当前位置:首页 >> 农林牧渔 >>

以色列奶业介绍


Introduction of Israel Dairy Industry 以色列奶牛业简介
Dr. Meori Rosen
Expert for Dairy Farm Management

International center for cooperation MASHAV
毛瑞· 罗森博士 以色列农业技术推广中心 奶牛场管

理方面的专家 r.meori@gmail.com

EMBASSY OF ISRAEL IN BEIJING 以色列驻北京大使馆

Cell phone: 13601052555

ISRAEL 以色列

ISRAEL: 32O

EUROPE 欧洲

以色列在非洲、 亚洲及欧洲的 交界处
ISRAEL : Crossroad between AFRICA, ASIA and EUROPE

ASIA 亚洲

AFRICA 非洲

地中海
Mediterranean Sea

Population: 7.45 M

Tel Aviv 特拉维夫

国土面积:21,500平方公里
Surface: 21,500 km2

Jerusalem 耶路撒冷

可用土地:国土面积的20%
Workable Land: 20 %
Negev Dessert 尼吉夫沙漠

埃及EGYPT

Red Sea

约旦JORDAN

Dead Sea死海

470 km

人口:745万

Jordan Valley

约旦河谷

Mountain OCCUPIED Range AREAS

SYRIA

N

LEBANON

叙利亚

黎巴嫩

地形
TOPOGRAPHY

海拔
Altitude (meters)

约旦河谷 Jordan Valley 山脉 Mountain Range 沿海平原 Coastal Plain 0-

<0 200

200 - 400 400 - 600 > 600

降雨分布
RAINFALL

每年平均降水量:
Year Average

中部:550mm
Central areas: 550 mm

年/mm
mm/year

南方South : 北方North :

30 mm 720 mm

1000 800 700 500-600 200-400 100-200 <100

耕种冬季饲草作物所需 最低降水量为300mm
The minimal precipitation needed for cultivating winter forage crops

is ~300 mm.

季节
SEASONS

冬天多雨:11月—3月(次年)
Rainy Winter: November- March

夏季干旱:3月—9月
Dry Summer: May – September

以色列季候情况
THE CLIMATE IN ISRAEL

SUMMER
夏季

闷热、潮湿:沿海、山间地区30-35℃; 河谷
地区高达40℃。相对湿度:55-80%
HOT AND HUMID: 30-35oC along the coast and in the mountains; rises over 40oC in the inland valleys. Relative humidity: 55 – 80 %

炎热、干燥:干旱(沙漠地区)、半干旱地区
为35-40℃。
HOT AND DRY: 35-40oC in the arid (desert) and semi-arid areas. Relative humidity: 5 – 30 %

旱灾非常频繁(十年两次)
Droughts are quite frequent (~ twice per decade)

鉴于以色列夏季特点,频繁的热应激对奶牛产生较大 的影响:
As a result of the summer characteristics, there are frequent HEAT STRESS conditions for the DAIRY CATTLE that largely affect :

干物质采食
DRY MATTER INTAKE,

奶产量(下降15-20%)
MILK PRODUCTION (drops by 15-20%),

妊娠率
and PREGNANCY RATE

通过蒸发散热减缓奶牛的热应激
Intensive efforts are made to relieve the HEAT STRESS, by the use of systems that promote evaporative cooling :

喷淋和风扇相结合
SHOWERS combined with VENTILATION,

这种处理方式应用于两个区域:
This “treatment” is applied in two areas :

饲喂通道
at the feeding bunk

待挤区
and the milking parlor yard

以色列农业概况
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS of the AGRICULTURE in ISRAEL

限制因素
LIMITING FACTORS

降水不足(年降水率550mm) WATER SHORTAGE (550mm annual rainfall) 可用土地有限
LIMITED LAND

生态循环
ECOLOGIC REGULATIONS

都市化步伐加快
URBANIZATION

劳动力成本高
HIGH COST OF WORK

SHORT DISTANCES?

以色列牛奶生产分布
DISTRIBUTION of MILK PRODUCTION in ISRAEL

每人消耗量 172 公斤/年

Annual Milk per-capita Consumption :? 172 lts

牛奶总产量:127万吨/年
Annual Milk Production : 1,274 M lts.

