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句型宝典 疑问句型 What is this? 结构︰问句:What+be 动词+this(that?)? 答句:This(that?)+be 动词+a book(pen?) 。 说明︰此句型意为“这(那)是什么?这(那)是书(钢笔?) ” 。what(什么)叫做“疑问词” ,用于询 问“事物” ,通常放在句首,后接 be <动词>,再接<主词>,第一个字

母 w 要大写,句尾要加问号(?),位 置不可排错。 What is this? This is a chair. What’s this? It’s a book. 这是什么?这是一张椅子。 这是什么?它是一本书。

What is that? That is a desk. 那是什么?那是一张书桌。 What are these? 结构︰问句:What are+these/those?? 答句:These/Those are+复数名词(+s/es) 。 说明︰<主词>与<动词>的形式要一致,is 后面接单数<名词>,are 后面要接复数<名词>。 What are these? These are books. What are those? Those are cups. What are they? They are glasses. What are you? 结构︰问句:What+be 动词+主词(人)?? 答句:主词+be 动词+a student?。 说明︰此句型意为“你是做什么事情的?我是学生?” 。疑问词 what 除了询问事物之外,还可用于询问 “人的职业或身分” 。be <动词>随<人称代名词>的变化而改变形态,如:I am,we are,you are,he is?。 What are you? I am a student. What is she? She is a teacher. Are you a ...? 结构︰问句:Be 动词(am,are,is)+主词+?? 肯定简答:Yes,主词+am(are,is) 。 否定简答:No,主词+am(are,is)not。 说明︰在否定<简答句>中,<主词>和 am,is,are 可以缩写;在肯定<简答句>中则不可。 Is he a student? Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.) 他是学生吗?是的,他是。 (不,他不是。 ) 你是做什么事情的?我是一名学生。 她是做什么事情的?她是一名教师。 这些是什么?这些是书。 那些是什么?那些是茶杯。 它们是什么?它们是玻璃杯。

Are you a teacher? Yes, I am. (No, I’m not.) 你是教师吗?是的,我是。 (不,我不是。 ) Is that a clock? Yes, it is. (No, it isn’t.) 那是钟表吗?是的,它是。 (不,它不是。 ) What is your name? 结构︰问句:What+is+所有格+name? 答句:所有格+name+is+名字。
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说明︰“my,your,his,her”为单数人称的<所有格>;<所有格>后面必接<名词>,即“<所有格>+<名 词> ” ;<所有格>不可与 a,an,this,that,these 或 those 紧接一起使用。 What is your name? My name is Sue. What is his name? His name is John. What is her name? Her name is Jean. Who is that ...? 结构︰问句:Who+be 动词+that+形容词+名词? 答句:That is+名字。 说明︰Who 是<疑问代名词>,询问人的“姓名”或“关系” ;将<形容词>直接放在<名词>前面,叫做“前 位修饰” 。 Who is that short boy? That is Bill. Who is that tall girl? That is Mary. Who is that fat man? He is my uncle. Where is ...? 结构︰问句:Where+be 动词(am,are,is)+主词?? 答句:主词+be 动词+in the+名词?。 说明︰问句是“Where ...?” ,简答时可用<副词词组>“In/On the+<名词>” 。 Where is Sue? She is in her room. Where are your books? On the desk. 苏在那里?她在她的房间里。 你的书在那里?在书桌上。 你妈吗在哪里?她在厨房里。 那位矮男孩是谁?那位是比尔。 那位高女孩是谁?那位是玛丽。 那位胖男子是谁?那位是我叔叔。 妳叫什么名字?我的名字叫苏。 他叫什么名字?他的名字叫约翰。 她叫什么名字?她的名字叫珍。

Where is your mother? She is in the kitchen. Are you V-ing ...? 结构︰Am(Are,Is)+主词+现在分词??

说明︰此句型意为“<主词>(人,物)正在?吗?” 。这一<句型>转换的三要素是:be <动词>移到句首; 改为大写;句尾用问号。 Is Mary sleeping? 玛丽正在睡觉吗? 你正在看书吗?

Are you reading a book? Is the dog playing? What are you doing?

小狗正在玩耍吗?

结构︰问句:What+am(are,is)+主词+现在分词? 答句:主词+am(are,is)+现在分词?。 说明︰“<主词>(人)正在做什么?<主词>(人)正在?” 。注意:<祈使句>的动词只能用原形,不可造 <现在进行式>;表示“瞬间产生”的动作的<动词词组>,如 sit down,stand up,不可造<现在进行式>。 What am I doing? You are reading a book. What are the girls doing? They are singing. What is Bill writing? He is writing a letter. How old are you?
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我正在做什么? 你正在阅读一本书。 姑娘们正在做什么? 她们在唱歌。 比尔在写什么? 他在写一封信。

结构︰问句:How old+be 动词+主词(某人)? 答句:主词(某人)+be 动词+year(s) old。 说明︰此句型意为“某人几岁?某人是?岁” 。该句型中,<疑问词>要用 how,不可用 what;且 be <动 词>(am,is,are)要和后面的<主词>(某人)配合;答句中的“year(s) old”可以省略。 How old are you? I am twelve (years old). 你几岁?我十二岁。 你的姊妹几岁?她十三岁。

How old is your sister? She is thirteen years old. How old is John? He is one year old. What time is it? 结构︰问句:What time is it? 答句:It is+数字+o’clock。

约翰几岁?他一岁。

说明︰此句型意为“现在是几点钟?现在是?点钟” 。问句中 what 当<形容词>,修饰后面的<名词> time; time 当时间解时,只能用单数,不可用复数。 What time is it? It is ten o’clock. What time is it? It is six o’clock. What time is it? It is nine o’clock. Do you + V ...? 结构︰问句:Do/Does+主词+原形动词?? 肯定简答:Yes,主词+do/does。 否定简答:No,主词+don’t/doesn’t。 说明︰肯定句中,如有一般<动词>(speak,work,teach?) ,则在句首加<助动词> do 或 does,并将一般 <动词>改为原形<动词>(不加 s 或 es) ,即构成<疑问句>。 Do you speak English? Yes, I do. (No, I don’t.) 你讲英语吗?是的,我讲英语。 (不,我不讲英语。 ) Does she have a cat? Yes, she does. (No, she doesn’t.) 她有一只猫吗?是的,她有一只猫。 (不,她没有一只猫。 ) Do they work in office? Yes, they do. (No, they don’t.) 他们在办公室里工作吗?是的,他们在办公室里工作。 (不,他们不在办公室里工作。 ) What time do you + V ...? 结构︰问句:What time+do/does+主词+原形动词?? 答句:主词(某人)+一般动词?+时间。 说明︰此句型意为“某人几点做某事?”<助动词> do 或 does 的选择依<主词>而定,若<主词>为第三人 称单数,用 does;其它用 do。 What time do you get up? I usually get up at six. 你几点起床?我通常六点起床。 现在是几点钟?现在是十点钟。 现在是几点钟?现在是六点钟。 现在是几点钟?现在是九点钟。

What time does he go to bed? He usually goes to bed at ten.他几点就寝?他通常十点就寝。 What time does your class begin? It begins at eight-ten. What day is today? 结构︰问句:What day is today?
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你的课几点开始?八点十分开始。

答句:It’s+Sunday/Monday/?。 说明︰此句型意为“今天是星期几?今天是星期日/星期一/?。 ”it 可用于指“星期的名称” ,但 this 或 that 不可以;一星期七天的名称,都是<专有名词>,开头的首字母要大写,前面不加<冠词>。 What day is today? It’s Sunday. 今天是星期几?今天是星期日。 今天是星期几?今天是星期三。 今天是星期几?今天是星期六。

What day is today? It’s Wednesday. What day is today? It’s Saturday. How many N are there ...

结构︰问句:How many+复数名词+are there in/on+名词? 答句:There is/are+单数(复数)名词+in/on+名词。 说明︰此句型意为“在某处有多少??在某处有?。 ”该句型中,many 修饰复数<名词>;又因本句型是 < 疑问句>,故用 are there,不可用 there are。 How many seasons are there in a year? There are four seasons in a year. 一年有几个季节? 一年有四季。 How many days are there in a week? There are seven days in a week. 一星期有几天? 一星期有七天。 How many lessons are there in this book? There are twelve lessons in this book. 这本书里有几课? 这本书里有十二课。 How many ... do you have? 结构︰问句:How many+复数名词+do/does+主词+have? 答句:主词+have/has?+复数名词+?。 答句:主词+don’t/doesn’t have?+复数名词?。 说明︰“How many”后面接复数<可数名词>,复数<名词>的前面可用 many,a lot of,a few,some,few, any,no 等修饰。 How many books do you have? I have a lot of books. (I don’t have any books.) 你有几本书? 我有许多书。 (我没有书。 ) How many sweaters do you have? I have three sweaters. (I don’t have any sweaters.) 你有几件毛衣? 我有三件毛衣。 (我没有毛衣。 ) How many friends does she have? She has a lot of friends. (She doesn’t have many friends.) 她有几个朋友? 她有许多朋友。 (她没有许多朋友。 ) How much ... do you have? 结构︰问句:How much+单数不可数名词+do/does+主词+have? 答句:主词+have/has?+单数不可数名词。 答句:主词+don’t/doesn’t have?+单数不可数名词。 说明︰“How much”后面接单数<不可数名词>,单数<不可数名词>前面可用 much, a little,some,little, any,no 等修饰。 How much tea does he have? He has a lot of tea. (He doesn’t have any tea.)
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他有多少茶? 他有很多茶。 (他没有茶。 ) How much homework do they have? They have a lot of homework. (They don’t have much homework.) 他们有多少家庭作业? 他们有许多家庭作业。 (他们没有许多家庭作业。 ) How much fruit do they have? They have a lot of fruit. (They don’t have a lot of fruit.) 他们有多少水果? 他们有许多水果。 (他们没有许多水果。 ) How much do(es) ... cost? 结构︰How much do(es)+某物+cost?? 说明︰此句型意为“某物值多少钱?” 。how much 用来询问商品的价格。还可以写作: “How much+ be < 动词>+某物?"。 How much does this computer cost? (=How much is this computer?)这部计算机值多少钱? How much do the vegetables cost? 这些蔬菜值多少钱? How much do the movie tickets cost? Did ... V ... 结构︰Did+主词+原形动词+?过去时间? 说明︰将肯定句中的过去式改为“Did+原形<动词>” ,并将 Did 放在句首,句尾用问号,即构成过去式 的<疑问句>。 Did he clean the room yesterday? Did she wash the skirt yesterday? 他昨天打扫房间吗? 她昨天洗这裙子吗? 你弟弟今天上午在公园玩耍吗? 这些电影票值多少钱?

Did your brother play in the park this morning? Did he eat lunch yesterday?

他昨天吃午饭吗?

Did you see any elephants in the zoo last week? 上星期你在动物园里看到大象了吗? Did Sue have her breakfast at eight? Do you ever + V ...? 结构︰问句:Do/Does+主词+ever+原形动词?? 答句:No,主词+never+一般动词(加 s 或 es)?。 说明︰ever 通常用于<疑问句>,never 通常用于否定回答;never 也可放在句首,后接原形 <动词>,形 成否定<祈使句>,如例句 4。 Do you ever use a computer? No, I never use a computer. 你曾经使用计算机吗?不,我未曾使用过计算机。 Does Tom ever get up late? No, Tom never gets up late. 汤姆曾经晚起床吗?不,汤姆未曾晚起床过。 Does Sally ever play the piano? No, Sally never plays the piano. 萨莉曾经弹钢琴吗?不,萨莉未曾弹过钢琴。 Never be late for school, Bill. What year was he born in? 结构︰What date/year+was/were+主词+born+on/in?
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苏在八点钟吃过早餐了吗?

比尔,上学绝不可迟到。

说明︰此句型意为“你出生于几月几日(那一年)?” 。born 是<原形动词> bear 的过去<分词>,在文法 上当 <形容词>,前面常有 was 或 were;中文说“某人出生” ,英语应说: “某人+was/were born?” 。 What year were you born in? 你出生于那一年? 你母亲出生于几月几日? 你妹妹出生于几月?

What date was your mother born on? What month was your sister born in? What will you do on ...?

结构︰What will/did+主词+do+on+时间? 说明︰此句型意为“某人在某时间将做什么?(未来式)某人在某时做了什么事?(过去式) ” 。指特定的 日期(如几月几日) 、星期几或星期几的早上(下午,晚上) ,要用介系词 on。 What will you do on Teacher’s Day? What will they do on Christmas Eve? What will Helen do on her birthday? 你在教师节将做什么事? 他们在圣诞夜将做什么事? 海伦在她生日那天将做什么事? 约翰在元旦做了什么事?

What did John do on New Year’s Day? What did Mary do on Youth Day?

玛丽在青年节做了什么事? 嫌疑犯在七月九日做了什么事情?

What did the suspect do on July ninth? How do you + V ...?

结构︰问句:How+do+主词+一般动词?? 答句:主词+一般动词?+情状副词。 说明︰How 是问情况的<疑问副词>,表示“怎样??” 。用于说明“状态或性质”的副词,称为 <情状副 词>。当用来修饰<不及物动词>时,<情状副词>位于其后;当用来修饰<及物动词>时,<情状动词>位于< 及物动词>的前面或后面。 How did you do your work? I did my work happily. 你怎样做你的工作? 我很快乐地做了我的工作。 How did Mrs. Lin look at Mr. Lin? She looked at Mr. Lin coldly. 林太太怎样注视林先生? 她冷漠地注视林先生。 How does Mr. Wang drive his taxi? He drives his taxi carefully. 王先生怎样驾驶他的出租车? 他小心地驾驶他的出租车。 You are ..., aren’t you? 结构︰肯定句,+否定式助动词+主词? 说明︰这是一种反意<疑问句>,其结构特点是:第一部分是肯定式,第二部分就用否定式。直述句的<主 词>是<名词>时,附加问句的<主词>要用<代名词>代替:it 代替 this, that,<不定词>(当<主词>)或<动 名词>(当<主词>)等;they 代替 these,those, people 等。下列<助动词>的否定缩写式较易弄错:will not ->won’t;would not-> wouldn’t;should not->shouldn’t;can not->can’t;could not->couldn’t; might not->mightn’ t; ought not->oughtn’ t。 直述句有一般<动词>现在式, 则附加问句用 do 或 does 代 替;有一般<动词>过去式,则附加问句用 did 代替。 They’re ready, aren’t they?(读降调)他们准备好了吧?(读升调)他们准备好了,不是吗?
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Mike has a car, doesn’t he?(读降调)麦克有辆车,是吧?(读升调)麦克有辆车,不是吗? The secretary typed the letter, didn’t she? They will go to Europe, won’t they? You are the teacher, aren’t you? 是秘书打了这封信,不是吗?

他们将去欧洲,不是吗?

你就是老师,不是吗?

I suppose you have been in our woods, haven’t you?我推想你在我们的森林里呆过,不是吗? I know he had a good time last night, didn’t he? 我知道他昨天晚上玩得很愉快,不是吗? The wall plug is broken, isn’t it? 墙上的插座坏了,不是吗? 干净的公园是美丽的,不是吗?

Clean parks are beautiful, aren’t they? You can do it, can’t you?

你会做它,不是吗? 我们应该早起,不是吗?

We should rise early, shouldn’t we? He isn’t ..., is he? 结构︰否定句,+肯定式助动词+主词?

说明︰这是另一种反意<疑问句>。否定结构在第一部分,第二部分就要用肯定结构。对反意<疑问句>的回 答和对否定式一般<疑问句>一样,要看答句。 He isn’t a manager, is he? -- Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.) 他不是经理,是吧?--不,他是经理。 (是的,他不是经理。 ) Mike doesn’t have a car, does he? 麦克没有车,是吗? 秘书没有打过这封信,是吗?

The secretary didn’t type the letter, did she? They won’t go to Europe, will they? You aren’t the teacher, are you?

他们不会去欧洲,是吗?

你不是老师,是吗?

I don’t think he can answer the question, can he? 我想他无法回答这个问题,是吗? What in the world ...? 结构︰疑问词+in the world/on earth/ever+其他 说明︰此句型意为“究竟??到底??” 。这是特殊<疑问句>的强调说法。in the world,on earth 和 ever 是强调疑问词的<词组>。 How in the world will he do it? What in the world do you mean? How on earth did you know it? Who on earth told you that? Where ever did you lose it? 他到底将如何做这件事? 你的意思究竟是什么? 你到底是怎么知道的? 那件事究竟是谁告诉你的? 你到底在哪儿丢的呀? 他们到底想要什么?

What in the world are they hoping for? Are you ... or ...?

结构︰一般疑问句(读升调)+or+一般疑问句(读降调) 说明︰此句型意为“是?还是??"。这是选择<疑问句>,前面都是一般<疑问句>,后面的问句如与前面 有相同的部分,都可以省略。 Shall we come to see you or will you come to see us?
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是我们来找你们,还是你们来找我们? Are you from the America or from the England? Will he go on Monday or on Tuesday? Would you like coffee or tea? What ..., + A or B? 结构︰特殊疑问句(读降调),+A(读升调)or B(读降调) 说明︰这种选择<疑问句>使用得相当广泛, 其特点是: 前面的特殊<疑问句>已经明确地指出了要问的内容, 再补充几项具体事物让对方做出肯定的答复。其语调是“降-升-降”调。 What would you like - coffee or tea? 你要什么?咖啡还是茶? 您想买什么?丝还是棉? 您是美国人还是英国人?

