example Other required plugins Tutorial exercises

Introducing External Controllers
? So far we have used a controller implemented as a script in Bladed Hardware Test Module. ? Today we will move to an external controller, which we will connect to Bladed Hardware Test Module.

The Sample Controller
? Written in C# as a standalone Windows process ? Control algorithm is identical to the script controller
– Not for real-world use!

? Contains a simple UDP communications protocol ? Source code
– Available – We’ll take a look now – Two classes: Program and Controller

Program.cs
class Program { public static AutoResetEvent protocolReady; static void Main(string[] args) { protocolReady = new AutoResetEvent(false);

Controller controller = new Controller(); controller.InitProtocol(); protocolReady.WaitOne(); Console.WriteLine(); for (; ; ) { for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) { controller.doControllerStep(); Thread.Sleep(20); } controller.WriteLog(); } } }

Create controller & init comms Wait for the comms protocol to be ready Step the controller every 20 ms (approx) Every 100 cycles, write a line of logging to the console

The Controller Class
? Split into three parts:
– Controller.cs – has the control algorithm & log writing – Protocol.cs – implements network communications – Variables.cs – contains variable declarations & accessor functions

? The reason for doing this will become clear

Controller.cs
partial class Controller { public void doControllerStep() { // Control algorithm - exactly as for the script controller } public void WriteLog() { Console.Write("Pitch Demand {0:00.000} " + "Actual {1:00.000} Torque Demand {2:00.000} " + "Speed Actual {3:00.000}\r", Controller_DemandedPitchAngle, Controller_MeasuredPitchAngle, Controller_DemandedGeneratorTorque, Controller_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed); } }

Protocol.cs
? The protocol is a connectionless UDP communication in human-readable text. ? There is no protocol state beyond a single requestresponse pair of packets – any client can send any request without preamble ? A single server thread handles all client requests ? All names and values are strings separated by spaces and newlines. ? Clients send requests and servers send responses. ? Each request contains a one-line header:
Sequence 1543

? The number is arbitrary, but the server will include it in the response:
Response 1543

Protocol.cs
? Clients can read channels:
Read Controller_DemandedPitchAngle

? To which the server responds:
Value Controller_DemandedPitchAngle 1.143892

? Clients can also write channels:
Write Controller_MeasuredPitchAngle 1.133285

? The server does not respond to writes. ? Both types of packet can optionally be ended with an empty line or:
End

? Packets containing errors do not receive a response, but the server logs it on the console ? Incorrect lines in a packet are ignored – the rest of the packet is still processed

Protocol.cs
? It is important that the client and the server agree on the types of each channel – no checking is done. ? Example request packet:
Sequence 733 Read Controller_DemandedPitchAngle Read Controller_DemandedGeneratorTorque Read Controller_Initialised Write Controller_MeasuredPitchAngle 1.223872 Write Controller_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed 992.2 End

? Example response packet:
Response 733 Value Controller_DemandedPitchAngle 1.323374 Value Controller_DemandedGeneratorTorque 8381.7 Value Controller_Initialised true End

Protocol.cs
? This protocol is very simple and not suitable for a real controller
– It can only exchange up to about 30 channels – UDP packet length restrictions – It is quite inefficient to process – using up controller CPU – It does not make efficient use of the network bandwidth

?

A real protocol will probably have these features:
– Non-human-readable – Values encoded in binary formats, not as strings – Channels looked up by name initially, then referred to by an integer index – Headers encoded in binary, not as human-readable strings – Better error reporting back to the client – Possibly regular packets sent from the server without client requests

?

Look at the source in Visual Studio

Protocol Demonstration
? The simple client shows what packets it sends and receives

Variables.cs
partial class Controller { Double Controller_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed = 0; Double Controller_MeasuredPitchAngle = 1.5707963267949; Double Controller_DemandedPitchAngle = 1.5707963267949; Double Controller_DemandedGeneratorTorque = 0; Double Controller_PreviousError = 0; Double Controller_PreviousPitchAngleDemand = 1.5707963267949; Boolean Controller_Initialised = false; Double Controller_Debug_gainSchedule = 0; Double Controller_Debug_raw_dy = 0; Double Controller_Debug_i = 0; public string getVariable(string name) { ... } public void setVariable(string name, string value) { .... } }

Developing an Example Plug-in
? Plug-ins allow us to add arbitrary protocols to devices ? The device and the channels are managed by Hardware Test Module – the plug-in only needs to handle protocol communications

Developing an Example Plug-in

Db

Steps to create a Plug-in
? ? Create a .Net DLL project referencing the GH.Controllers assembly Extend the GH.Controllers.Protocol class
? ? ? ? Add properties for configuring the protocol Implement Initialise and Reset methods Implement OnStart and OnStop methods Implement the OnUpdate, Read and Write methods Add properties required by the protocol Implement Get\Set methods (and Clone)

?