原奶总产值:21.29亿/年(美元)
Total Value of raw Milk Production : US $ 2,129 M / year

牛奶总产值占农业总产值的16.5%
Value of Milk Production out of the total agricultural production: 16.5 %

以色列荷斯坦奶牛的发展进 程
DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE ISRAELIHOLSTEIN DAIRY CATTLE

大马士革奶牛
DAMASCUS COW

荷兰进口种公牛
IMPORTED DUTCH BULL

杂交一代
F1 CROSS 50%

荷兰进口种公牛
IMPORTED DUTCH BULL

杂交代
R1 CROSS 75%

荷兰种公牛在以 色列进行遗传测 定
DUTCH BULL TESTED in ISRAEL

杂交带
R2 CROSS 87.5%

以色列荷斯坦 种公牛的 遗传测定

HOLSTEIN BULLS BORN and TESTED in ISRAEL

以色列荷斯坦奶牛的子一代
LATER GENERATIONS

以色列荷斯坦 种公牛的 遗传测定

具有代表性的以色列荷斯坦奶牛
TYPICAL HOLSTEIN-ISRAELI COW

HOLSTEIN BULL BORN and TESTED in ISRAEL

Baladi 奶牛(以色列本地牛) Baladi cow

Damascus 奶牛, 1941 Damascus cow, 1941

Guerency,1939

荷斯坦奶牛 Holstein cows

加拿大荷斯坦种公牛,1946 Holstein bull from Canada, 1946

Baladi 和荷斯坦的杂交牛 Crossbreed Baladi * Fresian

Damascus 和荷斯坦的杂交牛 Crossbreed Damascus * Fresian

Damascus 和荷斯坦的杂交牛 Crossbreed Damascus * Holstein

DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF THE ISRAELI-HOLSTEIN DAIRY CATTLE

DAMASCUS COW

IMPORTED DUTCH BULL

F1 CROSS 50%

IMPORTED DUTCH BULL

R1 CROSS 75%

DUTCH BULL TESTED in ISRAEL

R2 CROSS 87.5%

HOLSTEIN BULLS BORN and TESTED in ISRAEL

LATER GENERATIONS

HOLSTEIN BULLS BORN and TESTED in ISRAEL

TYPICAL HOLSTEIN-ISRAELI COW

以色列ISRASL 奶牛场Dairy farms 泌乳牛Milking cows 每个牛场的奶牛数 No. of cows per farm
平均奶产量(公斤/头/年)Average Milk production (Kgs/cow/year)

1,010 120,000 114 11,291

乳脂率 Fat %
乳蛋白率 Protein % 配额Quotas 牛舍Housing 妊娠率-输精次数/怀孕Conception rate % - Insem./Conception 收购价格(美元) Milk price 饲喂方式 Feeding system 主要饲料 Main forage
US $

3.61
3.20 有Yes 散养/卧床
Loose barns / Free stalls

36.7 – 2.7 0.34 – 0.50 T.M.R. 小麦青贮Wheat silage

日粮中精粗比 Forage/Concentrate* ratio

35:65

*这里提到的精料非长纤维饲料Concentrate in this case are all the feeds that are NOT-Forage

关于以色列牛群的一些数据
SOME FACTS ABOUT THE ISRAELI DAIRY HERD

奶牛头数:120,000 95%是以色列荷斯坦奶牛 90%奶牛有生产记录(DHI) 所有的奶牛进行人工受精 均采用机械挤奶
120.000 cows. 95% of the cows: Holstein-Israeli 90% of cows have recorded production (DHI) All the cows are AI inseminated Only mechanical milking is performed

2种类型的农场:2 types of Dairy Farms:
基部兹合作社 平均奶牛头数:399 采用散养或者舍饲养方法 3×挤奶装置 TMR饲喂方式
Cooperative Farms (Kibbutz) Average: 399 cows kept indoors in loose-barns or free-stalls 3x daily milkings TMR

家庭农场 (农户?) 平均奶牛头数:75 采用散养的饲养方法 TMR饲喂方式
Family Farms Average: 75 cows kept indoors in loose-barns 2-3x daily milkings TMR

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

基部兹合作社:162个农场
KIBBUTZ : 162 Farms

家庭农场:845个
FAMILY FARMS: 845

所有农场牛奶总产量Total milk production, by type of farm
家庭农场
FAMILY FARMS

合作社(基部兹)
COOPERATIVES (Kibbutz)