他是星期一走还是星期二走?

你是要咖啡还是茶?

Which would you rather to buy - silk or cotton?

Where did you go: to Tianjin or to Beijing? 您去了哪里?天津还是北京? When will you go to the Fair, tomorrow or some other day? 你何时去交易会?明天还是另找哪一天? ... what/which ... 结构︰主要子句+疑问词(what/how/which/why 等)+子句 说明︰这是间接<疑问句>。疑问词后面的语句采用正常词序,不采用特殊<疑问句>所用的倒装词序。全句 末尾大多用句点,但也有用问号的。直接问句改为间接问句或间接句时,原先的<疑问句>要改为肯定句或 <否定句>的顺序;<助动词>如 will,should,would, must,may,can 等,须照抄,不可去掉;<助动词> 如 do,does,did,必须去掉,再将它后面的原形<动词>改为适当的形式。 I’d like to know how old the manager is. He inquired how it was done. 我想知道经理有多大年纪。

他问这事做得怎么样了。 请问我该先买哪个品种。

Please advise me which item I should buy. Tell me why it is so important?

告诉我为什么此事这么重要?

They do not know what the words mean. 他们不知道这些字的意思是什么。 Tell me what happened yesterday. 告诉我昨天所发生的事。

What they talked about is what we want to know. 他们谈论什么是我们所想要知道的事。 She washed her hair every night and measured how much it grew in a week. 她每晚洗头发,而且量量看一星期长多少。 You will never know how much your encouragement meant to me. 你决不会知道你的鼓励对我多么有意义。 ... whether / if ... 结构︰主要子句+whether/if+子句 说明︰此句型意为 “?是否?” 。 口语中使用 if 较为普遍。 如果子句中带有 or not 等词, 则只能用 whether; 另外,whether 不能引导否定的间接<疑问句>,而 if 则可以。 He asked me the question whether the price was too high. 他问我价格是否太高。 They asked him whether the quality is fine or not. 他们问他质量是否好。
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Tell me whether you like this color. Tell me if it doesn’t rain. Ask him if it is true.

告诉我你喜不喜欢这种颜色。

告诉我是否下不了雨。

问他那是不是真的。

I wonder if he is in the school. 我想知道他是否在学校。 Do you know if/where ... 结构︰一般疑问句+疑问词(what/where/when 等)+子句 说明︰此句为双重<疑问句>。疑问词后面采用正常词序,不用倒装词序。 Can you tell me where the teacher has gone? Have you any idea where he comes from? Do you know if they like this new item? Do you know who wants to go with me? Do you know when the train will leave? 你能告诉我老师到哪里去了吗?

他是哪里人,您知道不知道? 你知道他们是否喜欢这个新品种? 你知道谁想跟我一起去吗? 你知道火车何时开吗?

Can you tell me how much you earn a month? 你能告诉我你一个月赚多少吗? He is ..., is he? 结构︰肯定式陈述句+肯定式反问句 说明︰这种疑问<句型>的前后一致,都是肯定式结构。后一部分进一步强调前一部分的内容,是不需要回 答的一种修辞方式。 We are old friends, not strangers, right? He’s a capable businessman, is he? 我们是老朋友了,不是陌生人,是吗? 他是一位很有能力的业务员,可不是吗? 原来你是来进口中国纺织品的,是么?

So you come importing Chinese textiles, do you?

So you’ve been to Shanghai, have you? 原来你去过上海,是吧? ... what ...? 结构︰?疑问词(在句中任何位置上)? 说明︰疑问词不是位于句子开头, 而是在句子中任何位置上, 这种方法十分简单, 因此在口语中经常出现。 Two times what number makes ten? You will go where? 什么数的两倍是十?

你要到哪里去? 你今年二十几岁?

You are twenty-what this year? He’s your who?

他是你什么人?

What/How about + N/V-ing? 结构︰What/How about+名词/动名词? 说明︰此句型意为“?如何?” 。这是征求对方意见或提议的委婉说法。 What about the name Smith? What about going to a movie? 史密斯这个名字怎么样? 去看场电影如何? 借点钱给我如何? 礼拜天洗车怎么样?

What about lending me some money? What about washing the car on Sunday?

How about the others? 剩余的怎么样?
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How about a drink? 来一杯吧? How about a cup of coffee at a nearby coffee shop? What if ...? 结构︰What if+主词+动词 说明︰此句型意为“如果?的话怎么办呢?” 。但经常用于反语,有时也变成“即使?也没关系”之意。 What if it is true? 如果这是真的又该如何呢? 如果他不同意该怎么办呢? 如果他现在回来怎么办? 如果那男孩的父母死了该怎么办呢? 去附近的咖啡屋喝杯咖啡吧?

What if he doesn’t agree? What if he comes back now?

What if the boy’s parents should die? What if I fail! 即使我失败了又怎样! What ... for?

结构︰What+助动词+主词+动词?+for? 说明︰此句型意为“为什么??” 。相当于“For what??” What are you running for? What do you want it for? What did they go there for? How else ...? 结构︰How else+助动词+主词+助动词? 说明︰此句型意为“?还有别的方法吗?” 。 How else should a father in this modern world express his affection and concern for his own son? 个世界上,父亲还应该有别的方法来对自己的儿子表示爱护和关心吗? How else can the doctor save him? How else can I apologize for her? 假设法句型 If + Present Tense ..., S + will/shall + V ... 结构︰If+现在式?,S+未来式? 说明︰if 子句用现在式, 表示须具备的条件, 主句用未来式表示可能的结果, 整句含意为 “如果?, 那么?” 。 will 用于所有的人称,在 I 和 we 之后可用 shall 代替 will。若主句的主词为 I 或 we 时,可以用 shall 代替 will。像 if necessary(如果需要) ,if possible(如果可能) ,if so(如果这样)等固定词组实际上是省 略了的 if 子句。 If I lose my job, I will/shall go abroad. 如果我失业了,我就出国。 如果我头痛,我就服一片阿斯匹林。 医院还有别的方法可以救他吗? 我还能有别的方法可以向她道歉吗? 现代这 你为什么在跑步? 你为什么要那个? 他们为什么去那里?

If I have a headache, I will take an aspirin. If it rains, we will stay at home.

如果下雨,我们将待在家里。

If the weather clears, we’ll go for a walk. 如果天晴,我们就去散步。 If the weather doesn’t clear, we won’t go for a walk. Inflation may be rising, if (it is) so, prices will go up.
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如果天不晴,我们就不去散步。

通货膨胀率可能上升。如果是这样,物价就会上涨。 If possible, She wants to go with us. 可能的话,她想跟我们一起去。

Sterling may fall, if (this should be) so, interest rates will rise. 英国货币可能贬值,如果果真如此,利率就会上升。 If + Present Tense ..., S + Modal Verb ... 结构︰If + 现在式,主词+情态助动词 说明︰本句型实为<If + Present Tense ..., S + will/shall + V ...>句型之变体。之所以用情态助动词,主要是因 为说话者对可能的结果不是太肯定或者是想表达例如必要的意思。 If it is fine tomorrow, we can go out. If it is fine tomorrow, we could go out. If it is fine tomorrow, we may go out. If it is fine tomorrow, we might go out. If it is fine tomorrow, we should go out. If it is fine tomorrow, we ought to go out. If it is fine tomorrow, we must go out. If I should ..., Imperative Sentence. 结构︰If I+should ...+祈使语气 说明︰<If + should + V>代替<if + 现在式>, 增加了条件的不确定性。 本句型常用在想礼貌地提出要求或建 议,或者想圆通地告诉他人该做什么事的场合。用 should 起始句子即可不用 if 而表示条件。这种用法比 较正式,常用于诸如公函之中,而不用于日常会话。 If you should see him, please give him my regards. 如果你见到他,请代我向他致意。 如果明天天气好,我门可以出门。 如果明天天气好,我门能够出门。 如果明天天气好,我门可能出门。 如果明天天气好,我门可能出门。 如果明天天气好,我门宜于出门。 如果明天天气好,我门宜于出门。

如果明天天气好,我门必须出门。

Should you see him, please give him my regards. 如果你见到他,请代我向他致意。 If you should happen to see him, please give him my regards. 如果你万一见到他,请代我向他致意。 Should you happen to see him, please give him my regards. 如果你万一见到他,请代我向他致意。 If you should write to her, send her my love. 如果你给她写信,请代我向她问候。

Should you not wish our agent to call, please let us know. 你若不希望我们的代理人去造访,请告之。 Should you be interested in our offer, please contact us. 你若对我们的报价感兴趣,请与我们联系。 If I should ..., I will ... 结构︰If?should?,?would(will)/should(shall)等+原形动词 说明︰这是表示与未来事实相反的假设<句型>,if <子句>要用<助动词> should,译成“万一” 。should 可 置于<主词>前,将 if 省略。<主要子句>的<助动词>则视可能性做变化:若可能性低,则为过去式,若可 能性高,则为现在式。should 可以提前,而将 if 省略。
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If he should come, I would tell him the truth. If he should come, I will tell him the truth.

万一他来,我会把真相告诉他。 万一他来,我一定会把真相告诉他。 要是那男孩在来,我就把他撵出去。

Should the boy come again, I would throw him out.

If it should rain, our plan would be spoiled. 万一下雨,我们的计划就泡汤了。 Should that be true, the contract would be canceled. 假如那是真的,合约就该取消。 Should another world war break out, what would become of human beings? 万一另一次世界大战爆发,人类将会发生什么事? If I were to ..., I ... 结构︰If?were to?,?would/should 等+原形动词 说明︰这也是表示与未来状况相反的假设<句型>,与“if ... should, ...”大致相同,但“if ... were to”所表 示的可能性更低,通常用以表示“与真理相反”的<假设语气>。 If the sun were to rise in the west, he would pass the exam. 要是太阳从西边出来,他就会通过考试--他不可能通过考试。 If I were to be born again, I would like to be a bird. 我要是再活一次,我想当一只鸟。 If the sun were to disappear, what would the earth be like? 万一太阳消失了,地球会变成什么样子? Were I to die tomorrow, what would my children do? 万一明天我死了,我的孩子们将怎么办呢? If I + V-ed, I would ... 结构︰If?+过去式动词?,主词+过去式助动词(would/should 等)+原形动词 说明︰这是与现在事实相反的假设句型。 if <子句>中的<be><动词>, 不论<主词>为第几人称, 一律用 were, were 可置于主词前面,而省略 if。过去式<助动词>除用 should(用于第一人称) 、 would(用于第二、三 人称)外,还可用不分人称的 could,might 和 ought to,它们与<动词>原形结合起来构成<假设语气>。 If I knew his address, I could write to him. If I were free now, I might call on him. 如果我知道他的住址,我会写信给他。

如果我有时间,我可能会去看他。

If you were in my shoes (=Were you in my shoes), what would you do? 如果你站在我的立场,你会怎么做? Were I rich enough, I would buy a sports car. 如果我有足够的钱,我就买一辆赛车了。 How happy I would be if I were a few inches taller! 要是我再高几寸,我会好高兴。

If I had a car, I could take her for a drive. 如果我有车, 我就带她去兜风了。 If I had binoculars, I could see that comet clearly. 如果我有望远镜,我就可以清楚地看见那颗彗星。 It is time that ... 结构︰It is(high)time+(that)+主词+过去式动词 说明︰此句型意为“已经到了?的时间了” 。过去式<动词>处有时亦使用“should+<动词>原形” 。that < 子句>也能用 to <不定词>来表示。 It is time he went to bed. 该是他睡觉的时间了。
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It is time that you left for the duty.

该你当班了。 该是你反省思过的时候了。

It is time that you reflected upon your mistakes.

It is high time he should come to our house for dinner.已经到了他该上咱家吃晚饭的时候了。 It is time for somebody to teach you to behave yourself. 该是有人教你应对进退之礼仪的时候了。 If I had V-ed, I would have ... 结构︰If?had+过去分词?,主词+would/should 等+have+过去分词 说明︰这是与过去事实相反的假设<句型>。if <子句>要用<过去完成式>,<主要子句>则要用过去式<助动 词>(would,should,ought to,might,could)+have+过去<分词>。if <子句>中的 had 可置于<主词>前 面,而省略 If。 If I had seen him, I would have told him the truth. 如果我当时看见他,我会告诉他实情。 I could have finished the task if I had had more time. 如果当时我能有多一点时间,我就能完成这项任务。 If we had known of your departure, we would have seen you off at the airport. 如果我们事先知道你要离开,我们会到机场送行。 I someone had been with him, he might not have been drowned. 如果有人在他旁边,或许他就不会溺死。 I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses. 若非我已经习惯了这样的回答,我可能不敢轻易相信。 Had he not apologize to her, she would not have forgiven him. 她(那时)不会原谅他,若非他道了歉。 Had he not saved me, I might have been drowned. Had I proposed to you, would you have married me? 我要是当年向你求婚,你会答应嫁给我吗? Had you not helped us, we should have canceled this transaction. 假如没有你的帮助,这笔生意早就告吹了。 If I had V-ed, I would ... 结构︰If?had+过去分词?,主词+would/should 等+原形动词+now/today 说明︰这是<时态>不一致时的假设<句型>,亦称混合假设条件句。即:if <子句>若与过去事实相反,用< 过去完成式>表示;而<主要子句>若与现在事实相反,则用过去式<助动词>表示。此类<主要子句>句尾通 常有表现在的<时间副词>,如 now,today 等。 If he had worked harder when young, he would be well off now. 如果他年轻时多努力一点,现在就能过得舒服些。 If I had been rich ten years ago, I could buy that house today. 如果十年前我有钱,今天我就能买下那栋房子了。 Had he told the truth, he wouldn’t be punished now.如果他当时肯说实话,现在就不会受罪了。 Had he followed the doctor’s advice, he might be alive now.
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我可能溺死了,若非他救了我。

当时他要是听了医生的建议,现在可能还活着。 I wish ... + V-ed ... 结构︰I wish+(that)+主词+动词过去式/过去完成式(had+过去分词)? 说明︰I wish 之后以 that <子句>为<受词>时,该<子句>的<动词>一定要用<假设语气>:若<动词>用过去 式,表示与现在事实相反的愿望;若用<过去完成式>,则表示与过去事实相反的愿望。 “I wish+that-<子 句>”的<句型>也可用“I would rather+that-<子句>”取代。而 I hope 之后以 that <子句>做<受词>时,该 <子句>用一般<时态>。 I wish there were meadows and lambs. I wish I were as tall as you. 但愿有草地与小羊。

但愿我像你一样高。

I wish he could tell us. 但愿他能告诉我们。 I wish (=I would rather) he could come tomorrow. I wish you had not been caught in the rain yesterday. I wish you had not told the truth. 但愿他明天能来。 但愿昨天你们没有淋到雨。

但愿你没有说实话。 真希望十年前就已经认识你。

I wish I had known you ten years ago. If only + V-ed 结构︰If only+过去式/过去完成式

说明︰此句型意为“要是?就好了。 ”用过去式,表示与现在事实相反;若用<过去完成式>,则表示与过 去事实相反。 If only I had a rich father. If only he had been here. 要是我有个有钱的爸爸就好了。 要是他当时在这儿就好了。

If only I had another chance. 要是我再有一次机会就好了。 ... as if/as though ... 结构︰?as if/as though?现在式/过去式/过去完成式 说明︰此句型意为“彷佛?;好像?一样” 。as if,as though 是<副词><连接词>,引导<副词子句>。<子 句>中,可用现在式,以表示事实;也可用过去式或 <过去完成式>,分别表示与现在或过去事实相反的< 假设语气>。 He speaks like that as if he doesn’t want to attend the meeting.他那样说话,似乎不想参加会议。 He walks as if he is drunk. 他走起路来好像他真的醉了。 他感觉彷佛几乎要杀掉他们。

He felt as if he almost wished to kill them.