Extend the GH.Controllers.ProtocolVariable class
? ?

?

Copy the compiled dll and dependencies to the Hardware Test ./PlugIns folder

Plug-in Lifecycle

Plug-in Interface
Protocol

?

Administers the real protocol Defines configuration e.g. IP Address

?

Protocol Variable

?

Provides interface between test data types and the protocol Defines routing information for a channel

?

Plug-in Basics
? Start with one of the skeleton projects and rename as needed ? Tasks
– Validate Channel Configuration in Initialise – Open a connection with the external component in OnStart() – Read and write channels in OnUpdate() – Read and write channels in Read() and Write() – Close the connection with the external component in OnStop()

? Error Handling
– Throw exceptions on validation or run-time errors

Plug-in Properties
? ? ?
Attribute [DisplayName("My name")] [ReadOnly] [Browsable(false)] [TypeConverter(...)]

Properties in the Protocol class appear in the Settings page of the device setup in Hardware Test Module Properties in the ProtocolVariable class appear in the variables table in Hardware Test Module Properties can have attributes added to change how they are displayed:
Purpose Define a more elegant display name Prevent editing Hide Perform custom configuration for a property

Write a Plug-in!

Controller Design Considerations
? Extra to the requested scope ? Not compulsory!

Controller Design Considerations
Cont’d ? Separate hardware IO from controller state
– Allows transform to standard units – Independence from hardware interface – Allows dynamic disconnect from hardware for testing

Controller Design Considerations
Cont’d ? Code generation
– Note that the sample controller has variable storage separated out from the controller algorithm – It is generated from a spreadsheet – Show the sample spreadsheet – Allows easy maintenance & synchronisation of controller & tests – Reduces bug-count – Visual Basic is not a very good tool – we use XML and XSLT, but there are others, too

? The value of this will be very clear during the exercises

Other Required Plug-ins
? Every communication between Hardware Test Module and other components requires a plug-in ? Examples:
– Controller over Ethernet – SVI, ADS, OPC, GHUDP, Omron – Controller hardware IO – AdLink, National Instruments – Turbine components – CAN, CANOpen, Profibus, Modbus – Analysis tools – Matlab, Realtime Graphing, Demo GUI – Logging – File Streaming, XML Serializer – Simulations – Bladed

? You need to source (write or buy) a plug-in for any component you want to connect to ? We find that many clients start out wanting to use all hardware IO but end up not using it because Ethernet is more convenient

Tutorial Exercises
? Begin with the external controller ? Build on each other ? Demonstrate how to test a controller

Adding a Controller Watchdog
? An important controller function! ? Add a channel Controller_Watchdog ? Toggle the channel in the controller every five controller cycles ? The safety chain should trip if it goes 200ms without the watchdog value changing

Simple Controller State Machine
? Initially two states:

[Controller_StateTimer < 2.0] Startup Power_Production

?

Add two new controller variables:
– Controller_State – current state – Controller_StateCounter – time in current state

? ? ?

Add an enumeration to list the possible states. Add a new method NewState to switch states and reset the state counter Make the test procedure wait until the controller reaches the Power_Production state

Add Controller Reboot
? ? Add a new channel, Controller_Reboot Modify the state machine:

[Controller_StateTimer > 2.0] Startup [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0] [Controller_Reboot == true] Reboot Any State Power_Production

Controller Startup Strategy
? Presently, the controller starts up in full pitch-torquespeed control mode – it can produce some large transients! ? We should wait for the wind to be within a specified range, then gently ramp down the pitch demand from 90? to operating pitch. ? The controller has existing internal values finePitch and featherFinePitch – the pitch demand is clipped to these ? Add a variable Controller_ActiveFinePitch which can be used to raise the bottom of the pitch demand clipping range. ? We’ll also give the controller control over the generator contactor with a new variable: Controller_GeneratorContactor

Power_Production Controller_ActiveFinePitch -= 2.0 degrees per second Controller_ActiveFinePitch = finePitch [Controller_ActiveFinePitch <= finePitch]

Power_Ramping [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0]

Generator_Contactor [Controller_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed > 800] Controller_Contactor = true