每头牛平均产量: 产奶量: 12,250 Kg 乳脂量: 3.52%/Kg - 431 Kg 乳蛋白量: 3.17%/Kg - 388 Kg
Average Yield per cow: Milk 12,250 Kg Fat 3.52%/Kg - 431 Kg Protein 3.17%/Kg - 388 Kg

每头牛平均产量: 产奶量: 11,260 Kg 乳脂量: 3.53% - 397 Kg 乳蛋白量:3.14% - 354 Kg
Average Yield per cow: Milk 11,260 Kg Fat 3.53% - 397 Kg Protein 3.14% - 354 Kg

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

牛奶生产记录系统MILK PRODUCTION RECORDING SYSTEM

每个月每头产奶牛需要做以下检测:
Once a month (each 4 weeks), the production of each cow is measured for :

产奶量 脂肪含量 蛋白含量 体细胞数(SCC) 细菌数 牛奶中尿素含量/酪蛋白
MILK yield FAT content PROTEIN content BACTERIAL count

SOMATIC CELLS count

UREA content in Milk / Casein

奶样被管理员(奶牛合作社)或者奶农(家庭农场)送去实验室分析
Sample taken by a controller (in cooperative dairy farms) or by the farmer (in family dairy farms) for laboratory analysis

以色列DHI分析系统摘要—1939-2007DHI-RECORDING SYSTEM SUMMARY IN ISRAEL – 1939 - 2007
年份 1934 1939 1944 1949 1954 1959 畜群 12 31 69 88 198 181 奶牛数 1,029 2,878 5,303 8,733 14,337 16,917
产奶量 Kg 头/年
乳脂产量. (Kg) 乳脂率 Fat % 蛋白(Kg) 头/年

乳脂和 乳蛋白 % 乳蛋白重(Kg) 头/年

3,690 3,847 4,227 4,044 4,197 5,347

136 139 150 142 149 186

3.69 3.61 3.55 3.51 3.55 3.48

1964 1969
1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2008

202 212
214 212 205 479 802 916 775 688

24,013 34,132
47,161 61,947 66,000 72,645 92,175 98,485 99,537 103,895

5,694 6,271
6,833 7,855 8,734 9,092 9,748 10,469 10,668 11,461

186 204
220 256 287 288 302 341 381 415

3.27 3.25
3.22 3.26 3.29 3.17 3.10 3.26 3.57 3.52

273 289 321 331 367

3.00 2.96 3.07 3.10 3.16

561 591 662 712 782

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

每头牛每年平均产量1934-2008(公斤/年)
ANNUAL AVERAGE PRODUCTION PER COW 1934 - 2008 (KG/YEAR)

13,000 12,000 11,000 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
1934 1939 1944

450 400
Fat and Protein Yield (Kg)

乳脂和乳蛋白重kg

350
乳蛋白 产量

产奶量kg

Milk Yield (Kg)

300 250 200

乳脂率

150
1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2007 2008

1949

1954

1959

1964

1969

Milk

Fat

1974

100

Protein

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

ANNUAL MILK PRODUCTION, MILK-FAT AND MILK-PROTEIN PERCENT BETWEEN 1990 - 2008

1990-2008年每年奶产量、乳脂率和乳蛋白率的变化

11,750 11,500 11,250 11,000 10,750 10,500 10,250 10,000 9,750 9,500 9,250 9,000
1990 1991 1992 1993

MILK (Kg)

产量 乳脂率

乳蛋白
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

3.80 3.70 3.60 3.50 3.40 3.30 3.20 3.10 3.00 2.90

% solids in milk (Kg)

牛奶固形物百分比

奶产量(kg)

Milk

Fat %

Prot %

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

欧洲荷斯坦协会和动物档案国际委员会( International Committee for Animal Recording)的良种家畜登记册记录的泌乳周期(305天)平均奶产量
AVERAGE YIELD (305 days) of RECORDEDCOWS REGISTERED by HERDBOOKS of the EUROPEAN HOLSTEIN ASSOCIATION and I.C.A.R.