The baby opened the book as if he were able to read. 这个婴儿打开书本彷佛他会念书。 The nurse attends on the patient as if he were her father. 这护士照顾这位病人彷佛在照顾她爸爸似的。 He ran into the room as if he had seen something terrible. 他跑进屋子,彷佛他看到什么可怕的东西。 She looks as if nothing had happened to her. 她当时看起来好像什么事都没发生似的。 It seems/looks as if ... 结构︰It seems/looks as if? 说明︰此句型意为“似乎?” 。本句型中的 as if <子句>可用以表示事实,或<假设语气>。
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It looks as if it is going to rain. 好像要下雨了。 It seems as if he knows everything. 他似乎是个万事通。

It seems as if he knew everything, but in reality, he is as stupid as can be. 他似乎是个万事通。其实他是再愚蠢不过了。 It looks as if she had just come back from outer space. 她看起来彷佛刚从外层空间回来似的。 It seemed as if he had finished the work. 他似乎已经完成了这个工作。 It seemed as if he would never finish the work. 他似乎永远完成不了这个工作。 If it were not for ... 结构︰if it were not for+名词/子句,主词+would/should 等+原形动词? 说明︰此句型意为“若非(有)?” 。此类句构专门用于表示与现在事实相反的<假设语气>。亦可用“but for+<名词>”或“without+<名词>”代替。were 可以提前,省略 if,如例句 3。 If it were not for his presence, I would punish you. 要不是他在场,我会处罚你的。 But for your advice, I should have failed. 要不是你的忠告,我会失败的。 But for music (=Were it not for music), life would be dull. 要不是音乐,人生会很无聊。

If it were not for oxygen and nitrogen in the air, no man could live on the earth. 大气中如果没有氧和氮,人就无法生存于地球了。 Without air, all living things would die. 若非空气,所有的生物都会死亡。 Without newspaper, we would get behind the times. 要不是报纸,我们都赶不上时代了。

I should be lonely, were it not for the birds and the flowers. 我会寂寞,若非有鸟也有花。 Were it not for his help, I could not finish the work.若非有他的帮助,我就不能完成这件工作。 Were it not for science, we could not live a comfortable live. 若非科学,我们无法过着舒适的生活。 If it had not been for ... 结构︰if it had not been for+名词/子句,主词+would/should 等+原形动词? 说明︰此句型意为“若非(有)?” 。此类句构专门用于表示与过去事实相反的<假设语气>。 If it had not been for his help, I should have failed. 如果没有他的帮忙,我应该已经失败。 Had it not been for your timely help, our company would have been on the verge of bankruptcy. 若非你及时伸出援助之手,本公司将会濒临破产的边缘。 If it had not been for these experiments, the improvement of the machine would have been impossible. 要不是这些实验,这部机器也许就不可能改良了。 Had it not been for the kind guide, I might have got lost in the mountains. 要不是这位好心的向导,我可能就在山中迷路了。 If it had not been that he was here, I would have punished you. I demand/insist that ... 结构︰主词 1+意志动词(demand/insist 等)+(that)+主词 2+(should)+原形动词 说明︰意志<动词>有四类:建议(suggest,recommend,propose,advise,urge 等) ,要求(desire, ask,
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要不是他在场,我当时就会处罚你。

demand, require, request, maintain, insist 等) , 命令 (order, command 等) , 规定 ( rule, regulate, stipulate 等) 。其后接 that-<子句>时,该<子句>里的 <动词>要用原形或“ should+ <动词> ” 。美式英语通常省略 should。 The committee moved that the meeting (should) be adjourned. 委员提议休会。 His parents demanded that he (should) be back by ten. 他的父母要求他十点以前回家。

The employees demand that their salaries be raised. 员工们要求加薪。 They ruled that the law (should) not be imposed. 他们规定不应加重法律。 His father ordered that he (should) keep a diary in English. 他的父亲规定他要用英文写日记。

My mother encouraged me and insisted that I continue my education. 我妈妈鼓励我,而且坚持我应该继续我的教育。 He insisted that I (should) apologize to her. 他坚持我应该向她道歉。

Recently, many states have insisted that high schools teach students how to drive. 最近,许多州坚持中学应该教学生如何开车。 His father insisted that they (should) move to the country. 他爸爸坚持他们应该搬到乡下。 It is proper ... that ... 结构︰It is+意志形容词(important 等)+(that)+主词+(should)+原形动词 说明︰意志 < 形容词 > 包括 important , necessary, imperative , essential , urgent , desirable , advisable , recommendable,proper 等。that-<子句>中只能用<助动词> should,不可用 must,而 should 往往予以省 略。 It is necessary that he (should) sort out the information for my reference. 他有必要整理些资料供我参考。 It is essential that he get up early. 他有必要早起。

It is urgent that food and clothing (should) be sent to the sufferers. 急需将食物和衣服送给灾民。 It is desirable that we (should) provide for the poor at Christmas. It is important that he be quiet. It is important that he not do it. 他该保持安静是有必要的。 他不该做那事是有必要的。 在圣诞节施舍穷人是可喜的事。

It is requested that all members be present at the party. 全体会员都被要求出席这次晚会。 It is proper that such a bad man be punished severely. Imperative Sentence + Conj. + Main Clause 结构︰祈使句+连接词+主句 说明︰<祈使句>表示须具备的条件,主句表示可能的结果。<祈使句>代替 if 子句进行评说,提出要求, 订立协议,提供建议或威胁等。<祈使句>的用法比 if 子句表示的更为紧迫。 Provide the materials and we’ll do the job. 提供材料,我们就做这活。 Stop shouting or you’ll wake up the neighbors. 不要喊了,否则你会把邻居吵醒的。 Put that down or else I’ll smack you. 把它放下,不然我就揍你。 这么坏的人受重罚是应该的。

Be there on time, otherwise you’ll create a bad impression. 要准时来,否则你会给人一个坏的印象。 Fail to pay and they’ll cut off the electricity. 你(如果)不付款,他们就要断电。
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Stop eating sweets, or you won’t get any dinner. 你如果不停止吃糖,你就不要吃饭。 Unless ... 结构︰Unless+子句,主要子句 说明︰此句型意为“除非?” 。unless 引导一个否定假设句,相当于 if ... not ...,有时可以互换使用。总体 上看,unless 的语气强于 if ... not ...,而且有时较为常用,例如在最后通牒中。 Unless you change your mind (=If you don’t change you mind), I won’t be able to help you. 除非你改变你的想法,否则我不能帮助你。 Unless the management improves their offer, there’ll be a strike. 除非资方做出进一步的建议,否则将举行罢工。 I couldn’t have got to the meeting on time - unless I had caught an earlier train. 我不可能及时赶到会场,除非我赶上了较找的一班火车。 Provided/Providing (that) .... 结构︰Provided/provided(that)+子句,S+V ... 说明︰此句型意为“如果?” 。Provided/Providing (that) 引导假设条件句,其功能相当于 if。 Provided/Providing (that) you clear your desk by this evening, you can have tomorrow off. 如果你到今晚把手头上的工作做完,你明天就可以休息。 As/So long as ... 结构︰As/So long as +子句,S+V ... 说明︰此句型意为“如果?,只要?” 。As/So long as 引导一个条件假设句,其功能相当于 if。 So (As) long as you clear your desk by this evening, you can have tomorrow leave. 如果你到今晚把手头上的工作做完,你明天就可以休息。 As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. 如果你开车小心,你就会很安全。 You may eat anything, so long as you don’t eat too much. 只要不吃得太多,你可以吃任何东西。 As long as live, I will help you. 只要我活着,我都会帮助你。

As long as you don’t betray me, I’ll do whatever you ask me to (do). 只要你不出卖我,要我做什么我都愿意。 We’ll ship the goods at an early time as long as there is a steamer.只要有船,我们就尽早装货。 You will never be good students so long as you goof around. 如果你们成天游手好闲,就永远也成不了好学生。 Suppose/Supposing (that) ... 结构︰Suppose/Supposing (that)+子句,S+V ... 说明︰此句型意为“如果?,假使?” 。Suppose/Supposing (that) 引导假设条件句,其功能相当于 if。 Suppose/Supposing (that) we miss the train, what shall we do? What if/Say ... 结构︰What if/Say+子句,S+V ... 说明︰此句型意为“假设?” 。What if 和 Say 用来引导一个假设条件句,其义相当于 Let us suppose(让
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如果我们误了火车,我们将怎么办?

我们假设) 。 What if/Say he goes home before us and can’t get in? What will he do then? 假设他在我们之前赶到家而又进不去呢?那他怎么办呢? What if/Say you were to run out of money? What would you do? 假设你的钱用完了呢?你将怎么办呢? With luck ... 结构︰With luck,+主要子句 说明︰With luck 为含蓄假设条件句(即不用 if 直接引导) 。with luck 意为“如果幸运的话,如果运气好 的话” 。 With luck, we’ll be there by tomorrow.幸运的话,我们明天将到达那儿。 (=If we are lucky) With luck, she will get the job. 如果幸运的话,她将得到那份工作。 (=If she is lucky) Given time ... 结构︰Given time,+主要子句 说明︰此为含蓄假设条件句(即不用 if 直接引导) 。Given time 意为“ (如果)给以时间的话” 。 Given time, they will probably agree.给以时间的话,他们可能会同意。 (=If they are given time/If we give them time) To hear him talk, ... 结构︰To hear him talk,+主要子句 说明︰此句型意为“听某人谈话(的口气)?” 。从形式上看,To hear him talk 似为不定式词组,但实则 为含蓄条件句(即不用 if 直接引导) 。To hear him talk 相当于 If you could hear him talk。 To hear him talk, you’d think he was Prime Minister. 听他谈话(那口气) ,你会以为他是首相呢。 To hear you talk, I’d think you were Prime Minister. Without ..., S + V ... 结构︰Without ?,+主要子句 说明︰此句型意为“如果没有?” ,是导致主要子句结果发生的必要条件。Without ... 为含蓄假设条件句, 此用法在口语表达中最为常见。without 意为“ (如果)没有?的话” 。Without 既可以放在句首,也可以放 在句尾,放在句首有强调作用。此外,如果主要子句用否定式,则和 without 构成双重否定,表示特别强 调 without 之后项为主要子句动作发生之必备条件。 Without your help, I couldn’t have done it. (如果)没有你的帮助,我是不会做成的。 (=If you hadn’t helped me) She can’t solve the problem without his help.如果)没有他的帮助,她不可能解决这道题。 We can’t live without air or water.(如果)没有空气或水,我们就无法生存。 Fish cannot live without water.(如果)没有水,鱼儿就无法生存。 比较句型 as/so ... as ... 结构︰as/so+形容词或副词原级+as?
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听你谈话(那口气) ,我还以为你是首相呢。

说明︰此句型意为“?和?一样?” 。比较两件东西,并表示它们的程度一样。第一个 as 为<副词>,第 二个 as 则为<副词><连接词>,引导<副词子句>,修饰第一个 as。在 as?as 中可插入单数<可数名词>, 即: “as+<形容词>+a/an+<名词>+as” 。若是复数<名词>,可用“as many/few+复数 <名词>+as” ; 若是<不可数名词>,则用“as much/little+<不可数名词>+as” 。 “as+原级(形、副)+as+原级(形、 副) ”这形式表示有关同一人(物)的两种不同的性质、状态是一样程度的,译作“既有?且还有?” 。 He is as handsome as his brother (is). 他和他哥哥一样英俊。

Judy goes to the movies as often as Sara does. 朱迪像莎拉一样时常去看电影。 Old John goes to sleep as easily as a baby does. 老约翰像婴儿一样容易入睡。 The girls are as busy with their work as bees. 这些女孩子就跟蜜蜂一样忙着工作。 He is as nice a boy as Peter (is). 他和彼得一样都是好男孩。 她和玛丽一样有许多朋友。 他和约翰一样有很多钱。

She has as many friends as Mary (does). He has as much money as John (does).

He is as clever as (he is) handsome. 他不但英俊而且聪明。 My teacher is as kind as (she is) intelligent. 我的老师不但善良而且聪慧。 as many/much ... 结构︰as many/much+名词? 说明︰此句型意为“同数(量)的?;一样多” 。本<词组>旨在用以代替句中前面已提到的相同数字,以 避免该数字的重复。 He was tired enough to make ten errors in as many (=in ten) pages. 他疲倦得十页中犯了十个错误。 Mike read five books in as many (=in five) months. 麦克在五个月内看了五本书。

I didn’t expect that he should have committed three robberies in as many days. 没想到(老实的)他居然在三天内犯了三次抢劫罪。 as many/much as ... 结构︰as many/much as+数字+复数名词/不可数名词 说明︰此句型意为“多达?” 。不要与“as many/much+<名词>” (同数量的?)混淆。同理,此类<词组> 还有:as long as+数字+<名词>(长达?) ,as wide as+数字+<名词>(宽达?) , as high as+数字+< 名词>(高达?) ,as early as+数字+<名词>(早在?) ,as late as+数字+<名词>(迟在?)等。 She has as many as seven sisters. 她的姊妹有七人之多。

As many as 100 people were killed in the air crash. 这次空难中多达一百人丧生。 I gave the beggar as much as 1,000 yen. 我给了这乞丐整整一千元。 建筑费用涨到高达新台币两千万。

Building costs ran up to as much as NT$ 20 million.

I have been learning English (for) as long as 15 years. 我学英文已有十五年之久。 He came home as late as two in the morning. 他迟至清晨两点才回家。

I saw your brother as late as last week. 上个礼拜我还看到你哥哥。 The river is as wide as 100 meters. 这条河宽达一百公尺。 I mailed the letter as early as Friday. 我早在星期五就把信寄了。
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A is as much + N + as B is 结构︰主词+be+as+much+名词+as+(be)+主词 说明︰此句型意为“?和?同样?” 。 “as much+<名词>+as+(be)+<主词>”的 be 通常省略或放句末。 Comets are just as much members of the sun’s family as (are) the other planets. 彗星和其他的行星同样是太阳家族的成员。 To eat too much is as much a bad thing as to eat nothing. 吃太多和什么都不吃同样是坏事。 He is as much a member of the orchestra as Tom. 他和汤姆同样是管弦乐队的成员。 not as/so + ADJ/ADV + as + N 结构︰not as/so+形容词/副词+as+名词 说明︰此句型意为“不像?那样?” 。as?as 可用于肯定句或<否定句>,而 so?as 仅可用于<否定句>构 中。 It is not as (so) popular as other foods. 它不像其他食物那样受欢迎。 He does not study as (so) hard as John. 他不像约翰那样用功。 I am not as (so) careful as Tom. 我不像汤姆那样细心。 as far as ... 结构︰as far as+名词 说明︰此句型意为“到?之远;到?的程度” 。而“as far as+<主词>+<动词>”则表示“只要?,在?范 围内的话?” 。 Swallows from England go as far as South Africa. 英国来的燕子飞到南非那样远的地方。 We walked as far as the railroad station. 我们走到火车站那样远的地方。 We drove as far south as Kaohsiung. 我们往南开车一直到高雄。

He went as far as Yokohama to meet his friend from England. 他远至横滨去迎接由英国来的朋友。 I swam as far as I could. ... just as ... as ... 结构︰主词+动词+just as+形容词/副词+as+(代)名词/动名词 说明︰此句型意为“?就像?一样?” 。第一个 as 是“同样的;一样的” ,第二个 as 是“像”之意。若< 主词>之后不是 be <动词>,则 as 之后不用<形容词>,而要用<副词>。 Being a good pedestrian is just as important as being a good driver. 做一个好的行人就像做一个好的司机一样重要。 Writing is just as important as reading. 写作就像阅读一样重要。 He wrote just as carefully as Tom. 他就像汤姆一样小心地写。 ... as ... as one can 结构︰?as+形容词/副词/名词+as one can 说明︰此句型意为“尽可能?” 。 “as ... as one can”相当于“as ... as possible” 。one 要随<主词>的人称而变 化,而 can 要随<时态>变化。
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我尽可能地游远。

To speak English fluently, you had better read as many English articles as you can. 要想把英文讲得很流利,你最好尽量多看英文文章。 Take as much exercise as you can. 尽可能多做运动。 Be as careful as you can. 尽可能小心。

Our teacher explained the lesson to us as clearly as he could. 我们的老师尽可能清楚地为我们解释这一课。 She needed to soften her request to make it as polite and courteous as she could. 她需要使请求语气柔婉,以便尽可能把它变成有礼貌与客气。 You should be as careful as you can in making friends. 在交朋友方面,你应该尽可能小心。

We had better learn by heart as many sentence patterns as we can. 我们最好尽可能多背句型。 I looked down the road as far as I could. 我尽可能遥望这条路。 I will try to save as much as I can. 我会设法尽可能多储蓄。

You should remain as quiet as you can. 你应尽可能地保持沉默。 ... as ... as ... can be 结构︰主词+be 动词+as+形容词+as+(形容词)+can be 说明︰此句型意为“极?,不亚于任何人?” 。此<句型>借重复同一个<形容词>而成为强调此<形容词>的 说法。常用的此类<词组>有:as plain as plain can be(再明白不过了) ,as wise as wise can be(再聪明不过 了) ,as white as white can be(白得不能再白了) ,as wrong as wrong can be(错得太离谱)等。 His failure is as plain as plain can be. 他的失败是再明白不过了。 He is as handsome as (handsome) can be. 他潇洒极了。 She is as kind as can be. 她极为和颜悦色。 Mary is as hardworking as can be. 玛丽在班上之用功不输任何人。 He may not be so clever as Peter, but he is as industrious as can be. 他也许不如彼得聪明,但却用功极了。 as ... as ever 结构︰as+形容词/副词+as ever 说明︰此句型意为“与往常一样?” 。 He seems to be as busy as ever. 他似乎和往常一样忙碌。

He works as hard as ever. 他和往常一样努力工作。 She was as beautiful as ever after so many years. ... times as ... as ... 结构︰倍数词+as+形容词/副词+as? 说明︰此句型意为“是?的几倍” 。 “两倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍” ,通常用 times。 An ordinary subway train, approaching the station, can be twice as loud as the loudest jet. 平常的地下火车接近车站时,发出的声音可能是最大声的喷射机的两倍。 This line is four times as long as that one. 这条线是那条线的四倍长。
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过了那么多年,她美丽如故。

I am twice as old as he. 我的年纪是他的两倍。 She studies three times as hard as I. 她用功的程度是我的三倍。 He earns twice as much as he used to. 他比往常多赚二倍的钱。 She spent half as much money as you. ... times the/my N ... 结构︰?倍数词+the(或所有格)+名词 说明︰此句型意为“是?的几倍” 。<倍数词>与<名词>之间一定有 the 或<所有格>。有时可改为“<倍数 词>+as+<形容词>” 。三倍以上的“倍” ,通常用“times” 。而“more than+<倍数词>+the(或<所有格>) +<名词>”译为“是?的几倍还不止” 。 It was over twice the distance of the earth from the sun. 那是地球到太阳的距离的两倍多。 Line A is four times the length of line B. 线条 A 是线条 B 的四倍长。 I have five times the number of Tom’s books. 我有五倍于汤姆的书。 He has three times my money. 他的钱是我的三倍。 他的钱是我的三倍还不止。 这条河的长度是淡水河的十倍。 她花掉的钱只有你花掉的一半。

He has more than three times my money.