Controller_ActiveFinePitch -= 0.5 degrees per second

Pitch_Ramping [Controller_WindSpeed > 13 && Controller_WindSpeed < 25] [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0] Startup Waiting_For_Wind Controller_ActiveFinePitch = 90 deg; Controller_Contactor = false [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0] [Controller_Reboot == true] Reboot Any State

Speed Sensor Error Detection
? Previous overspeed was caused by error in generator speed measurement
– Need to wait for large overspeed before tripping – it might just be a startup transient

? Protect against this by detecting differences in rotor speed and generator speed ? Add a new channel Controller_MeasuredRotorSpeed ? Integrate the safety chain logic into the state machine ? Trigger the emergency state machine if Controller_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed is different to Controller_MeasuredRotorSpeed * 83.72 (by some tolerance)

Power_Production Controller_ActiveFinePitch -= 2.0 degrees per second Controller_ActiveFinePitch = finePitch [Controller_ActiveFinePitch <= finePitch]

Power_Ramping [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0]

Generator_Contactor [Controller_MeasuredGeneratorSpeed > 800] Controller_Contactor = true

Controller_ActiveFinePitch -= 0.5 degrees per second

Pitch_Ramping [Controller_WindSpeed > 13 && Controller_WindSpeed < 25] [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0] Startup Waiting_For_Wind Controller_ActiveFinePitch = 90 deg; Controller_Contactor = false [Controller_StateTimer > 2.0] [Controller_Reboot == true] Reboot Any State

[Controller_SafetyChainReset == true] Any State Emergency Stop [Controller_SafetyChainTripped]

Any State [abs(Controller MeasuredGeneratorSpeed - 83.33*Controller MeasuredRotorSpeed) > 5]

风机的力和动力学
Wind Turbine Forces and Dynamics

风机载荷(Wind Turbine Loads)
? IEC 61400-1规范要求,在设计计算时,要考虑下列载荷
(According to IEC 61400-1, the following types of load shall be considered for design calculations:)

-

惯性力和重力载荷 (inertial and gravity loads) 空气动力学载荷 (aerodynamic loads) 运行载荷 (operational loads) 其它载荷(波载,尾流载荷,冲击载荷,冰载)(other loads (wave
loads, wake loads, impact loads, ice loads)

? 以上载荷的组合形成寿命周期的疲劳和极限载荷 (The
combination leads to lifetime fatigue and extreme loads)

载荷的分量(Components of loading)
? 风机的载荷由不同的分量组成(Wind turbine loads are made up of
different components)

? 确定性载荷(Deterministic)
- 稳态载荷(steady) - 周期(periodic) - 瞬态(transient )

? 随机载荷(Stochastic)
- 随机变化(random )

稳态载荷不随时间而变化!(Steady loads do not vary
with time!)
例子(Example: )
离心载荷

一个带锥角的风轮运行于 一个均匀的轴向定常风场 内(Operation of a coned
rotor in a uniform axial wind field at constant wind speed)
风 推力

常用于计算10分钟周期内 的平均载荷(Often defined
as mean loads over a 10 minute period )

叶片根部挥舞方向稳态弯矩与风速的对应(Steady blade root
flap bending moment against wind speed)
[kNm]

120 100 刚性叶片(rigid) 80 60 40 测试(measured) 20 0 弯矩(千牛顿米)(bendingmoment) -20 -40 4 8 12

刚性带锥角叶片(rigid
coned)

柔性叶片(flexible)

16

20

风速(米/秒) (wind speed [m/s])

为什么用10分钟采样周期? (Why a 10 minute sample
period?)
? 时间周期必须足够长以确保风场数据的统计上的稳态性(The
time period must be long enough to ensure “statistical stationarity” of the wind field)

? 不能太长以避免过多的载荷计算负担(Not too long to avoid
excessive computation for load calculations)

? 记住‘频率间隔’(Remember the “spectral gap”!)

Van der Hoven 风速频谱(Van der Hoven Wind Speed
Spectrum)
整体的风速变化包含两个明显 的成分(Two distinct contributions
to the total wind variations:)

1. 大约以4天为周期的宏观气 象变化-由于整个气象系统 的变化(Macro-meteorological
Centred around 4 day period due to passage of complete weather system.)

2. 大约以1分钟为周期的微观 气象变化-由于湍流(Micrometeorological Centred around 1 minute period - turbulence.)