国家 COUNTRY

年份 YEAR

产奶量 (305天) MILK (305D)

乳脂率 FAT %

乳蛋白率 PROTEIN %

总计+? TOTAL F + P

美国 U.S.A. 加拿大 CANADA 阿根廷 ARGENTINA 澳大利亚AUSTRALIA 日本JAPAN 荷兰 NETHERLANDS 法国 FRANCE 德国GERMANY 丹麦DENMARK 瑞典SWEDEN 英国 UNITED KINGDOM 意大利 ITALY 西班牙SPAIN 以色列ISRAEL

2003 2001 2002 2004 2002 2004 2002 2002 2004 2004 2003 2003 2002 2004

9830 9440 6127 6643 9013 8403 7729 7837 8900 9521 7856 8624 8400 11200

3.65 3.68 3.50 3.88 3.97 4.37 4.06 4.14 4.12 4.01 3.83 3.55 3.64 3.54

3.05 3.22 2.89 3.25 3.25 3.48 3.32 3.36 3.50 3.34 3.26 3.25 3.14 3.08

659 651 392 474 651 660 570 588 678 700 557 586 570 741

以色列乳制品生产现状
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEDAIRY PRODUCTION IN ISRAEL

1.

奶农、乳制品行业及政府之间达成协议,协调安排牛奶生产
MILK PRODUCTION IS ORGANIZED BY AGREEMENTS BETWEEN DAIRY FARMERS, DAIRY INDUSTRY and GOVERNMENT.

1)国家的生产限额是固定的,会分配到各个奶农 2)这种机制稳定了支付给奶农的牛奶价格
b) A MECHANISM THAT FIXES THE MILK PRICE TO BE PAID TO THE FARMER

a) A NATIONAL PRODUCTION QUOTA IS FIXED AND DIVIDED INTO FARMER QUOTAS

以色列乳制品生产现状
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEDAIRY PRODUCTION IN ISRAEL

2. 没有任何补助金 NO SUBSIDIES OF ANY KIND
40%主要乳制品价格由政府监控
40% of the primary dairy products are under governmental price control

3. 易受气候条件影响 LARGE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 半干旱气候:炎热-干燥/闷热-潮湿 Semi-arid climate: hot-dry / hot-humid 4. 用水成本大且水资源不足WATER COST and QUOTA

以色列乳制品生产现状
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEDAIRY PRODUCTION IN ISRAEL

5. 饲料昂贵且品质一般 FORAGES EXPENSIVE and MID-QUALITY X美元/吨(多湿饲料)玉米青贮 $ x ton. (Humid Matter) Corn Silage X美元/吨 苜蓿草 $ x ton. (Alfalfa Hay)

6. 所有饲喂家畜的谷物均需进口

ALL GRAINS USED FOR ANIMAL FEEDING ARE IMPORTED

7. 精/粗饲料间的价格变化

PRICE RELATION BETWEEN FORAGES / CONCENTRATES

以色列乳制品生产现状
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEDAIRY PRODUCTION IN ISRAEL

8. 高成本投入以达到环境法规标准
HIGH COSTS in order to FULFILL ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS

9. 奶农的社会及经济地位

FARMERS’ SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

管理农场需要较高科学水平 Lives at the Farm Relatively high education level

平均每月产奶量
AVERAGE MILK YIELD (Kg) OF COWS IN HERD (3x), BY MONTH

36.0 35.0 34.0
Milk Yield (Kg)

35.1 34.4 33.7 33.1

34.7 33.2 31.6 30.1 29.3 29.2 31.7 33.3

33.0 32.0 31.0 30.0 29.0 28.0
Ma r Apr Ma y

产奶量

Se p

Au g

Jan

Jun

Oct

数据来自《以色列良种家畜登记册,2008》
Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report, 2008"

De c

Fe b

Jul

No v

1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月

每月产犊头数分布
DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF CALVINGS BY MONTH

10,000 9,000 8,000
产犊头数
妊娠率 INSEMINATIONS PERFORMED IN :

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000

6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 JUN JUL AGO SEP OCT NOV

May

Apr

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

Dec

Jan

Jun

Jul

Sep

Mar

Oct

1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月

Aug

Nov

Feb

每月乳脂率及乳蛋白率
MILK FAT and PROTEIN PERCENTAG (in Milk Kg), BY MONTH

4.00 3.90 3.80 3.70 3.60 3.50 3.40 3.30 3.20 3.10 3.00
Feb May Aug Dec Jan Apr Jun Sep Jul Mar Oct