The river is ten times the length of the Tamsui River.

Holland has two-thirds the inhabitants of the state of New York, which is four times the size of Holland. 荷 兰的居民是纽约州的三分之二,而纽约州却是荷兰的四倍大。 more than ... as ... as 结构︰more than+倍数词+as+形容词/副词+as 说明︰此句型意为“是?的几倍还不止” 。 “两倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍” ,通常用 times。 He is more than three times as rich as I. (=He is three times richer than I.) 他的财富是我的三倍还不止。 He studies more than three times as hard as I. 他用功的程度是我的三倍还不止。 I am more than twice as old as he. 我的年龄是他的两倍还不止。 He has collected more than three times as many stamps as I (have). 他搜集的邮票是我的三倍还不止。 ... times ...er than ... 结构︰倍数词+形容词或副词比较级+than? 说明︰此句型意为“比?大几倍” 。 “两倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍” ,通常用 times。 We now know that X-ray waves are 2,000 to 10,000 times shorter than light waves. 我们现在知道X光波比光波短二千到一万倍。 This street is four times shorter than that one. 这条街道比那条短四倍。 The mother elephant is one hundred times heavier than the baby elephant. 这只母象比小象重一百倍。 It is ten times louder than another. 它比另外一个的声音大十倍。 This street is three times wider than that one. 这条街比那条街宽三倍。 I am twice older than he. not so adj. as adj. 结构︰not so+形容词/副词+as+形容词/副词
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我的年纪比他大两倍。

说明︰此句型意为“与其说是?倒不如说是?” 。相当于“<形容词>/<副词>+rather than+<形容词>/< 副词>” 。 She is not so beautiful as charming. (=She is charming rather than beautiful.) 与其说她美倒不如说她迷人。 He is not so clever as diligent. She is not so kind as simple. not so much + N as + N 结构︰not so much+名词+as+名词 说明︰此句型意为“与其说是?倒不如说是?” 。相当于“<名词>+rather than+<名词>” 。 He is not so much a writer as a scholar. 与其说他是作家倒不如说他是学者。 他的努力胜于天份。 与其说他聪明倒不如说他勤奋。 与其说她善良不如说她单纯。

He is not so much a genius as a hard worker.

The Apollo program was not so much a scientific achievement as a technical accomplishment. 阿波罗计划与其说是一项科学成果,不如说是一项技术成就。 not so much ... as ... 结构︰not so much+介系词词组/不定词词组+as+介系词词组/不定词词组 说明︰此句型意为“与其说是?倒不如说是?” 。相当于“<介系词词组>/<不定词词组>+rather than+ < 介系词词组>/<不定词词组>” 。 Happiness hinges not so much on wealth as on health. 快乐与其说在于财富倒不如说在于健康。 One’s greatness lies not so much in his wealth as in his character. 一个人的伟大与其说是由他的财富来判断,倒不如说是由他的品德来判断。 Success lies not so much as in luck as in hard work. 与其说成功在于运气不如说是辛勤努力。 I lay down not so much to sleep as to think.我躺下来与其说是要睡觉,倒不如说是要思考。 It is not so helpful to give someone some bread as to teach him how to make a living. 与其说给人面包很有帮助,倒不如说教导他如何谋生才重要。 Our success was attributed not so much to your help as to our cooperation. 我们的成功与其归功于您的帮忙,不如归功于我们的合作。 The great use of a school education is not so much to teach you things as to teach you the art of learning. 学 校教育的最大用处,与其说是教你事物,不如说是教你学习的方法。 The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it. (=The oceans do not divide the world so much as unite it.) 与其说是海洋分割这个世界,不如说是统一这个世界。 not so much as ... 结构︰not so much as ... 说明︰此句型意为 “甚至都不?” 。 相当于 “not even ...” 。 本<词组>使用时, 要置于<助动词>之后, 即: cannot so much as+原形<动词> (甚至?都不能) , do not so much as+原形<动词> (甚至?都不) , have not so much as+过去<分词>(甚至?都没有) 。 He cannot so much as write his own name. (=He cannot even write his own name.)
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他甚至连自己的名字都不会写。 He did not so much as thank me. 他甚至都没谢我。

He is so stupid that he can’t so much as eat. 他蠢得甚至连吃饭都不会。 When Mary walked in, she didn’t so much as take a glance at me, which angered me. 玛丽进门时,连看我一眼都没有,真令人生气。 the more ..., the more ... 结构︰the+比较级?,the+比较级? 说明︰此句型意为“愈?,就愈?” 。若句中的<主词>为一般<名词>,而非<代名词>(he,it,you,they) 或<专有名词>(John,Mary) ,且后面的<动词>为 be <动词>时,该 be <动词>可省略。 The more you soften a request, the more polite it becomes. 你愈使请求柔婉,请求就愈变为客气。 The longer you stay here, the more you will like the place. 你在这里待得愈久,你愈会喜欢这个地方。 The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make. The more I learn, the less I feel I know. 学而后知不足。 你愈小心,你犯错就会愈少。

The closer you stay to nature, the more you will appreciate her beauty. 你愈接近大自然,就愈能了解它的美。 The more leisure he has, the less he stays at home. The better the boy (is), the more I like him. 愈是有空,他愈不肯待在家里。

这男孩愈好我愈喜欢他。

The colder the weather (is), the more comfortable my life (will be). 天气愈冷,我的生活就愈舒服。 The bigger the house (is), the more money it will cost. The more haste, the less speed. 欲速则不达。 The more noble the more humble. 结实愈丰者,其穗愈低。 More profit and less honor. 舍名逐利。 The sooner the better. 事不宜迟。 The more you have, the more you want. 拥有愈多,欲望愈高。 房子愈大愈值钱。

The more you beat iron the harder it grows. 铁不炼不成钢,玉不琢不成器。 more and more ... 结构︰比较级+and+比较级 说明︰此句型意为“愈来愈?” 。 The noise of traffic grows louder and louder. 交通的噪音变得愈来愈大。 It is getting hotter and hotter. 天气愈来愈热。 You should study harder and harder. 你应该更用功念书。 The girl became more and more beautiful. 这女孩变得愈来愈漂亮了。 With the rapid economical development, China’ s position on the international stage is getting more and more important.随着经济迅速发展,中国在国际舞台上的地位变得愈来愈重要了。 ... more ... than ...
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结构︰主词+be 动词+more?than? 说明︰此句型意为“?是?而不是?” 。在“?”的位置,可以用<名词>,<形容词>,或带有形容词性的< 分词>。 You may also find that reading has become more fun than work! 你或许也会发现阅读已经变成是有趣的事,而不是工作。 It is more a made-up story than a real occurrence.那是杜撰的故事,而不是真实发生的事情。 I was more disappointed than discouraged. 我是失望,而不是泄气。 He seems more like a military officer than a business executive. 他似乎比较像一个军官,而不像一个商业行政主管。 He is more a sprinter than a swimmer. 他是短跑健将,而不是游泳选手。

I am more frightened than hurt. 我吓坏了而没有受伤。 Sue is more beautiful than Jane. 苏比珍较美。 The computer is more expensive than the typewriter. 这部计算机比这部打字机更贵。 People in the country are happier than people in the city.乡下的人们比城市的人们更快乐。 N1 more ... than N2 结构︰名词 1+比较级+than+名词 2 说明︰此句型意为“比?更为?的?” 。 People have to live on something more nourishing than hope. 人们必须依赖比希望更滋养的东西来过活。 I have never seen a girl more beautiful than Mary. 我从未见过比玛丽更为美丽的女孩子。 I want some persons more experienced than Tom. 我要一些比汤姆更有经验的人。 more N than + ADJ/V-ed 结构︰比较级+名词+than+(be 动词)+形容词/过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“比?来得更多的?” 。be <动词>通常省略。 Some people give higher priced gifts than necessary for the situation. 有些人给了比情况所必要来得更高价的礼物。 I did more work than required. 我做了比所被要求的来得更多的工作。 We were given more money than necessary for the project. It is better to V1 than V2 结构︰It is+比较级+to+原形动词 1?than+(to)+原形动词 2? 说明︰此句型意为“?比?更?” 。than 之后的 to 可以省略。 It is better to laugh than (to) weep. 笑比哭好。 It is more comfortable to lie on a lawn than (to) sit in the office. It is harder to teach than (to) study. make ... more ... of ... 结构︰主词+make+受词+more+形容词+of?
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我们被给了比计划所要求来得更多的钱。

躺在草坪上比坐在办公室里舒服。

教书比读书辛苦。

说明︰此句型意为“?使?更加?” 。根据不同的情况,句子可以有不同<时态>。 Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight. 黑暗会使他更加珍惜视力。

Their sudden attack made us more aware of the danger around us. 他们突然的攻击使我们更加注意我们周围的危险。 Your encouragement made me more confident of my future. 你的鼓励使我对我的未来更加有信心。 all the more for ... 结构︰all the+比较级+for+名词 说明︰此句型意为“即使?却更加?;因为?反而更加?” 。for 为<介系词>,之后接<名词>为其<受词>。 也可写成“all the+比较级+because-子句” 。because 为<副词><连接词>,之后接<主词>+<动词>,引导< 副词子句>。 You will enjoy stories all the more for having understood the characters in them. 你会因为已经了解小说中的角色,而更加喜欢小说。 I love her all the better for her poverty (=because she is poor). 因为她穷,我反而更喜欢她。 I like the book all the more for its beautiful illustrations. 我因为精美的插图而更加喜欢这本书。 He studied all the harder because he had failed (=for his failure). 因为他失败了,他反而更用功念书了。 She is all the more beautiful for her shabby clothing (=because her clothing is shabby). 即使她衣衫褴褛,却显得更美丽了。 I respect him all the more because he has faults. 因为他有缺点,我反而更尊敬他。 I like Kyoto all the better for its many narrow streets. 正因为小道多,我反而更喜欢京都。 none the ...er for ... 结构︰none the+比较级+for+名词 说明︰此句型意为“即使?却一点也不?” 。相当于“none the+比较级+because-子句” 。for 为<介系词>, 之后接<名词>为其<受词>;because 则为<副词><连接词>,之后接<主词>+<动词>,引导<副词子句>。 His health is none the better for his exercise (=because he takes exercise). 即使他运动,他的健康状况却一点也不好。 She is none the more beautiful because she wears a fancy dress. 即使她身穿时髦洋装,却一点也不漂亮。 He is none the happier for his great wealth. 即使他有钱,却一点也不快乐。

He is none the wiser because he has read many books. 他虽然读了不少书,可是并未因此而聪明些。 none the less ... for ... 结构︰none the less+形容词/副词+for+名词 说明︰此句型意为 “即使?却仍然” 。 相当于 “none the less+形容词/副词+because-子句” 。 none the less 为 <副词>,译成“仍然” ,可修饰<动词>,<形容词>或<副词>;修饰<动词>时,置于该<动词>之后;修饰< 形容词>时,置于该<形容词>之前;修饰<副词>时,置于该<副词>之前。
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I love him none the less because he is poor. 即使他穷,我还是爱他。 She is none the less beautiful for her shabby clothing. 即使她衣衫褴褛,却仍然美丽。 He studied none the less hard because he had failed. 即使他失败了,却仍然用功念书。 ... no more ... than ... 结构︰A+动词+no more+B+than+C+动词+D 说明︰此句型意为“A 不是 B 正如 C 不是 D” 。 “no more ... than”等于“not ... any more than” 。若 than 之后的词类与前面的词类相同,可以省略;若不同,则不可省略。 A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. 鲸鱼不是鱼正如马不是鱼一样。 A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man. 没有爱的家不是家,就如同没有灵魂的身体不是人一样。 He is no more able to speak English than I am (able to speak English). 和我不会说英语一样,他也不会说英语。 He is no more considerate of others than his brother is. 他不体谅别人,就跟他弟弟一样。 He can no more sing than I can dance. 他不会唱歌正如我不会跳舞一样。 We can no more live without sleep than (we can) without water. 我们没有睡眠不能活,正如我们没有水就不能活一样。 I am no more out of my mind than you are (out of your mind). 你我两人都没有疯狂。 Tom was no more surprised than (he was) disappointed at this news. 汤姆听见那消息既不惊讶也不失望。 He is no better (no more good) at English than I am. ... no less ... than ... 结构︰A+动词+no less+B+than+C+动词+D 说明︰此句型意为“A 是 B 和 C 是 D 一样” 。 “no less ... than”等于“as ... as” ,no less 之后可置<副词> 或 <形容词>修饰。 A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is. He is no less clever than his elder brother. She is no less good at swimming than Mary. 鲸鱼和马一样都是哺乳动物。 他和他的大哥一样聪明。 她和玛丽一样擅长游泳。 他的英文不好,就像我一样。

His parents are no less happy over his engagement than he is (happy over his engagement). 他的双亲对他订婚的高兴并不亚于他自己。 He studies no less hard than John. 他和约翰一样用功。

Associating with good friends is no less important to us than choosing good books. 交益友与选择好书对我们同样重要。 A good shirt is no less expensive than a jacket.一件好衬衫的昂贵程度并不比一件夹克衫差。 Sports wears, no less than suits, are very much saleable.运动服和西服套一样,非常畅销。 not more ... than ... 结构︰not more?than?
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说明︰此句型意为“没有比?更多;最多只是和?一样” 。等于“at best as ... as” 。 She is not more beautiful than Mary. 她不比玛丽美丽--顶多只是和玛丽一样美。

I was not more surprised than he (was). 我不像他那样惊讶。 He is not more handsome than I. not less ... than 结构︰not less ... than 说明︰此句型意为“没有比?更少;至少与?一样” 。等于“at least as ... as” 。 She is not less beautiful than Mary. 她至少和玛丽一样美丽。 He is not less interested in composing music than Jane. 他至少跟珍一样对谱曲很感兴趣。 He is not less handsome than I. no more than ... 结构︰no more than+名词 说明︰此句型意为“仅仅?” 。等于“only+<名词>” ,强调稀少。 It will take no more than five days to read the book. 不到五天,我就会把这本书读完。 It is no more than ten minutes’ walk from the station. 由车站走到这里只有十分钟的路程。 I had no more than 2 or 3 mistakes on my English assignment. no less than ... 结构︰no less than+名词 说明︰此句型意为“多达?;足足有?之多” 。等于“as many/much as ...” ,强调多。 I received no less than ten thousand yen for my work. 我的工资多达一万元。 我的英文作业中只有两三处错误。 他至少跟我一样潇洒。 他不比我潇洒--顶多跟我一样潇洒。

The audience was no less than five thousand. 听众有五千人之多。 That hotel probably costs no less than 20 dollars a night. 那间旅馆的住宿费大约要 20 元一晚呢。 No less than ten students flunked the exam. not more than ... 结构︰not more than+名词 说明︰此句型意为“最多不超过?” 。等于“at most+<数词>+<名词>” 。 It is not more than ten minutes’ walk from the station. 由车站走到这里最多十分钟的路程。 整整有十位学生在这次考试中不及格。

I’ll stay here not more than three days. 我将待在这里最多不超过三天。 For safety’s sake, don’t drive more than 30 kilometers per hour in the city. 为了安全起见,在市内开车时速不要超过三十公里。 not less than ... 结构︰not less than+名词 说明︰此句型意为“至少?” 。等于“at least+<数词>+<名词>” 。 The audience was not less than five thousand. I’ll stay here not less than three days. 听众至少也有五千人。

我将待在这里至少三天。

Though they think it takes no more than three days to fulfill the mission, I believe it takes not less than six
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days.

虽然他们认为完成这任务只需三天,但我却认为至少需要六天。

at best + N 结构︰at best+名词 说明︰此句型意为“充其量?;只不过是?” 。等于“nothing but ...” 。 Don’t expect much of him; he is at best a student. 不要对他期望过高;他只不过是个学生。 She is at best a second-rate singer. 她充其量是个二流歌手。

Don’t scold him too much; he is at best a child. 不要太责骂他;他只不过是个孩子。 much more /much less ... 结构︰much more/much less? 说明︰此句型意为“更不用说?” 。 “much more ...”等于“let alone ...”或“still more ...” ,只用于肯定句; “much less ...”等于“still less ...” ,只用于<否定句>。 She can speak English, much more/let alone/still more write it. 她会说英语,更不用说写英文了。 She cannot speak English, much less/still less write it. 她不会说英语,更不用说写英文了。

You have a right to your property, much more to your ideas. 你有处理自己财产的权利,更有支配自己思想的权利。 I enjoy singing, much more listening to music. 我喜欢唱歌,更不用说听音乐了。

She cannot buy daily necessities, much less luxuries. 她连生活必需品都不能买,更不用说奢侈品。 He can hardly run a mile, much less the marathon. 他连一哩都跑不了,更不用说马拉松了。 That father can’t discipline himself, much less set a good example for his children to follow. 那位父亲不能以身作则,更不用说做孩子的榜样了。 ... more than any other N 结构︰比较级+than+any other+单数名词 说明︰此句型意为“比其他任何?都还?” 。这是用<比较级>来表示<最高级>的同范围比较<句型>。也可 用“<比较级>+than+all the other+复数<名词>”来表示。 John is more diligent than any other student in his class. John is more diligent than all the other students in his class. Baseball is more popular than any other sport in Japan. Autumn is better for reading than any other season. 约翰比班上其他的同学用功。 约翰比班上其他的同学用功。

在日本,棒球比其他任何运动都受人欢迎。 秋天比任何季节都适合读书。

Mt. Jade is higher than any other mountain in Taiwan. 玉山要比台湾的任何山都高。 ... more than anyone else 结构︰比较级+than+anyone else/anything else 说明︰此句型意为 “比其他任何?都还?” 。 这是用<比较级>来表示<最高级>的同范围比较<句型>。 anyone else 指人;anything else 指物。 John is more diligent than anyone else in his class. 约翰比班上其他的同学用功。

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Time is more precious than anything else in the world.