频率

周期性载荷按时间重复(Periodic loads repeat in time!)
例子: (Example:) 叶片面内由重力引起的载荷, 随风轮转动重复(1P) (In-plane blade loads associated with gravity; repeating each rotor revolution (1P))

叶根弯距=

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

摆动方向载荷付里叶分量 叶片1MX
30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

0

-200 Blade1Mx[kNm] -400

正常化频率
Rotor azimuth angle [deg]

-600 0

风轮角度(度)

周期性气动力学载荷(Periodic aerodynamic loads)
? ? ? ? ? ? 风剪切(Wind shear) 塔影(Tower shadow) 偏航误差(Yaw misalignment) 主轴倾角(Shaft tilt) 上吹风流(Upflow) 尾流速度分布(Wake velocity profile)

风剪切(Wind shear)
导致轴向风速及载荷的 周期性变化(Periodic
variation in axial wind speed and therefore loading)

变化包括 1P, 2P 和 3P 等分量(Variation includes
components at 1P, 2P, 3P etc.)
风速付里叶分量

方位角

正常化频率

塔影(Tower shadow)
导致轴向风速及载荷 的周期性脉冲变化
(Periodic impulsive variation in axial wind speed and loading)
上风 下风

变化包括1P的高频谐 波分量(Variation includes
high frequency harmonics of 1P)
风速付里叶分量

方位角

正常化频率

叶片上的脉冲塔影载荷(The
impulsive tower shadow load on a blade)

方位角

1阶 2阶 3阶 4阶

谐波分量(The
harmonic components)

方位角

偏航误差(Yaw misalignment)
切向风速的周期性变 化(Periodic variation in
tangential wind speed)
俯视

变化只有1P分量
(Variation is at 1P only)

塔架

风速付里叶分量

方向角

正常化频率

主轴倾角(Shaft tilt)
切向风速的周期性变化
(Periodic variation in tangential wind speed )

变化只有1P分量
(Variation is at 1P only)

上吹风流的效果与此相 似(Effect of upflow is similar)
风速的付里叶分量

正常化频率

瞬态载荷 – 阵风(Transient loading - wind gust)
20 18

[m/s] 风速(米/秒) 14 Windspeed
12 10 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

16

时间(秒) Time [s]
400 350 300 250 200 塔架FX(KN) 150 TowerFx[kN] 100 50 0 -50 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

时间(秒) Time [s]

瞬态载荷 – 风机关机(Transient loading – turbine
shutdown)
100 90 80 70 [deg] 60 Ptchangle 浆距角(角度) 50 40 30 20 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5

时间(秒) Time [s]

10.0

12.5

15.0

17.5

20.0

22.5

25.0

800 600 400

Flapwise 200 挥舞力距KNM moment[kNm]
0 -200 -400 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0

时间(秒) Time [s]

湍流引起的随机载荷(Stochastic loads are due to
turbulence)
2000 1500 1000

[kNm] 500 Blade1Mx 0 叶片1MX(KNM) -500
-1000 -1500 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

时间(秒) Time [s]
60 55 50 45 [m/s] 40 风速(秒/米) Windspeed 35 30 25 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

时间(秒) Time [s]

‘转动采样’的重要性(Importance of “rotational sampling”)

不动结构 转动的风机叶片

自相关谱密度

频率

- 能量从低频到转动速度谐频的转移

在固定的风速计处 的风速(Wind speed at a
stationary anemometer) U = 平均风速(mean wind
speed)

u = 阵风风速(gust wind speed) l = 阵风长度(length of gust = 阵风的周期(duration of gust)

风速 时间

在转动风速计处的风速
(Wind speed at a rotating anemometer)

= 转动速度
( = rotational speed)

风速 时间

支持结构的载荷 (Support structure loads)
? 叶片载荷在1P,2P,3P等等
(Blade loads at 1P, 2P, 3P etc.)

? 支持结构载荷在3P,6P,9P 等(Support structure loads at
3P, 6P, 9P etc)

? 叶轮不平衡导致支持结构 的1P载荷(Rotor imbalance
introduces support structure loads at 1P)

对一个3个叶片的风机,单根叶片上每转一圈发生一次的 事件,将反映到支持结构上每转3次 -3P. 叶片数目越多, 支持结构所受到的载荷越平滑(Events that occur once per
revolution (1P) on a blade occur at 3P on the support structure of an 3-bladed rotor. The greater the number of blades, the “smoother” are the loads acting on the support structure.)