乳脂率/乳蛋白率

Fat / Protein percentage

1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

Nov

1995-2008年平均体细胞数变化(所有畜群)
SOMATIC CELLS' COUNT AVERAGE (ALL HERDS) BETWEEN 1995 - 2008

420

体细胞数(SCC)×1,000

370
Somatic Cells' Count (x 1,000)

SCC (x 1,000)

320 270 220 170 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

《奶业年鉴-2008》*数据汇总 GENERAL DATA * Yearly Herdbook Report - 2008 头胎牛 2胎牛 成母牛 全部

1st lact. Milk yield, kg 产奶量 Days in milk 泌乳天数 Milk yield, kg/day in milk 日产量 Inter-calving Interval 产犊间隔 Dry period, days 干奶天数 Days open 配孕天数 Age at calving, months 初产月龄 Abortions, % 流产率 Stillborn calves, % 死胎率
*整个泌乳期 Complete lactations

2nd lact. Adult cows 13,295 358 37.1 421 62 145 38 11.3 6 13,817 356 38.8 420 62 144 67 10.5 7

Total 12,782 358 35.7 421 62 145 46 11.1 7

11,406 361 31.6 423 61 147 24 11.9 8

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

以色列牛群繁殖指标-2008
AVERAGE FERTILITY PARAMETERS N THE ISRAELI DAIRY HERD -2008

头胎牛受孕率(第一次输精)63.1% Conception Rate for Heifers (1st. Insem.) 63.1 % 经产牛受孕率(第一次输精)30.5 %Conception Rate for Cows (1 . Insem.) 30.5 %
st

一月份经产牛受孕率(第一次输精)40.2%Conception Rate for Cows (1st. Insem) in January 40.2 % 八月份经产牛受孕率(第一次输精)21.7%Conception Rate for Cows (1st. Insem) in August 21.7 %

头胎牛第一次输精日龄 14.6 个月 头胎牛妊娠日龄 15.2个月

Age of Heifers at 1st. Insem. (mo) Age of Heifers at Pregnancy (mo)

14.6 15.2

数据来《自以色列奶业年鉴-2008》Data from the “Israeli Herdbook Report- 2008"

减少牛奶生产成本的决定性因素
FACTORS THAT HAVE BEEN DETERMINANT FOR LOWERING MILK PRODUCTION COSTS

根据奶牛遗传潜力,每个生产阶段适当的管理,以达到生产性能最大化的目的
PROPER MANAGEMENT OF EACH PRODUCTIVE STAGE WITH THE PURPOSE OF ACHIEVING MAXIMAL PRODUCTIVITY ACCORDING TO THE COW’S GENETIC POTENTIAL :

犊牛及育成牛的饲养,不同哺育阶段采用特殊的方法,

以适应相应的开食料和过度时期
Young suckling heifers’ raising, Heifers’ raising, Appropriate consideration of the different lactation stages with special consideration for the DRY PERIOD and the TRANSITION PERIOD

适当的营养配方

ADEQUATE NUTRITIONAL PLANS

遗传改良,目标明确
GENETIC IMPROVEMENT WITH A CLEARLY DEFINED GOAL

减少牛奶生产成本的决定性因素
FACTORS THAT HAVE BEEN DETERMINANT FOR LOWERING MILK PRODUCTION COSTS

采用科学技术以减少热应激
IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNIQUES IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE HEAT STRESS

基础设施完善,以满足高产牛需求
USE OF ADEQUATE INFRA-STRUCTURES : INSTALLATIONS SUITABLE FOR HIGH-YIELDING COWS

提供适时准确信息的系统,能在适当的时候作出正确决策
INFORMATION SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDE ACCURATE INFORMATION AT PROPER TIME, AND CAN SUPPORT RIGHT DECISION-MAKING AT THE PROPER TIME

减少牛奶生产成本的决定性因素
FACTORS THAT HAVE BEEN DETERMINANT FOR LOWERING MILK PRODUCTION COSTS

奶农专业技能的提高:技术及管理能力
IMPROVEMENT ON THE PROFESSIONAL LEVEL OF DAIRY FARMERS: TECHNICAL and ADMINISTRATION ABILITIES

兽医护理方法以预防为主
VETERINARY CARE WITH A PROPHYLACTIC APPROACH

发展大规模经济优势 LARGE-SCALE ECONOMY ADVANTAGE

建立区域饲料中心用以生产TMR
ESTABLISHMENT OF REGIONAL FEEDING CENTERS FOR PRODUCTION OF TMR.