时间比世上任何东西都宝贵。

Mary is more beautiful than anyone else in her company. 玛丽在公司里比其他人都漂亮。 We pay less attention to time than to anything else.我们对时间的不重视超过其他任何事物。 nothing is ...er than ... 结构︰nothing(或 no+名词)+动词+比较级+than? 说明︰此句型意为“没有如此?者” 。这是用<比较级>来表示<最高级>的<句型>。 Nothing is more valuable than time, but nothing is less valued. 没有比时间更贵重的东西,但也没有比它更受轻视的东西。 No place is better than one’s home. 没有任何地方比得上自己的家。

Nothing is more pleasant than staying home listening to music. 没有一件事比待在家里听音乐更愉快的了。 Nothing gives him more pleasure than helping someone in trouble. 没有一件事要比帮助陷入困境的人带给他更大的快乐。 There is nothing to which we pay less attention than time and air. 我们对时间和空气的不重视超过其他任何事物。 ... nothing more than N 结构︰主词+动词+nothing more than+名词 说明︰此句型意为“?只不过?” 。 “nothing more than”等于“nothing but” 。 Others are dismissed as nothing more than entertainment. 有些只不过是被当做娱乐而不予考虑。 It is nothing more than a made-up story. 它只不过是杜撰的故事而已。 她希望被对待得只不过像一般的女孩子。

She wishes to be treated as nothing more than a common girl. ...er than ever 结构︰?+比较级+than ever

说明︰此句型意为“比以前更?” 。than ever 等于 than ever before,意为“比以前任何时候?” 。 There it was, ticking away, louder than ever. You should be more careful than ever. Does she spend more money than ever? better ... than ... 结构︰better+?+than+被比对象 说明︰此句型意为“宁可?;最好还是?” 。better 之后可接<形容词>,<副词>,<名词>,<动词>等。 Please try to attend the meeting. Better late than absent.请您尽量参加会议。迟来也比不来强。 Better to postpone the shipment than to cancel the contract. Better reduce the price than allow a discount. with no N is it ...er than 结构︰... and with no+名词 1+is it+比较级+than+with+名词 2 说明︰此句型意为 “?这种情形没有一种?比?更为?” 。 此种结构, 由于有 no, 所以用 is it 的倒装句型。
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它就在那里,滴答地走着,比以前更大声。

你应该比以前更小心。 她比以前花更多的钱吗?

与其撤约还不如延期装运。

与其给折扣,不如减价。

It is unreasonable to regard any language as the possession of a particular nation, and with no language is it more unreasonable than with English. 把某一种语言视为某一特定的国家所拥有是不合理的, 而这种情形没 有一种语言比英语更为不合理。 It is bad to get ill, and with no disease is it worse than with cancer. 生病是糟糕的,而这种情形没有一种疾病比癌症更为糟糕。 It is pleasant to chat with friends, and with no chat is it more pleasant than with close friends. 和朋友聊天是愉快的,而这种情形没有比和知己的朋友聊天更为愉快。 Who is the most ... 结构︰Who is the+最高级?? 说明︰此句型意为 “谁最??” 。 此句型中若将 who 改为 which, 即用来询问一组事物中最具某种特色的, 如例句 4。 Who is the oldest of them? 他们之中谁的年纪最大? 谁是他们家里最美丽的人?

Who is the most beautiful in their family? Who is the youngest here?

这里谁是最年轻的? 哪个科目对你来说最有趣?

Which is the most interesting subject for you? the ...est ... not ... 结构︰最高级+?not?

说明︰<最高级>词类与 not 并用时,有“甚至?都不?”的意味。 The most foolish man knows his own name. 再笨的人都知道自己的名字。

The loveliest flower cannot beat her beauty. 再漂亮的花也比不上她的美丽。 The greatest scholar cannot solve this difficult problem. 再伟大的学者也没有办法解答这个难题吧。 The richest man in the world cannot buy everything. 即使是世上最富有的人,也无法买到一切。

There is not the smallest chance of his escape. 他一点逃走的机会也没有。 Not even the thickest jacket was enough to keep out the cold. 就连最厚的夹克也不足以御寒。 The strongest man (that) you can think of cannot tear the log apart with bare hands. 就连你所能想到的最壮的人也不能光用手就将木头撕裂。 the ...est ... that V-ed 结构︰the+最高级?+(that)+完成式 说明︰此句型意为“最?” 。that 是<关系代名词>;<完成式>中习惯使用<副词> ever 强调。 That’s the best book that I have ever read. 那是我读过的最好的书。 那是我遇到的最美好的事。 他是我所知道的最用功的学生。

That’s the nicest thing that has ever happened to me. He is the most diligent student that I have ever known.

That’s the worst performance (that) I have ever seen. 那是我所看过的最糟的一次表演。 of all the N, the ...est 结构︰of+the three/the four/all the+复数名词,+最高级子句 说明︰此句型意为“在?中,?最?” 。但须注意: “of the two+复数<名词>+<比较级><子句>” ,表示“两
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者中?较?” ,如例句 7。<最高级><子句>也可置于句首。 Of the three students, he is the best. 三个学生中,他是最好的。

Jane is the best of all the students in her class. 珍是班中最好的学生。 Jane is the best of the three (students). 珍是三个学生中最好的一个。

Of all the high mountains, Mt. Jade is the highest. 在所有高山当中,玉山为最高。 Of all the four seasons, summer is the hottest. 在所有四季当中,夏天最热。 Of all the girls, she is the most beautiful. Of the two girls, Mary is more beautiful. A is the ...est among ... 结构︰主词+be 动词+最高级+(名词)+among? 说明︰此句型意为“?是?之中最?” 。<最高级>后的<名词>通常省略。 The Chuo-shui River is the longest one among them. 浊水溪是其中最长的一条。 Which river is the shortest among them? 哪一条河流是它们之中最短的? 在所有这些女孩子当中,她最美。 这两个女孩中,玛丽较漂亮。

Paris is the most beautiful among the cities. 巴黎是这些城市中最美的。 A is the ...est N in ... 结构︰A+be 动词+the+最高级+名词+in+场所。 说明︰此句型意为“A 是?里面最?” 。the 不能漏掉。 Jane is the best student in her class. 珍是她班上最好的学生。 Mr. Jones is the busiest man in the office. 琼斯先生是办公室里最忙的人。 The baseball game on Tuesday is the most important game this year. 星期二的棒球赛是今年最重要的棒球赛。 A is the ...est of N 结构︰主词+be 动词+the+最高级+of+复数名词 说明︰此句型意为“?是最?的?” 。本<句型>的意思等于“<主词>+be <动词>+the+<最高级>+单数< 名词>” 。 Robert Frost was the most American of American poets. 罗伯? 佛洛斯特是最具美国风格的美国诗人。

He is the strictest of teachers in our school. 他是我们学校最严格的老师。 It is the most popular of movies. 这是最受欢迎的电影。

English is the most international of languages. 英语是最国际化的语言。 It is the most difficult of examinations. 那是最难的考试。 You must make the most of your opportunities. A is the ...est of all. 结构︰主词+be 动词+the+最高级+of all 说明︰此句型意为“?是最为?” 。 “<最高级>+of all”的<语气>比“<最高级>”强。 These frozen foods are the most convenient of all. 这些冷冻食品是最为方便。 It is the most important of all. 那是最为重要的。
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你必须尽量利用机会。

They are the most dependable of all. 他们是最为可靠的。 A is most ... 结构︰主词+be 动词+没有 the 的最高级? 说明︰在以下几种场合里的<最高级>之前没有 the:被用来代替“very+原级”或“very”以加强 <语气> 时前面没有 the;most 的含义是“多数”时前面没有 the;用作<最高级><副词>时前面没有 the;带有< 所有格>的<最高级><形容词>之前没有 the。 I think he is a most learned man. 我认为他是个很有学问的人。 昨天有一个很漂亮的女孩来看他。

A most beautiful girl came to see him yesterday.

Such a most talented person as he shouldn’t be satisfied with what he is. 像他这么有才华的人不应满足于现状。 A comet is at perihelion when it is closest (=very close) to the sun. 彗星最接近太阳时,它就是在近日点。 A person is most disappointed when he is in despair. 一个人在绝望时最失望。 He is calmest (=very calm) when he is all by himself. 他一人独处时极为平静。

The sentence of six months imprisonment was most unjust. 六个月监禁的判决极其不公。 Most people need six to eight hours of sleep every day.多数人每天需要六至八小时的睡眠。 Most learned men are modest. 大部分有学问的人都很谦虚。

I like apples best of all fruits. 所有水果中我最喜欢苹果。 Bill runs quickly, Jack runs more quickly than Bill, and Bob runs most quickly of all. 比尔跑得快,杰克跑得比比尔快,鲍伯在三者中跑得最快。 Jane’s worst fault is her quick temper. 珍最大的毛病是她的急性子。 She is my youngest sister. A is the last to ... 结构︰主词+be 动词+the last+(名词)+to-不定词/子句 说明︰此句型意为“?是最不可能?” 。the last 表示“最不可能?;绝不至于?” ,它的后面有时有 <名 词>。 I would be the last to attempt to answer the question. 我是最不可能去尝试回答这个问题。 He is the last person (that) I want to see. 他是我最不想要看到的人。 This is the last attempt (that) he would make. 这是他最不可能做的尝试。 The author should be the last man to talk about his work. superior/inferior to ... 结构︰superior/inferior to? 说明︰此句型意为 “优于/劣于?” 。 这是不规则的<比较><句型>, 其后跟 to 代替 than, 其他还有 “prefer? to?(喜爱?甚于?) ” , “senior to ...(年长的) ” , “junior to ...(年少的) ”等。 I prefer tea to coffee. 茶与咖啡,我较喜欢茶。 我喜欢化学甚于物理。
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她是我最小的妹妹。

作者应该是最不喜欢谈论自己作品的人。

I prefer chemistry to physics.

He is superior to his brother in mathematics.

他的数学比他兄弟好。

A cheaper camera is not always inferior to a more expensive one. 廉价照相机的质量并总不比昂贵的差。 This plastic is inferior in quality to glass. He is senior to me by seven years. 这塑料的质料比玻璃差。

他比我年长七岁。

The president was so young that he was junior to some of his employees. 总裁的年龄甚至是比他的一些雇员还小。 含不定词句型 I am glad to ... 结构︰主词(人)+be 动词+情绪形容词(如 glad,sorry?)+不定词?。 说明︰<不定词>放在情绪<形容词>如 glad,sorry,happy,sad,surprised,troubled 等字之后修饰,这是< 不定词>做<副词>的用法。 I am glad to see him. 我很高兴看到他。 Sue was troubled to see trash everywhere. 苏看到到处是垃圾很苦恼。

Sara was excited to see the rock band. 莎拉看到摇滚乐团很兴奋。 ... too ... to ... 结构︰主词+动词+too+形容词/副词+(for+sb.)+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“太?而(使某人)不能?” 。too 为<副词>,可修饰<副词>或<形容词>。too 后也可 接含有<形容词>的单数<名词>, 即 “too+<形容词>+a+单数<名词>+to-<不定词>” , 也可以是 “too much +<不可数名词>+to?”或“too many+复数<名词>+to?” 。该句型如提到“对某人来说” ,则加入“for +人” 。该句型表示“否定”的意义,若加上<附加问句>,则须用否定,如例句 8。 He walked too slowly to catch up with me. 他走得太慢而不能跟上我。

It is too dark in this room for me to read a book. 房间太暗,使我无法看书。 This problem is too difficult for them to settle. 这对他们来说真是一个难解的问题。 The price is too low for customers to believe. 价格低得令顾客难以相信。 He is too young a boy to do it. 他还太小,无法做这事。

He has too much work on hand to go picnicking with us. 他手头的工作太多了,不能跟我们去野餐。 He has too many things at his disposal to go home early. 有太多事要他处理,使他不能早点回家。 The boy is too young to do it, isn’t he? 这男孩年纪太轻不能做这件事,不是吗? I am too glad not to ... 结构︰主词+动词+too+形容词/副词+not+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“太?而必能?;非常?” 。本<句型>具有双重否定作用,也可将否定词移到<动词>部 分。 Our professor is too capable not to solve this difficult problem. 我们教授非常有才干,必定能解决这一难题。 This customer is too honest not to deceive us. 这位客户非常诚实,不会骗我们。
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I am too glad not to help the boy.我太乐意了而不能不帮助那男孩--我非常乐意帮助那男孩。 It is never too late to learn. I am only too ... to ... 结构︰主词+动词+only too+形容词/副词+to-不定词 说明︰此句型意为“非常?” 。only 除去了 too 的否定意义,only too 相当于 very,very much 等。 I am only too glad to accept your kind invitation. He is only too willing to serve friends. 我非常高兴地接受你的邀请。 活到老,学到老。

他极愿为朋友效劳。 我能和你做生意,太高兴了。

I am only too pleased to do business with you. ADJ/ADV + enough to ...

结构︰主词+动词+?形容词/副词+enough+(for sb.)+to-不定词 说明︰此句型意为“足以?” 。enough 可做<副词>或<形容词>用,在此做<副词>,可修饰<副词>或<形容 词>,恒置于被修饰的<副词>或<形容词>之后。 We need several men strong enough to do the work. 我们需要几个强壮得足以做这件工作的人。 They bought a house large enough for ten persons to live in. 我们买了一栋房子,大得足以供十个人住。 He is competent enough to fill that position. He ran fast enough to catch the thief. Our teacher is old enough to retire. 他足以胜任那职位。

他跑得飞快,足以抓住那小偷。 我们老师年纪已够得上退休了。

The assignment is few enough to be finished within half an hour. 作业很少,足能在半小时内完成。 ... enough + N + to do ... 结构︰主词+动词+enough+名词+to-不定词 说明︰此句型意为“有足够的?可以做?” 。该句型也可写作“主词+动词+名词+enough+to-不定词” 。 enough 在此做<形容词>,修饰<名词>,可置于该<名词>之前或之后。 He has enough money (=money enough) to buy a car. 他有足够的钱买一辆汽车。

He hasn’t enough sense to realize his mistakes. 他没有足够的辨别力去认识自己的错误。 It is a pity that he doesn’t have enough money to sponsor the project. 遗憾的是他没有足够的钱来支持这项计划。 Will 2,000 dozens be enough for selling? 两千打够卖吗? ... be good enough to ... 结构︰Would you be good enough+to-不定词?? 说明︰此句型意为“请你?好吗?” 。本<句型>的意思和“Would you be so kind as to ...?”一样, <语气> 较客气。 Would you be good enough to turn the radio down a bit?请你把收音机的声音关小一点好吗? Would you be good enough to keep silent? 请你保持安静好吗? 请你往右边移一点好吗?

Would you be good enough to move a bit to the right? ... how (+ N) + to do ...