结构动力学的重要性(Importance of structural dynamics)
? 共振响应(Resonances) ? 由外载引起的动力响应(Dynamic response to external loads)
- 惯性力载荷(inertial loads) - 零部件的变形(component deflections)

? 动力不稳定性(Dynamic instability)

结构动力学模型(Representation of structural dynamics)
? 在早期,直接应用响应放大因子于外载(In the early days
dynamic magnification factors were applied to external loads)

? 有限元模型(Finite element modelling)
- 很大的计算机处理需求,计算慢(very high computer processing
requirements, slow calculations)

? 模态模型(Modal representation)
- 可靠的模型,具有很少的自由度数,计算快速(reliable model with
few degrees of freedom, fast calculations)

- 不能描述柔性部件的很大变形(unable to represent very large
deflections of flexible components)

- 是目前最先进的方法(currently the “state-of-the-art”)

坎贝尔图(Campbell diagram)
风机模态(特征)频率总是和激励谐波频率处于相同的频率带范围内.避免 共振就是一个关键的设计目的(Wind turbines modal (eigen) frequencies are always
in the same “bandwidth” as the harmonic forcing frequencies. Avoiding resonance is a key design objective.)
运行范围
1阶叶片摆振模态

可能共振

可能共振

1阶叶片挥舞模态

频率

1阶动力系统模态

坎贝尔图用来 显示共振问题(The
Campbell diagram indicates problems of resonance )

1阶塔架挠曲模态

转速

动力响应 (Dynamic response)
结构的动力响应将取决于模态频率和加载频率的距离及阻尼水平
(The response of the structure will depend on the proximity of the modal frequency of the structure to the forcing frequency as well as the extent of damping)

1
2 2 2

If:

=

n

H(

1 )= 2

单自由度结构的动力响应(The dynamic response of a
single degree of freedom structure)

动力放大系数

机位角

频率比率

频率比率

塔架动力响应(Tower dynamics)
刚性或柔性塔架? (Stiff or Soft?)

刚性塔架

柔性塔架

动力放大系数

加载频率比率

塔架的主要激励频率是3P.叶轮不平衡会产生在1P的载荷(The main forcing
frequency on the tower is at 3P. Forcing at 1P occurs due to rotor imbalance.)

塔架动力学的重要性(Tower dynamics are important)
? 刚性塔架(“Stiff” tower)
– 共振频率大于叶片通过频率(resonant frequency > blade passing
frequency)

? 柔性塔架(“Soft” tower )
– 共振频率小于叶片通过频率,但大于风轮转速(resonant frequency <
blade passing frequency and >rotor rotational frequency)

? 柔软塔架(“Soft-soft” tower)
– 共振频率小于风轮转速(resonant frequency < rotor rotational frequency)

? 柔性塔架能提供较低的疲劳载荷,但较大的运动 (A softer tower
can provide lower fatigue loads but more motion)

叶片动力学(Blade dynamics)
? 增加柔度能减小叶片 疲劳载荷(Increased
flexibility (soft) can reduce blade fatigue loads)

? 塔架净空是个关键问 题(Tower clearance is
a key issue)

? 当叶片非常柔软时, 注意动力不稳定性颤振 (Beware of
dynamic instability as blades become very flexible - flutter! )

气动弹性阻尼限制了动力响应放大作用并且防止失稳
(Aeroelastic damping limits dynamic magnification and prevents instability)
? 取决于升力曲线斜率(Dependent on lift curve slope) ? 当运行于失速状态时,阻尼减小并且有时消失(Reduces and
occasionally vanishes for operation in stall)

? 叶尖阻尼装置用来补偿气动弹性阻尼(Tip damper devices used
to compensate for lack of aeroelastic damping)

? 气动弹性阻尼对减少海上风机的基础载荷十分重要
(Aeroelastic damping is important for the reduction of foundation loads for offshore wind turbines)

传动系统动力学(Power train dynamics)
? 扭转动力响应会是个 问题,齿轮箱破坏性载 荷(Torsional dynamics can
be problematic, damaging gearbox loads)

? 低阻尼系统,主要靠电 机提供阻尼(Lightly
damped system, damping primarily from generator)

? 对变速风机系统,可通 过控制行为来增加阻 尼(For variable speed
system, introduce damping through control action)

所有的因素偶合在一起,这就是为什么这是个很有意思的 题材(Everything is coupled that's why it’s so interesting!)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 风(Wind) 空气动力学(Aerodynamics) 叶片动力学(Blade dynamics) 控制(Control) 传动系统动力学(Power train dynamics) 电力系统(Electrical network) 塔架动力学(Tower dynamics) 基础(Foundations)


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