奶农之间经常交流,以减少遗传改良的成本
AGREEMENTS BETWEEN DAIRY FARMERS IN ORDER TO REDUCE COSTS OF GENETIC IMPROVEMENT.

以色列奶业组织
ORGANIZATION OF THE ISRAELI DAIRY PRODUCTION

奶农 基部兹-合作社 马沙夫-集体农场
FARMERS Kibbutz - Cooperatives Moshav - Familiar

乳制品行业
DAIRY INDUSTRIES

全国奶业 协会
NATIONAL DAIRY BOARD

政府部门:
GOVERNMENT Ministries of:

农业部:Agriculture, 财政部:Economy, 工业部:Industry 卫生部:Health

公众消费 2008:124万吨
PUBLIC 2008 : 1,240 M Lts.

全国奶业协会的职责 NATIONAL DAIRY BOARD DUTIES

落实国家乳制品生产定额
PLANNING and IMPLEMENTATION of the NATIONAL MILK QUOTA.

-改善牛奶品质IMPROVEMENT OF MILK QUALITY -消除乳房炎计划-MASTITIS ERADICATION PROGRAM -动物安全保障措施INSURANCE FOR ANIMALS. 统计和分析乳品生产和消费数据
DATA COLLECTION and STATISTIC ANALYSIS ABOUT MILK PRODUCTION and CONSUMPTION.

监控乳制品生产
CONTROL and INSPECTION of the DAIRY INDUSTRY PRODUCTION.

调控乳制品产量
CONTROL of the AMOUNT of RECONSTITUED MILK.

全国奶业协会的职责
NATIONAL DAIRY BOARD DUTIES

通过实施软借贷方式鼓励奶农生产牛奶
ENCOURAGING OF MILK PRODUCTION BY GIVING “SOFT” LOANS TO DAIRY FARMERS.

通过促销和广告方式鼓励公众消费乳制品
ENCOURAGING OF DAIRY PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION BY THE PUBLIC (PROMOTION and ADVERTISEMENT).

支持关于乳制品的科研投资
SUPPORT TO SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION RELATED TO MILK PRODUCTION.

提供乳制品产业咨询
SUPPORT TO THE EXTENSION ADVISING SERVICE.

提供奶样检测、数据资料库及乳成分分析实验室
SUPPORT TO THE MILK RECORDING TESTING, DATA BANK ACTIVITY and LABORATORY for MILK ANALYSIS.

全国奶业协会的职责
NATIONAL DAIRY BOARD DUTIES

落实国家乳制品生产定额
PLANNING and IMPLEMENTATION of the NATIONAL MILK QUOTA

预算每年国家乳制品配额
DETERMINATION OF THE ANNUAL NATIONAL MILK QUOTA.

预算每年每个奶农的乳制品配额
DETERMINATION OF THE ANNUAL MILK QUOTA FOR EACH DAIRY FARMER.

乳品行业每年都会超额完成乳制品配额
THE MILK INDUSTRY IS OBLIGED TO RECEIVE THE MILK PRODUCED OVER THE QUOTA.

预算应付给奶农的1L奶的奶价和付酬制度
DETERMINATION OF THE PRICE TO BE PAID TO THE DAIRY FARMER FOR 1 LITER OF MILK AND THE PAYMENT SYSTEM.

每年乳制品消费分配
DISTRIBUTION OF ANNUAL MARKETED MILK BY DAIRY PRODUCTS

奶油 硬奶酪
Hard Cheese, 30% Butter, 2%

鲜奶制品
Fluid milk, 25%

酸奶和点心
Fermented Milk and Desserts, 15%

软奶酪
Soft Cheese, 28%

1L奶应付奶价的计算方法

CALCULATION of the PRICE to be PAID to the FARMER for 1 Liter of MILK

根据每升奶的生产成本进行计算
THE CALCULATION IS BASED ON AN EVALUATION OF THE PRODUCTION COSTS OF A MILK LITER.