结构︰?how/what/when/where/which/whose(+名词)+to-不定词?
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说明︰此句型意为“应该如何做/何时做/何地做/做哪些事?” 。what,whom,which 为疑问<名词>, 做其后 <不定词词组>中<动词>的<受词>,否则就做<介系词>的<受词>。how,where,when,why 均为< 疑问副词>。<不定词词组>中的<动词>若为<及物动词>,则后面要有<受词>;若为<不及物动词>,则不需 要<受词>。 How do I know what to do and what not to do? 我怎么知道什么该做,什么不该做? He showed me how to use the tape recorder. 他教我如何使用这台卡式录音机。 What to do is one question, and how to do it is quite another. 应该做什么和应该怎样做是完全不同的两个问题。 The trouble is when to start the business. 麻烦在于应该什么时候开始这项工作。 We haven’t decided where to go for lunch. 我们还没有决定去哪里午餐。 I don’t know which advise to follow. 不晓得该听谁的劝告。 I learned what expressions to use in public. 我懂得在公共场所中应使用什么措辞。 How to begin is more difficult than where to stop. 如何着手远比在何处结束来得困难。 You should know what to cook to eat. 你应该知道该煮什么来吃。 The problem is when to get the money we need. 问题是什么时候能得到我们所需要的钱。 There are so many fancy cars on display here that I don’t know which to buy. 有这么多的豪华汽车在此展出,我不知要买哪一辆才好。 ... only to do ... 结构︰?only/merely/simply/just+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“竟然?;却?” 。表示与先前的努力相反的结果,一般用在句尾。 He studied hard only to fail in the exam. 他这么用功,结果竟然考场失利。

He rushed all the way to the station only to miss the train. 他一路冲往车站,结果还是错过了火车。 He tried a second time only to fail again. 他再试一次,竟然还是失败。

He tried to increase his income by gambling only to plunge more deeply into the mire. 他企图藉赌博增加收入,却陷入了更深的困境。 I went out, merely to get caught in a shower. 我跑出去,结果徒然碰到一场骤雨。 ... have only to do ... 结构︰have only+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“只需?就够了” 。相当于“All one has to do ...”或“What one has to do ...” 。 You have only to sit there and watch what I am doing. 你只要坐在这里,看着我做就行了。 Don’t worry; you have only to sing a song to please her. You have only to go. 你只要去即可。 你只要问他,他就会告诉你。 不用担心,你只需唱首歌让她高兴就行了。

You have only to ask and he’ll tell you. ... never to do ... 结构︰?never+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“不会再有?的结果” 。

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He went on a journey when he was 18 years old, never to come back. 他十八岁时出外旅行,一直没有回来。 He went off to the war never to return alive. 他去参加战争,没能活着回来。 She left her husband, never to come back. 她离开了她丈夫,再也没回来。 make/have sb. do sth. 结构︰主词+make/have/bid/let+受词(人)+不定词原形 说明︰此句型意为“要/嘱咐/叫?” 。<使役动词>中,make、have、bid、let 等字加了<受词>之后,要 接原形<动词>做<受词补语>,与使用<分词>相比,<不定词>原形重点在事实。变成<被动语态>时,该< 受词补语>要变成<不定词词组>。但是 have 当<使役动词>时,无<被动语态>。 I made him do it. I let him do it. 我叫他做这事。 我让他做这事。 他们叫这个女孩打扫地板。 妈妈叮咛孩子要守规矩。 我要他按时完成工作。

They had/made the girl clean the floor.

The mother bade the child behave himself. He was bidden to finish the work on schedule.

My father will probably have Tom paint the house green. 我爸爸很可能叫汤姆把房子漆成绿色。 He had me help him with his homework. ... want/like to do ... 结构︰主词+一般及物动词+不定词(to+V)?。 说明︰常以<不定词>作为<受词>的<及物动词>有:like(喜欢) ,want(想要) ,try(设法) , love(喜爱) , hate(讨厌) ,forget(忘记) ,begin(开始) ,start(开始) ,need(必须) 。 Some students hate to study English. You need to study in a quiet place. He likes to go to the movie. She wants to help Mary. ... want/ask sb. to do ... 结构︰主词+want/ask/tell 等+受词+to-不定词 说明︰<不定词>放在<受词>的后面,用于补充说明<受词>的动作,叫做“<受词补语>” ;当<不定词>要表 达“不要做某事”的意思时,则须采用<不定词>的<否定式>,即直接在<不定词>前加 not。常用的此类< 动词>有 want,get,compel,expect,ask,would like,advise,urge,wish,tell,allow,permit,trouble, help,teach 等。 I told him not to goof around. 我叫他不要游手好闲。 老师劝他的学生准备考试。 有些学生不喜欢研读英语。 你必须在一个安定的地方读书。 他叫我帮忙他做家庭作业。

他喜欢去看电影。 她想要帮助玛丽。

The teacher urged his students to prepare for the exam. They forced me to do things against my will. Do you want me to go there instead of you? I got him to do it. 我叫他做这事。

他们强迫我做违背我心意的事。 要不要我代你到那儿去?

Their help enabled me to finish the work with ease.他们帮助我,使我能够顺利地完成工作。
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A sense of humor enabled him to get along well with others. 幽默感使他能与人相处愉快。 The heavy workload forced me to cancel the camping trip.繁重的工作量迫使我取消去露营。 The father allowed (=permitted) his son to travel abroad alone. 父亲答应让他的儿子单独出国旅行。 We troubled him to turn on the light. 我们麻烦他打开电灯。 We needed someone to fix the tape recorder. 我们需要有人来修理录音机。 I heard him sing. 结构︰主词+hear/see/feel+受词+原形不定词 说明︰此句型意为“听/看/感觉?” 。英文中表示“看” , “听” , “感觉”的三类<动词>,加了<受词>之 后,须接原形<动词>做<受词补语>,用以表示已发生,而且是主动意味的事实。我们称此类<动词>为知觉 <动词>,常用的有 see,watch,notice,look at,hear,listen to,feel 等。变成<被动语态>时,<受词补语> 要变成<不定词词组>,如例句 4。这些词后也可接现在<分词>,强调“动作进行” ,而接原形<动词>,则 强调“整个事实” 。 Did you notice anyone come in? 你注意到有人进来过吗? 在我记忆中,我从未见他笑过。

As far as I remember, I have never seen him smile.

She once heard him whisper to another girl. 她曾听到他对另外一个女孩说悄悄话。 He was heard to sing. 我听到他唱歌。 I felt my heart beat violently. 我感觉到自己的心跳得很厉害。 她喜欢听孩子们谈话。 我们听到了他在玩着他的小狗。

She liked to listen to children talk. We heard him playing with his puppy.

Rick often watched the boats returning to port in the late afternoon. 瑞克常常看到小船在傍晚正回到港口。 be going to ... 结构︰主词+be going+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“将做?” 。 “be going+to-<不定词>”用作表示未来的<助动词>,表示最近之未来将做 的行为或未来的意图。这种<句型>经常用于会话体,表示包含讲话者的主观或感情的情形。 He is going to marry Jane in May. 他打算五月和珍结婚。 为了完成报告我打算熬夜不睡。 我恐怕他会输掉比赛。 我们到达时,火车马上就要开了。

I am going to stay up late to finish my paper. I’m afraid he is going to lose the match.

The train was just going to start when we arrived.

My father was a sailor and I’m going to be one, too. 我父亲(以前)是水手,我也打算当水手。 be about to ... 结构︰主词+be about+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“将做?” 。表示极近的未来之行为,故为了表示几乎等于现在的未来而不和未来之 < 副词>一起使用,如:不能说“I am about to go next week.” 。 He was surely about to change his mind. 他一定会改变主意。

She was about to walk out of the door when the telephone rang. 电话铃响时她正要出门。
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Something unusual was about to happen. 某种不寻常的事正要发生。 ... be to ... 结构︰主词+be+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“预定要?” 。 “be+to+<不定词>”含有事先的安排或命令,表示“必须?;应该?; 打算?” 。 A was to be placed onto A’, and B onto B’. ... seem/appear to ... 结构︰主词+seem/appear+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“似乎是?,好像?” 。to-<不定词>的内容是表示状态的词。seem 有时要加入“或许” (probably)的意思翻译起来才适当;appear 近于“乍看之下好像是?”的意思。 Taiwan seems to contain no petroleum. The thread seems to match the cloth. He appears to be very tired. 台湾恐怕没有蕴藏石油吧! 这线和这布似乎很相称。

他似乎很累。 这些星星似乎环绕着北极星转。

These stars appear to move around the North Star. They appear to be able to handle the problem. John seems to love music very much. To ..., Main Clause 结构︰不定词词组,主要子句

他们似乎可以处理这个问题。

约翰似乎很喜欢音乐。

说明︰此类<不定词词组>通常放在句首, 表示目的, 修饰<主要子句>。常用的有 to tell the truth(老实说) , to do someone justice(替某人说句公道话) ,to be brief(简言之) ,to begin with(首先) ,to sum up(总之) , to make matters worse (更糟的是) , so to speak (可以这么说) , needless to say (不用说) , to say nothing of sth。 (更不用说)等。 To make sure that he was at home, I called him up in advance. 为了确定他在家,我事先打电话给他。 To tell the truth, I don’t agree to your plan. 老实讲,我不同意你的计划。

To do her justice, she is not as bad as you described. 说句公道话,她并没有你说的那样坏。 To sum up, only when strict punishment can be imposed on the lawless, can social stability be maintained. 总之,唯有当严刑峻罚加之于违法之徒时,才能维持社会安定。 Mary is, so to speak, a hardworking student. 玛丽可说是个用功的学生。

I can’t speak English, to say nothing of Chinese. 我不会说英语,更别提中文了。 Needless to say, learning without thinking is useless. 不用说,学而不思则罔。 ... pretend to ... 结构︰主词+pretend+to-不定词/that-子句 说明︰此句型意为“假装?” 。pretend 后面用 to-不定词或 that 子句。 He was pretending to climb a mountain. She pretended not to go. 她假装不去。 他假装是好人。
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他假装在爬山。

He pretended to be a good man.

Let’s pretend (that) we are pirates. ... stop to ... 结构︰主词+stop+to-不定词?

让我们玩假装海盗的游戏吧!

说明︰此句型意为“停下来?” 。若“stop+Ving”是“停止?” 。 They just don’t stop to think. 他们就是不停下来想一想。 他们停下来看看橱窗。 我已经半年不抽烟了。

They stopped to look into the window. I have stopped smoking for half a year. ... be meant to ... 结构︰主词+be meant+to-不定词

说明︰此句型意为“?是有意要?;?是命中注定要?” 。 “be meant to V”有时变成“be meant for N” 。 Some TV programs are meant to be watched today and forgotten tomorrow. 有些电视节目的用意是要今天观赏,明天忘掉。 He believes he is meant to be a great man. This dictionary is meant for you. be + ADJ + to ... 结构︰主词+be+形容词+to-不定词 说明︰<主词>实际上是 to-<不定词>的<受词>,经过转变而移到句首。 It was even more pleasing to look at in the morning light. 它在早晨的光线下看起来更悦目。 他相信他命中要成为伟人。

这本字典是要给你的。

The rising sun is especially beautiful to look at from this angle. 旭日从这个角度看起来特别美。 I think she is easy to please. 我想她是很容易讨好的。 ... be likely to ... 结构︰主词+be likely+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“?可能?” 。likely 表示具有充分根据的预测。有时<句型>可变为“It is likely that ...” 。 One’s first impression is likely to be that everyone is in a rush. 一个人的第一个印象是,每个人都是匆忙的。 He is likely to arrive at any time. His health is likely to get worse. make an/no attempt to ... 结构︰主词+make an/no attempt+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“?打算要/没有打算要?” ; “?试图要/没有试图要?” 。 His smile deepened, but he made no attempt to answer. I made no attempt to make friends with her. Will they make any attempt? happen/chance to ... 结构︰主词+happen/chance+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“?碰巧?” 。
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他可能随时会到。 他的健康可能会恶化。

他的微笑加深了,但他没有打算要回答。

我没有打算要和她做朋友。

他们会再做另一次的尝试吗?

A friend of his happened to be sitting in a railroad-coach next to a young man who was obviously depressed. 他的一个朋友碰巧在火车车厢里坐在一个无精打采的年轻人的身边。 We happened to meet at the station. He happened to be sleeping. 我们碰巧在火车站相遇。

他碰巧在睡觉。 我碰巧想到同样的事。

I chanced to be thinking of the same thing. ... is said to ... 结构︰主词+is said+to-不定词?

说明︰此句型意为“据说?(现在)是?” 。而“is said to have been ...”是“据说?(以前)是?” 。 His music is said to be “good”or “great”. He is said to have been the richest man in Taiwan. They are said to build a hospital here. ... be bound to ... 结构︰主词+be bound+to-不定词 说明︰此句型意为“一定?” 。 “be bound to V”是“be sure to V(一定) ”之意,而“be bound for”是“前 往”之意。 Something is bound to happen one way or another to end the conflict or solve the problem. 事情一定以某种方式发生以结束冲突或解决难题。 He is bound to come tonight. 他今天晚上一定会来。 他的音乐据说是“好”或“了不起” 。 据说他以前是台湾最有钱的人。

据说他们要在这里盖一家医院。

If so, your points of view are bound to conflict with his. 如果这样的话,你的观点一定会和他的起冲突。 ... do all one can to ... 结构︰主词+do all one can to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“尽一切可能来?” 。注意 do 和 can 的<时态>要保持一致。 Daddy did all he could to fill my needs and desires.爸爸尽一切可能来满足我的需求和欲望。 You should do all you can to persuade him. 你应该尽一切可能来说服他。

We have done all we could to catch up with them. 我们已经尽了一切可能来赶上他们。 have sth. to do with ... 结构︰... have something/nothing to do with ... 说明︰此句型意为 “?与?有/无关系” 。 这是包含不定式的习惯用法。 随着 “有关系” 的程度, something 可改为 little,much,a great deal 等。have nothing to do with 表示否定;have anything to do with 用于<疑 问句>中。 Her diligence must have something to do with his success. 她的勤勉和她的成功一定有某些关系。 The traffic accident had nothing to do with him. 这交通事故和他一点关系也没有。 His wife had much to do with his bankruptcy. 他的破产和他的妻子很有关系。 have no other N except to 结构︰主词+have no other+名词+except/than+to-不定词
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说明︰此句型意为“除了要?没有其他的?” 。except 可以换成 than。 The speaker has no other purpose except to make people laugh. 这位演说者除了想搞笑之外,没有别的目的。 We have no other choice than to agree with them. 我们除了同意他们之外,没有别的选择。 I have no other wish except to pass the examination.我除了要通过考试之外,没有别的心愿。 ... in order/so as to ... 结构︰in order/so as+to-不定词? 说明︰此句型意为“为了?;想做?就得?” 。这是表目的的不定词句型,意思更为明确。 He must work very hard in order to support his large family. 他必须拼命工作以养活他的大家庭。 Listen carefully so as to follow the teacher. 要仔细听才能听懂老师讲的课。

You must watch your step so as not to fall down. 你必须留心脚下才不会跌下去。 ... be used to ... 结构︰主词(物) + be used to-不定词 说明︰此句型意为“被用来?” 。主词通常是无生命的东西。而“物+be used as+<名词>”译为“被用来 当做?” 。 The book is used to teach us how to write. The knife can be used to cut meat. 这本书教我们如何写作。

刀能用来切肉。

It is said that the plant can be used to treat hepatitis. 据说那种植物可用来治肝炎。 The book is used as a reference book. 这本书被用来做参考书。 含分词之句型 I am + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+am(are,is)+现在分词? 说明︰此句型意为“<主词>(人,物)正在?” 。<现在进行式>用于表示现在“正在进行”的动作或“暂 时性”的动作,常和 now,still,at this time 等<副词>(<词组>)连用。而<简单现在式>用于表示现在的 “事实,习惯或状态” ,常和 every day,usually,always 等<副词>(<词组>)连用。 Bill is singing. Linda is cooking. 比尔正在唱歌。 琳达在烹饪。

My father is sleeping. 我父亲在睡觉。 Mother cooks dinner every evening. 妈妈每天晚上做晚饭。

She is cooking in the kitchen now. 她现在正在厨房里做饭。 Father walks to his office every morning. 爸爸每天早上走路去上班。

He is walking to his office now. 他现在正在走路去上班。 Mary sings in her room every afternoon. She is singing in her room now. an interesting movie
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玛丽每天下午在她房间里唱歌。

她现在正在她房间里唱歌。

结构︰主词+动词+a/an+(very)+现在分词+名词(物)?。 说明︰“情绪<动词>”如 interest,excite,satisfy,bore,confuse,trouble 等,要修饰事物,常用现在< 分词>;现在<分词>含有“主动”或动作“正在进行”的意味。 That is an interesting movie. That is an exciting game. That is a satisfying book. Have you + V-ed ...? 结构︰Have/Has+主词+过去分词+?? 说明︰将<助动词> have(has)提到句首,即构成<现在完成式>的疑问式。 Have you had your lunch? 你已吃过午饭吗? 她曾经写信给马克吗? 你找到昨天丢失的钢笔了吗? 那是一部令人有趣的电影。 那是一场令人兴奋的比赛。 那是一本令人满意的书。

Has she ever written a letter to Mark?

Have you found the pen you lost yesterday? a troubled student

结构︰主词+动词+a/an+(very)+过去分词+名词(人)?。 说明︰“情绪<动词>”如 interest,excite,satisfy,bore,confuse,trouble 等,要修饰人,常用过去<分词>; 过去<分词>含有“被动”或动作“已经完成”的意味。 He is a troubled student. He is an interested person. He is a bored student. I have written a letter. 结构︰主词+have(has)+过去分词+?。 说明︰<现在完成式>用于表示“过去某时”发生的事情, “直到现在”才完成,或“继续到现在” ,或其结 果“影响到现在” ,它的肯定式由“have(has)+过去<分词>”构成,其中 have 或 has 是<助动词>,当 <主词>是第三人称单数(he,she,it?)时,用 has,其余人称用 have。 I have written a letter. 我已经写了一封信。 玛丽研读英语已有三年。 他是一位感到苦恼的学生。 他是一位表现兴趣的人。

他是一位感到厌烦的学生。

Mary has studied English for three years.

He has liked dogs since he was a child. 自从他是小孩时,他就喜欢狗。 ... is ...ed by ... 结构︰主词+be 动词+过去分词+by+受词?。 说明︰将主动句改为被动句时, 先将主动句的<主词>变成被动句的<受词>, 再将主动句的<及物动词>改成 “be+过去分词” , 且须注意 be <动词>的时式要与主动句的<及物动词>时式相同, 最后将主动句的<主词> 变成被动句 by 的<受词>。 The news is widely spread by them. Vegetables are needed every day by us. 这一消息被他们广为传播。 蔬菜每天被我们所需要。 这封信在今早被艾丽斯用打字机打过了。

This letter was typed by Alice this morning. will be V-ed by ...