每两年有一个特别委员会随机调查一个奶农群体来核对牛奶生产成本
EVERY 2 YEARS A SPECIAL COMMISSION CHECKS PRODUCTION COSTS BY SURVEYING A RANDOM SET OF FARMERS.

每三个月复查一次牛奶生产成本,再制定一个新价格 EACH 3 MONTHS MILK PRODUCTIONS COSTS ARE RE-CHECKED AND A NEW PRICE IS DETERMINED.

奶牛场各项收入比例
DISTRIBUTION OF INCOMES IN THE DAIRY FARMING ACTIVITY – 2007

牛奶 MILK 牛肉 MEAT 其他(后备牛、牛粪)
OTHERS (heifers, manure)

90.4% 9.5% 0.1% 100%

总计 TOTAL

生产牛奶成本花费比例
DISTRIBUTION OF MILK PRODUCTION COSTS – 2007

饲料 FOOD 其他花费 Other EXPENSES 劳动力 WORK 管理 ADMINISTRATION 财务 FINANCIAL COSTS 总计 TOTAL

54.7% 12.7% 15.0% 4.3% 13.3% 100.0%

每升牛奶价格的计算公式

PAYMENT FORMULA for a MILK LITER

1)牛奶固形物(营养成分?)报酬A) payment to milk solids 2)牛奶品质的报酬B) payment to milk quality

标准的1L牛奶应该包含:
ONE LITER OF STANDARD MILK MUST CONTAIN:

3.67 % 的乳脂 3.23 % 的乳蛋白

3.67 % of FAT 3.23 % of PROTEIN

牛奶营养价值是乳蛋白/乳脂不能过剩/不足
EXCESS OR DEFICIT OF PROTEIN / FAT IS PAID REGARDING THE SOLID VALUE

1kg乳蛋白的价格是1kg乳脂价格的2.6倍

THE PRICE FOR 1 Kg of PROTEIN IS 2.6 TIMES HIGHER THAN THE PRICE FOR 1 Kg of FAT

牛奶品质

体细胞数(SCC)SOMATIC CELL COUNT
优质+ 优质 A级 B级 C级 D级

BY MILK QUALITY

SUPERIOR+ SUPERIOR A B C D

小于 Less than 140,000 / ml 140,001 – 225,000 225,001 – 300,000 300,001 – 375,000 375,001 - 450,000 451,000 – 700,000

BONIFICATION 1.6 % 奖励 BONIFICATION 0.6 % STANDARD PRICE 正常价格 FINE 2 % 惩罚 FINE 7 % FINE 8 %

体细胞高于70万拒收
MILK CONTAINING MORE THAN 700,000 IS NOT RECEIVED.

细菌数BACTERIAL COUNT
优质 SUPERIOR A级 A B级 B C级 C

Up to 30,000 / ml 31,000 – 100,000 101,000 – 150,000 More than 150,000

BONIFICATION 0.5% 奖励 STANDARD PRICE 正常价格 FINE 3 % 惩罚 3% FINE 6% - 1st. time 6%第一次 FINE 8% - 2nd. time 8%第二次 FINE 10% - 3rd. time 10%第三次

其他因素:OTHER FACTORS : 抗生素残留ANTIBIOTIC TRACES (inhibiting factors) 酸度ACIDITY 血奶BLOOD in MILK 加水(冰点测定)WATER PRESENCE (cryoscope point) 奶温(4℃-7℃奶罐储存)TEMPERATURE (4oC at collection / 7oC at plant gate)

其他因素:OTHER FACTORS : 冬天超额生产的牛奶采用夏天的配额价格会被惩罚
PENALTY FOR EXTRA MILK THAT IS PRODUCED IN THE WINTER SEASON AT EXPENSE OF THE SUMMER QUOTA

夏天生产的牛奶采用冬天的配额价格会有分红
BONUS PAYMENT FOR MILK THAT IS PRODUCED IN THE SUMMER SEASON AT EXPENSE OF THE WINTER QUOTA

超过每年的牛奶生产配额会被重罚
HEAVY PENALTY FOR MILK PRODUCEDABOVE THE ANNUAL QUOTA

以色列奶牛育种协会的职责
The ISRAELI CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATION is responsible for :

登记母牛和种公牛REGISTRATION OF COWS AND SIRES 记录奶牛生产RECORDING OF COWS PRODUCTION 奶牛遗传改良GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE

人工受精A.I. CENTERS and INSEMINATION work.

遗传育种体系和人工受精服务机构 奶牛育种协会
CATTLE BREEDERS ASSOCIATION GENETIC BREEDING SYSTEM and ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION SERVICES

每月产奶记录
MONTHLY MILK RECORDING

5次输精/头 5 insem./cow 115kg/头/年
115 Kg/cow/year

乳成分分析
LABORATORY FOR MILK TESTING

汇总以色列奶牛年鉴和数据库
KEEPS THE ISRAELI HERDBOOK and DATA BANK

兽医技术服务
SOCIETY forVETERINARY SERVICES

提供报告和数据给奶农
REPORTS and DATA to the FARMERS

技术服务(挤奶厅)
TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE(MILKING PARLORS)

每周2次参观+紧急救治 2 regular weekly visits + urgencies

专业刊物
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS

140kg/头/年
140 Kg/cow/year

44kg/头/年
44 Kg/cow/year

299kg/头/年=2.8%牛奶/头/年
299 Kg/cow/year= 2.8% milk/cow/year


相关文章:
以色列奶业考察报告
龙源期刊网 http://www.qikan.com.cn 以色列奶业考察报告 作者:刘景喜等 来源:《天津农业科学》2014 年第 03 期 摘要:通过对以色列奶牛场、奶业相关企业和政府...
以色列奶业发展的经验与启示
以色列奶业发展的经验与启示周俊玲中国农业大学经济管理学院,北京,100193 摘要: 以色列的奶业发展水平很高,创造了世界奶牛平均单产最高的纪录,其成功经验在于其强有力...
创造奇迹的以色列农业
创造奇迹的以色列农业,我们要学什么【背景介绍】以色列耕地少,自然条件恶劣 可...在以色列奶业发展过程中, 科技起着举足轻重的作用, 应用计算机管理奶牛业的模式...
以色列奶业考察经验分享
以色列奶业考察经验分享_畜牧兽医_农林牧渔_专业资料。以色列奶业考察经验分享 2013...据介绍在炎热的夏 季奶牛日产奶量将不同程度下降,而且影响奶牛的健康和繁殖(图...
以色列简介
以色列简介_农学_农林牧渔_专业资料。以色列主要景点介绍,以及简易希伯来文 以色列的文化每个国家都有自己独特风格。以色列人热心热情,十分尊重宗教信仰。 出于对犹太教...
以色列农业科研机构介绍
以色列农业科研机构介绍_农学_农林牧渔_专业资料。以色列农业科研机构介绍 以色列从事农业科学研究的机构主要有农业研究组织 (Agricultural ResearchOrganization,简称 ARO)...
以色列阿菲金(afimilk)挤奶系统在各大奶牛养殖场的使用
以色列阿菲金(afimilk)挤奶系统在各大奶牛养殖场的使用_畜牧兽医_农林牧渔_专业资料...使用阿菲金系统的客户有:上海光明、上海奶业集团、北京三元、江苏维维、 新疆西部...
以色列项目税法介绍
以色列项目税法介绍_法律资料_人文社科_专业资料。以色列税法介绍 2013 年以色列对税法进行修订,2014 年 1 月起实行新税法,以下内容均为 新税法。 一、 企业所得...
犹太人的介绍
犹太人的介绍_文化/宗教_人文社科_专业资料。大家好: 我今天演讲的主题是:犹太...以色列的人均图书拥有量占世界第一 看到上面的这些东西,大家可能会对犹太 人有...
以色列文化常识1-犹太人新年介绍(犹太历)
以色列文化常识1-犹太人新年介绍(犹太历)_文化/宗教_人文社科_专业资料。以色列文化常识-犹太人新年介绍了解一个民族,一个国家的独特之处,观察和体会他们的节日是一...
更多相关标签:
以色列介绍 | 介绍以色列的书 | 以色列美食介绍 | 以色列旅游景点介绍 | 以色列国家介绍 | 以色列孵化器介绍 | 以色列文化介绍 | 以色列景点介绍 |