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结构︰主词+will be+过去分词+by+受词?。 说明︰将现在式被动句的 be <动词>(am,is,are)改为 will be,是构成未来式被动句的一种方法。 That book will be brought by Mary tomorrow. 那本书明天将被玛丽带来。

That car will be washed this afternoon. 那部汽车今天下午将会被洗。 The building will be opened next month. be going to be V-ed by 结构︰主词+be going to+be+过去分词+by+受词?。 说明︰在现在式被动句的 be <动词>(am,is,are)后加 going to be,是构成未来式被动句的另一种方法。 These clothes are going to be washed by her. 这些衣服将由她来洗。 那栋大楼下个月将营业。

A birthday cake is going to be brought to the table by the cook. 一只生日蛋糕将被厨师放到桌子上。 Music is going to be taught by Miss Lin. can(not) be V-ed by ... 结构︰主词+can(not)be +过去分词+by+受词?。 说明︰将主动句中的<助动词>(can,must?)照抄,后面加上 be+过去<分词>,即构成含有<助动词>的 被动句。 That lesson can not be understood by many students. The question can not be answered by many people. 那一课无法为许多学生所理解。 这一问题无法被许多人回答。 音乐课将由林小姐来教。

His poor handwriting can not be read by himself. 他糟糕的笔迹无法被他本人所辨认。 ... V + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+动词+补语(现在分词) 说明︰英文中,若两个<动词>在一起而无<连接词>加以连接,所表示的动作又是同时发生的,则第二个< 动词>要变成现在<分词>;若第二个<动词>是 be<动词>时,应变成现在<分词> being,但 being 通常予以 省略。 We sat listening to the sound of the waves. 我们坐着倾听海浪的声音。

The dog lay dozing in front of the door. 小狗躺在门前打盹儿。 She stood there (being) motionless. 她站在那儿,一动也不动。 He quickly ran home, looking as if there was something wrong with him. 他快步跑回家,看上去好像有什么事不对劲。 I stand looking over the lake. 我站着展望湖面。 几片叶子飞着进入我的房间。

Some leaves went flying into my room. ... V-ing/V-ed + N ...

结构︰?现在分词/过去分词+名词(或名词+现在分词/过去分词) 说明︰这是<分词>做<名词>之修饰语的用法,该<分词>修饰其前或后紧临之<名词>;<名词>之前有其他 单字或<词组>跟随时,<分词>通常放在<名词>后面。 The shouting boy did not hear his mother call him. The girl standing in the front row is my niece. 大声叫嚷的孩子听不到妈妈的叫唤。

站在前排的少女是我的侄女。
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There were no printed books in those days. This is a play written by an American author.

当时没有印刷的书籍。 这是美国作家写的剧本。

The prisoners closely guarded escaped from the prison last night. 被严密监视的这些囚犯昨夜越狱了。 I looked painfully at the vase broken into pieces. 我痛苦地看着这个破得粉碎的花瓶。 It is difficult to shoot a flying bird, especially a small bird flying high up in the sky. 要射中飞行中的小鸟,尤其是高空飞行的小鸟,非常困难。 Soon we came to a crowded street, a very wide street crowded with allsorts of vehicles. 我们很快就来到一条很宽、很吵杂,各种车辆来往行驶的大马路上。 feel/make ... V-ing/V-ed 结构︰keep/make/hear 等+受词+现在分词/过去分词 说明︰<动词> keep,find 或<使役动词> make,let,get 等,以及<感官动词> hear,see,watch,feel 等 后的<受词补语>若强调正在进行的概念,且有主动意味时,以现在 <分词>表示;若有被动意味时,则以 “being+过去<分词>”表示,均译成“正在?” 。若要强调被动且已发生的概念,则用过去<分词>做<补 语>,译成“被?” 。 At last I succeeded in getting my car moving slowly.最后,我终于成功地让我的车子慢慢移动。 We saw him watering the lawn around the house. Have you heard the opera sung in French? I felt something crawling up my arm. I saw him being punished by the teacher. I saw the boy carried away to the hospital. I found the work being done in a rush. ... get(s) V-ed/ADJ 结构︰主词(某人)+get(s)+过去分词(或形容词)?。 说明︰此句型意为“某人变成?” 。get+<形容词>(过去<分词>)的常见用例有:get old(年纪大) , get hungry(肚子饿) ,get angry(生气) ,get sick(生病) ,get fat(发胖) , get tired(疲倦) ,get lost(迷路) , get confused(困惑) ,get hurt(受伤) , get excited(兴奋) ,get ready(准备好) 。 John got lost. 约翰迷路了。 玛丽厌倦穿红色衣服。 我们看见他在为屋子四周的草坪浇水。

你听过用法语唱的这场歌剧吗?

我感觉到有什么东西爬上我的手臂。 我看到他正被老师处罚。 我看到那个男孩被抬去医院。

我发现这件作品正仓促地被完成。

Mary gets tired of wearing red dresses.

The question is so hard, and we’re getting confused. 这问题太难,我们感到困惑。 ... have/get sth. done 结构︰主词+have/get/make+受词+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“把?(办完) ” 。make 之后的<受词>习惯上是“人”而非“物” ;但 have 和 get 后 的<受词>在此 <句型>中是“物” ,有“叫别人代劳”的意味,即做事的人并非<主词>,而是别人。 Be sure to get the work finished before six o’clock. 务必在六点之前把工作完成。 Are you going to get the house painted green? 你打算要把房子漆成绿色吗?

I want to get/have these shoes mended. 我想把这些鞋子修补一下。
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He has been unable to raise enough money to have the big clock repaired. 他一直无法筹募到足够的钱来把这个大钟修理好。 I’ll have it sent right away. 我会立刻把它(拍送)出去。 把它记在我的信用卡的账号里。

Have it charged to my credit card.

I cannot make myself understood in English. 我无法用英文使自己被人了解。 (我无法用英文把我的意思讲清楚。 ) I had my tooth extracted. (=I had the dentist extract my tooth.) 我把牙拔了。 (我是叫医生拔的。 ) Sth. is being + V-ed ... 结构︰主词+is being+过去分词? 说明︰此句型意为“?正在被?” 。是<进行式>的<被动语态>。 Money is being used in place of something more direct.金钱正在被更直接地用来取代某种东西。 The machine is being experimentally used. 这些机器正在被实验地使用着。

The problems are being discussed. 这些问题正在被讨论着。 ... go + V-ing ... 结构︰go+现在分词 说明︰此句型意为“从事?” 。go 之后的现在<分词>通常是运动类的<动词>,如:fishing(钓鱼) ,boating (划船) ,skating(溜冰) ,skiing(滑雪) ,hunting(打猎) ,mountain climbing(爬山) , shopping(购物) 等。 Sometimes Mr. Black went swimming with the children.有时布拉克先生和这些小孩去游泳。 We went fishing yesterday and I caught three fish. 我们昨天去钓鱼,而我钓了三条。 I find it interesting and healthy to go mountain climbing. 我觉得爬山有趣又有益健康。 The American housewife probably goes shopping only once or twice a week. 美国家庭主妇可能一星期只购物一、二次。 You may go grass skiing, bicycle riding, or shopping on the weekend. 周末你可以去滑草,骑脚踏车,或购物。 the + V-ing/V-ed/ADJ 结构︰the+现在分词/过去分词/形容词 说明︰<形容词>,包括可做<形容词>的<分词>,前面加<冠词> the,可当复数<名词>用,表示“全体”的 意思,其后的<动词>用复数形。常用的有:the wounded(所有受伤的人) ,the handicapped(所有残障者) , the rich(有钱人) ,the dead(所有已死的人) ,the dying(所有垂死的人) ,the unknown(所有未知之事) 等。 The rich are not necessarily happy. 有钱人未必快乐。 被压迫的人民,在政变之后获得自由。 垂死的人被急速送往医院。

The oppressed were free after the coup. The dying were rushed to the hospital.

During the depression, millions of the unemployed wandered around in the streets. 经济萧条时期,有好几百万的失业者在街头游荡。
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V-ing/V-ed ..., Main Clause 结构︰现在分词/过去分词?,主要子句 说明︰这是含<分词>句构的<句型>, 是以<分词词组>代替<副词子句>。 <主要子句>中的<主词>应和<分词 词组>中的动作接受者一致。若<动词>为 be 或 have been,变成现在<分词> being 或 having been 后,可 以省略。<否定句>若变成<分词词组>时,<否定副词> not 或 never 应置于<分词>之前。 Holding the watch up, she listened. 把表拿起来,她注意听。 站在黑夜里,我什么也看不见。

Standing in the dark, I can not see anything.

Sitting under the tree, I was hit by a stone on the head. 我坐在树下,被一块石头击中了头。 (Being) a lover of nature, he often goes mountain climbing.因为热爱大自然,他常常去爬山。 Angry with his wife, Tom kicked the dog. 因为和太太生气,汤姆踢狗。

Rich and generous, he contributed two million dollars to the Red Cross. 因为有钱又慷慨,他捐了两百万圆给红十字会。 (Having been) Knocked down by a car, he spent a week in the hospital. 被车子撞倒后,他在医院里度过了一星期。 Seriously damaged, the bridge is no longer in use. 因受到严重损坏,这座桥不再使用了。 Caught in a rain, he was wet all over. 淋到了一场雨,他全身都湿了。

Bitten by a dog, the little boy did not dare to play with dogs again. 被狗咬过,这个小男孩不敢再和狗玩。 Written in English, the book is difficult for me to understand. 用英文写的这本书对我来说很难理解。 Not (being) fond of learning, he ran away from home. 由于不喜欢读书,他就离家出走了。 Never having been to Switzerland before, he longs for a trip there. 因为从来没去过瑞士,他期待一趟瑞士之旅。 When + V-ing ... 结构︰when/while/once/if/unless/though+现在分词 说明︰当 when,while,once,if,unless,though 等<副词><连接词>引导<副词子句>时,若其<主词>与< 主要子句>相同,可保留该<副词><连接词>,其余部分则化简为<分词词组>。 He says "Please" when making a request. When waiting for a bus, he takes his turn. He stopped to talk to me when seeing me. 请求时,他说: “请” 。 等公共汽车时,他按顺序排队。 看到我的时候,他停下来和我说话。 如果生病,我会待在家里好好休息。 一到那里,我会跟你连络。

If falling ill, I’ll stay home taking a good rest. Once arriving there, I’ll keep contact with you.

Unless (being) rich, I am not going to buy a house. 除非有钱,要不然我是不会买房子的。 Though knowing the truth, he remained silent. 虽然他知道实情,却保持沉默。 N + V-ing/V-ed 结构︰名词+现在分词/过去分词,? 说明︰这是含独立<分词>结构的<句型>,即因<主词>不同而将<分词>意义上的<主词>置于<分词>之前。 若 <动词>为 be 或 have been,变成现在<分词> being 或 having been 后,可以省略。若<分词>意义上的
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<主词>是 we,you,one 等表世上之一般人的情形时,即使和<主要子句>之<主词>不同,也可省略,变 成惯用的句子, 常用的有: frankly speaking (坦白说) , judging from (由?观之) , talking about/of (谈谈?) , generally speaking(一般而言) ,roughly speaking(大体言之)等。 They were trembling, their mouths watering at the thought of the beer. 他们颤抖着,一想到啤酒,口水就流出来。 He was sitting next to Mrs. Smith, his eyes resting on her daughter. 他坐在史密斯太太的旁边,他的视线落在她女儿的身上。 The earthquake took place, the windows broken into pieces. 地震发生了,户破得粉碎。

"There it is," he whispered, his eyes (being) bright with sudden tears. “就在那里。 ”他低声地说,他的眼睛闪亮着突然而来的眼泪。 He said in a low voice, both his hands (being) on his back. 他低声地说,他的双手放在背后。 He argued, his voice trembling with anger. 他争论着,他的声音由于生气而颤抖。 一般而言,女性寿命较男性长。

Generally speaking, women live longer than men.

Frankly speaking, he is not so bad as you might think. 坦白讲,他没有你想象中的坏。 with + N + V-ing/V-ed 结构︰with+名词+现在分词/过去分词 说明︰这是表“附带状况(并行行为) ”的<副词词组>,常用来描述情景。有时使用<形容词>、<副词>、 <介系词>代替<分词>。 She sang to the music with her hand waving gently. 她跟着音乐唱歌,手斯文地挥动着。

He came running here with one hand holding a knife. 他手上握着刀向这里跑来。 He came running here with a knife held in one hand. 他一手握着刀向这里跑来。

With our work done, we felt much at ease. 工作做完后,我们觉得好轻松。 She looked at him with the color gone from her face. 她凝视着他,脸上毫无血色。 He was dozing with a book open in his hands. 他在打盹,手上的书打开着。 My father sometimes goes out for a stroll with a stick in his hand. 父亲有时候带着手杖出去散步。 What a lonely world it would be with you away! 妳要是不在,这世界不知将有多寂寞! V-ing ... + be + N ... 结构︰现在分词?+be 动词+名词 说明︰此句型的<名词>是句子的<主词>,所以 be <动词>要和<名词>一致。 Coexisting with such love in the American family are cultural values of self-reliance and independence. 和 美国家庭的这种爱同时并存的是自强及独立的文化价值观。 Growing along the river are tall palm trees. 沿着这条河生长的是高大的棕梠树。

Lying north of the church is a girls’ senior high school.位于这座教堂以北的是一所女子高中。 含动名词之句型 Thinking correctly is ... 结构︰动名词+副词(或名词)+单数动词+?。
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说明︰此句型意为“做某事是?的” 。<动名词>在文法上具有<动词>与<名词>的双重性质,故<动名词>可 以像<名词>一样充当<主词>;又因<动名词>当<主词>时,用于指“某一件事” ,属于第三人称单数,故取 单数<动词>。 Thinking correctly is important. Living in the big city is convenient. Reading good books makes us happy. ... without + N/V-ing ... 结构︰主词+动词+?without+名词/动名词?。 说明︰此句型意为“<主词>没有(不用)?” 。without 当“没有;不用;假如没有;当?不”解,是<介 系词>,后面接<名词>(<代名词>)或<动名词>,用法相当于“and ... not”或“if(when)?not+<动词>” 。 I can’t start a fire without matches. We won’t go without you joining it. 我没有火柴不能点火。 你没有参加的话我们就不去了。 你没有票,不能看电影。 思考正确是重要的。 住在大城市是方便的。 阅读好书使得我们快乐。

You can’t see the movie without the ticket.

He went to school without breakfast. (=He went to school and did not eat breakfast.) 他没吃早饭就去上学了。 I like + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+及物动词+动名词(当受词)+?。 说明︰此句型意为“某人?做某事” 。下列的<及物动词>后面,常接<动名词>当<受词>:like,love, hate, begin,start,try,enjoy,mind,practise。 I like doing my homework. He loves listening to music. 我喜欢做我的家庭作业。 他喜欢听音乐。 男孩们讨厌在星期日做家庭作业。

The boys hate doing homework on Sundays. cannot help + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+cannot help+动名词

说明︰此句型意为“不得?,不禁?” 。这里的 help 作“抗拒”或“避免”解,此时一定要用<动名词作 受词>,相当于“<主词>+cannot but/cannot help but+原形<动词>” 。 He cannot help loving Mary because of her beauty. 因为玛丽长得美,他不禁爱上她。

Whenever I hear the story, I cannot help crying. 每次我听这故事,就忍不住要哭。 After learning of his sufferings, I couldn’t help sympathizing with him. 得知他痛苦的遭遇后,我忍不住同情他。 I cannot help laughing. I cannot help being poor. 我忍不住笑出来。 我是穷,可是没有办法呀! 我不免对那个女孩感到惊奇。

I cannot help wondering about that girl.

I cannot help worrying to hear that there is no steamer this week. 我听到本周没有船的消息,禁不住担忧起来。 There is no + V-ing ...
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结构︰There is no+动名词? 说明︰此句型意为“做?是不可能的” 。等于“It is impossible to+原形<动词>”或“No one can+原形<动 词> ” 。 There is no accounting for tastes. 人各有所好。

There was no telling what the next assignment would be. 不晓得下一个任务将是什么。 There is no reasoning with such a stubborn man as Peter. 跟彼得这种固执的人讲理简直是不可能的事。 There is no denying that Taiwan is a beautiful island.台湾是座美丽的岛屿,这是不可否认的。 There is no describing the beauty of the scene. 谁都无法形容这景色的美丽。 There is no typing up this letter within five minutes. feel like + V-ing ... 结构︰feel like+动名词 说明︰此句型意为“想要?” 。like 是<介系词>,故之后要接<名词>或<动名词>。当接<动名词>时,解释 为“想要做?” ,相当于“would like to+原形<动词>” ;接<名词>时,解释为“感觉像?” 。 I don’t feel like studying tonight. 我今晚不想念书。 不可能在五分钟内打完这封信。

I feel like going to Europe for a visit next summer vacation.我好想明年暑假去一趟欧洲。 Do you feel like going to a movie? I feel like a newborn baby. ... come near + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+come near+动名词 说明︰此句型意为“几乎去做?” 。near 后跟<动名词>。 It came near being the prettiest bow he had ever seen.那几乎是他所见过最漂亮的一只果盆。 I came near hitting him. 我几乎揍他。 他们几乎被水淹死。 我的儿子差点被大卡车辗过。 你想看电影吗?

我感觉像是个新生的婴儿。

They came near being drowned.

My son came near being run over by a truck. ... worth + V-ing ... 结构︰worth+动名词

说明︰此句型意为“值得?” 。worth 是<介系词>,使用时要用<名词>或<动名词>做<受词>,形成<介系 词词组>, 当 <形容词>用。worth 之后接<动名词>时,<主词>必须为该<动名词>之<受词>, 否则<动名词> 之后须另加<介系词>,使<主词>做其<受词>。这种<句型>不可用虚<主词> it 做<主词>。 London is a city worth visiting. 伦敦是值得参观的城市。 凡是忠于职守的人都值得赞扬。 值得一看的书值得一看再看。

He who does his duty is worth praising.

A book worth reading once is worth reading time and time again. The work is worth doing. 这个工作值得去做。 值得为他去做这份工作。

He is worth doing the work for. be worthy of + V-ing 结构︰be worthy of+动名词

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说明︰此句型意为“值得?” 。等于“be worthy+to be+过去<分词>” 。worthy 是<形容词>,也引导<形容 词词组>;同 worth 一样,使用 worthy 时,不可用虚<主词> it 做<主词>。 This book is worthy of reading. 这本书值得一读。 凡是忠于职守的人都值得奖励。 那事件是值得记忆的。

He who does his duty is worthy of praising. The event is worthy of being remembered. On/Upon + V-ing ... 结构︰On/Upon+动名词?

说明︰此句型意为“一?就?” 。相当于 once 引导的<副词子句>。on 后面所跟的<动词>的动作执行者必 须与<主要子句>的一致。 Upon reaching an appropriate age, children are encouraged, but not forced, to “leave the nest”. 一达到适当的年龄,孩子们就被鼓励,而不是被强迫, “离开老窝” 。 On entering the classroom, I found a book lying on the floor. 一走进教室,我就发现一本书丢在地上。

Upon receiving your letter, I was as happy as could be. 一收到你的信,我非常高兴。 before + V-ing ... 结构︰before + 动名词 ... 说明︰此句型意为“在?之前” 。before 后面动作的执行者,应该与<主要子句>中的动作执行者一致。 Before entering a house in some Asian countries, it is good manners to take off your shoes. 在某些亚洲的国家,进屋子之前脱下鞋子才是有礼貌的。 Before reading the book, you had better ask yourself if you have the time. 在读这本书之前,你最好问问自己是否有时间。 Before visiting him, I called him up in advance. of one’s own + V-ing 结构︰of one’s own+动名词 说明︰此句型意为“由某人亲自所?的” 。本<词组>为<形容词词组>,置于<名词>之后,做后位<修饰语>。 This is a picture of his own painting. 这是他的亲笔画。 This is a coat of her own making. 这是她亲手做的外衣。 在拜访他之前,我先打电话给他。

I least expected that this should be a house of his own constructing. 我怎么也没想到这房子是他自己造的。 keep ... from + V-ing 结构︰主词+keep/prevent/stop/discourage+受词+from+动名词 说明︰此句型意为“防止?/阻止?/使?不能?/劝阻某人不要?” 。有时把 from 省略。 It will take everybody’s efforts to keep city noises from increasing. 那是需要每个人的努力来防止都市噪音的增加。 The rain kept us from getting there on time. They should try to keep prices from rising. 那场雨使我们不能准时到达那里。 他们应该设法阻止价钱上涨。

Sometimes we can prevent a cloud from producing rain. 有时我们可以阻止云产生雨。
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Nobody can prevent him from running the risk. 没有人能够阻止他去冒险。 The bad weather prevented us from getting there on time. 恶劣的天气阻止了我们准时到达那里。 They didn’t even try to stop him getting it. 他们甚至没有试图去阻止他得到它。 你本来应该阻止他去游泳。

You should have stopped him from going swimming.

A strong will will stop one from committing a crime. 强烈的意志会阻止一个人去犯罪。 Even his closest friends discouraged him from seeking higher office. 甚至他最知己的朋友也劝阻他去寻求更高的职位。 He was discouraged from making another attempt. I remember + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+remember+动名词 说明︰此句型意为 “记得曾做?” 。 “remember+<动名词>” 是指现在记得以前曾经做过某事, 而 “remember +to-<不定词>”是指“记住要做某事” 。forget,regret 的情形和 remember 也有大致相同的区别。 I remember feeling that God, or someone, had brought us together. 我记得感到上帝或某人把我们凑合在一起。 Do you remember taking a trip to Japan with him? 你记得曾经和他到日本旅行吗? 他受劝阻去做另一次的尝试。

I can’t remember quarreling with him in junior high school. 我不记得国中时和他吵过架。 I’ll remember to mail these letters. ... one’s + V-ing ... 结构︰所有格+动名词 说明︰<动名词>之意义上的<主词>是放在<动名词>前面的<名词>(<代名词>),原则上是以<所有格>出现。 但在口语中经常以受格出现,尤其美语此种倾向更强。<动名词>意义上的<主词>若非“人”时,则不必变 成<所有格>。 She is not sure of his answering her letter. 她无法确定他是否会回信给她。 我宁愿约翰打网球而不玩朴克牌。 我会记着寄这些信的。

I prefer John’s playing tennis to his playing cards. I dislike my mother’s interfering in the affair. Our teacher didn’t mind my coming in late.

我不喜欢母亲介入这件事。 老师对于我的迟到并不在意。

Would you mind my opening the window? 你介意我开窗吗? I remember our meeting ten years ago. 我记得十年前我们会见过。

My father doesn’t like my/me going out alone. 我父亲不喜欢我单独出门。 I dislike my house being too small. ... be busy V-ing ... 结构︰be busy+动名词 说明︰此句型意为“忙着做?” 。等于“be busy with+<名词>” 。 Mother is busy making cookies for the picnic. 母亲正忙着为野餐做饼干。 He was busy preparing for the exam. 他忙着准备考试。 我不喜欢我的房子太小。

I was busy looking up all the new words of the lesson in my dictionary.
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我忙着在字典里查本课所有的生字。 ... be used to + V-ing/N 结构︰主词+be used to/be accustomed to+动名词/名词 说明︰此句型意为“习惯于?” 。 “<主词>+used to-<不定词>”是“过去常常?” ;而“物+be used to-<不 定词>”则是“被用来?”的意思。 The winter was much colder than they were used to and many people died. 那年冬天比他们所习惯的更为寒冷,因而很多人死亡。 He is used to sitting up late. 他习惯熬夜。 你习惯台北的天气吗?

Are you used to the weather in Taipei?

He is accustomed to hearing noise, because he lives right in the center of the city. 他住在市中心,所以已经习惯于噪音了。 be on the point of + V-ing 结构︰be on/upon the point/verge of+动名词/名词? 说明︰此句型意为“正要?” 。相当于“be just about to ...” 。 It started raining when I was on the point of leaving home.我正要离开家的时候开始下雨了。 On being sent to hospital, he was on the point of breathing his last. 他被送到医院的时候已经奄奄一息了。 He was on the point of death. 他濒临死亡。

She was on the verge of telling all the secret. 她正想把全部的秘密讲给我听。 make a point of + V-ing 结构︰主词+make a point of+动名词 说明︰此句型意为“一定?;认为有必要?” 。本<句型>也可以写成“<主词>+make it a point/rule+to-< 不定词>” 。 I make a point of giving a hand to others. 我一定对别人伸出援助的手。

Whenever I go to Taipei, I make a point of visiting the National Palace Museum. 不论何时我到台北,我一定去参观故宫博物院。 They make a point of going on a picnic every two weeks.他们一定每两个星期去野餐一次。 to the point of V-ing ... 结构︰?to the point of+动名词? 说明︰此句型意为“到?的程度” 。 To regret one’s errors to the point of not repeating them is true repentance. 对自己的错误后悔到不致重犯的程度是真正的后悔。 She hates him to the point of not talking to him. 她讨厌他到不和他讲话的程度。

They argued to the point of fighting with each other. 他们争吵到打架的程度。 do a little + V-ing 结构︰do+a lot of/a little/any/the+动名词
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说明︰此句型意为“做?” 。可以用 a lot of(许多) ,a little(=some 一些) ,any(任何的) ,the 等字。 I can do a little dancing. 我可以做一点舞蹈动作。 她帮她妈妈做清洗的工作。

She helped her mother do the washing. He has done a lot of traveling. with the + V-ing of + N 结构︰with+the+动名词+of+名词

他做了很多的旅行。

说明︰此句型意为“随着的?” 。若<动名词>有相对的<名词>,则用<动名词>或<名词>都可以。 With the coming of Easter, winter ends and spring comes. 随着复活节的来临,冬天结束而春天来了。 With the inventing of the computer, society seems to have changed greatly. 随着计算机的发明,社会似乎已经大大地改变了。 With the setting of the sun, night comes silently. spend ... (in) V-ing 结构︰主词(人)+spend+时间+(in)+动名词? 说明︰此句型意为“?花/用若干时间做?” 。要用人做<主词>。等于“It takes+时间+to-<不定词>” 。 He spent his last years (in) teaching and editing earlier writings. How much time do you spend practicing English everyday? 他把晚年用在教书和编纂以前的著作。 随着太阳的落下,夜晚悄悄地来到。

你每天花多少时间练习英文?

He is going to spend his last years writing a book on the history of Chinese literature. 他打算用晚年写一本中国文学史。 She spends too much time (in) dressing herself. 她用太多的时间装扮自己。

He spent much of his spare time roaming about the streets.他把大部分的闲暇时间用来逛街。 prefer V-ing/N to V-ing/N 结构︰主词+prefer+动名词/名词?to+动名词/名词? 说明︰此句型意为“宁可?而不愿?;喜欢?而不喜欢?” 。<动名词>的位置可以换成<名词>。 In the U.S., people prefer waiting for a table to sitting with people they don’t know. 在美国,人们宁可等着空的桌子,而不愿和不认识的人坐在一起。 Some people prefer sitting up to going to bed early. 有些人宁可熬夜,而不早睡。

He said he preferred country life to city life. 他说他喜欢乡下生活,而不喜欢都市生活。 when it comes to + V-ing 结构︰?when it comes to+动名词/名词 说明︰此句型意为“?一谈到?” 。请注意 to 是<介系词>,后跟<动名词>,有时也可跟<名词>。 Their memory wasn’t very good when it came to recalling other things, but they remembered the comet. 一谈到别的事情时,他们的记性并不是很好,但他们却记得彗星。 When it comes to making friends, you cannot be too careful. 一谈到交朋友,你再怎么小心也不为过。

When it came to the summer vacation, we all became excited. 一谈到暑假,我们大家都变兴奋了。 the + V-ing + of + N ... 结构︰the+动名词+of+名词?
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说明︰本结构在句中充当<主词>,述词或<受词>。 The actual cause of the quake itself is the rupturing or breaking of rocks at or below the earth’s surface. 地震本身的真正原因是地球表面的或地底下的岩石断裂或破裂。 The building of the bridge is very important for the transportation between the two towns. 这座桥的建造对这两个镇的交通很重要。 The breaking of his right leg made him walk on crutches only. be all for + V-ing ... 结构︰主词+be all for+动名词? 说明︰此句型意为“尽其所能地?” 。等于 try one’s best to do sth。 I was all for calling on each of these ladies. 我尽量去拜访每一位女士。 他右脚的折断使他只有靠拐杖走路。

He is praised for his being all for helping the poor. 他因尽力帮助穷人受到了赞美。 I am all for jogging early in the morning. 我尽可能一大早慢跑。 含助动词之句型 Can you speak English? 结构︰问句:Can+主词+原形动词?? 肯定简答:Yes,主词+can。 肯定详答:Yes,主词+can+原形动词+?。 否定简答:No,主词+can’t。 否定详答:No,主词+can’t+原形动词+?。 说明︰此句型意为“某人会?吗?是的,某人会?。 (不,某人不会) ” 。can 是<助动词>,后面必须接原 形 <动词>;当<主词>是第三人称单数时,can 的字尾不可加 s;can 的后面,不可接<不定词> to。can 的 否定形,有三种写法:can not,cannot,can’t;can 的<否定句>形式为:<主词>+can’t+原形<动词> +?。 Can he speak English? Yes, he can (speak English). Can Tom play Frisbee? Yes, he can (play Frisbee). 他会讲英语吗?是的,他会讲英语。 汤姆会玩飞盘吗?是的,他会玩飞盘。

Can Mary ride a bicycle? Yes, she can (ride a bicycle). 玛丽会骑脚踏车吗?是的,她会(骑脚踏车) 。 Can you speak Chinese? No, I can’t (speak Chinese). 你会讲中国话吗?不,我不会讲中国话。 Can your father cook? No, he can’t (cook). 你父亲会烹饪吗?不,他不会烹饪。 Can she sing English songs? No, she can’t (sing English songs). 她会唱英文歌吗?不,她不会(唱英文歌) 。 You can never do it again. 结构︰主词+助动词+频率副词+原形动词+?。 说明︰<频率副词>通常修饰<动词>或<形容词>,当句中出现 be <动词>时,它位于 be <动词>之后。当出 现<一般动词>时,<频率副词>位于<一般动词>之前。当句中同时出现<助动词>与本<动词>,<频率副词>
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位于<助动词>之后,本<动词>之前。 Do you always eat lunch at school? 你总是在学校吃午饭吗? 约翰常常在晚上看电视吗?

Does John often watch television in the evening? You can never do it again. He is usually busy. 你绝不可再做那事。

他通常是忙碌的。 她上学从不迟到。 我有时在家说英语。

She never comes to school late.

I sometimes speak English at home. ... will + V ... 结构︰主词+will+原形动词+?。

说明︰<简单未来式>由 “will+<动词>原形” 构成。 未来式常与下列<时间副词> (<词组>) 连用: tomorrow, tomorrow morning (afternoon, evening) , the day after tomorrow, next week, next year, next+星期几, tonight, this evening (afternoon) , some day (总有一天) , one of these days (近两三天内) , How soon? (再过多久?) , in+时间,如:in a few days(过几天后) ,in ten minutes(过十分钟后)?。<简单未来式>还可由“be going to+<动词>原形”构成。 We will eat lunch together tomorrow. 我们明天将一起吃午饭。

I will walk home after school this afternoon. 今天下午放学后我将走路回家。 Mr. Lin will wash his motorcycle tomorrow morning. 林先生明天早晨将擦洗他的摩托车。 Will she cook dinner this evening? Will they go on a picnic next week? We will not play basketball tomorrow. 她今晚要做晚饭吗? 他们下星期将去野餐吗? 我们明天不打篮球。 戴维下星期不和海伦一起去看电影。

David won’t go to the movies with Helen next week.

Your brother is not going to study this evening. 你弟弟今晚不读书。 They will have a lot of fun next month. 他们下个月将玩得很愉快。 School will begin next Tuesday. ... should/would + V ... 结构︰主词+should(would,may)+原形动词?。 说明︰should 是 shall 的过去式, 当 “将要” 解释, 通常用于<主词>是第一人称 I 或 we; should 又当 “应 该”解释,表示义务或责任,常用于指“现在或未来”的事情,<主词>可用任何人称。 would 是 will 的 过去式,当“将要”解释,通常用于<主词>是第二人称或第三人称; would 又用于表示“愿望” ;would 和 like 连用,表示“客气”的语气;would 又可用在<疑问句>中,表示客气的请求。 may 可用于表示“可 能性”或“不确定的推测” ,中文常译为“可能,或许” ,相当于 perhaps 或 maybe;may 可用于<疑问句> 表示“请求对方允许” ;在否定答句中,may 的<否定式>可以有两种形式:mustn’t 表示“强烈的禁止” , mayn’t 表示“婉转的禁止” 。 You should study hard. 你应该努力读书。 He must be sick today. 他今天一定是生病了。 下星期二将要开学。

I would like to help you pack. 我想帮忙你捆扎东西。
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... should not + V ... 结构︰主词+should(would,may)+not+原形动词?。 说明︰should 是 shall 的过去式, 当 “将要” 解释, 通常用于<主词>是第一人称 I 或 we; should 又当 “应 该”解释,表示义务或责任,常用于指“现在或未来”的事情,<主词>可用任何人称。 would 是 will 的 过去式,当“将要”解释,通常用于<主词>是第二人称或第三人称; would 又用于表示“愿望” ;would 和 like 连用,表示“客气”的语气;would 又可用在<疑问句>中,表示客气的请求。 may 可用于表示“可 能性”或“不确定的推测” ,中文常译为“可能,或许” ,相当于 perhaps 或 maybe;may 可用于<疑问句> 表示“请求对方允许” ;在否定答句中,may 的<否定式>可以有两种形式:mustn’t 表示“强烈的禁止” , mayn’t 表示“婉转的禁止” 。 He would not lend you his dictionary. He may not come tomorrow. 他不愿意把字典借给你。

他明天不可能(不可以)来。

We should not tell lies. 我们不应该说谎。 Should/Would you + V ...? 结构︰Should(Would,May)+主词+原形动词?? 说明︰should 是 shall 的过去式, 当 “将要” 解释, 通常用于<主词>是第一人称 I 或 we; should 又当 “应 该”解释,表示义务或责任,常用于指“现在或未来”的事情,<主词>可用任何人称。 would 是 will 的 过去式,当“将要”解释,通常用于<主词>是第二人称或第三人称; would 又用于表示“愿望” ;would 和 like 连用,表示“客气”的语气;would 又可用在<疑问句>中,表示客气的请求。 may 可用于表示“可 能性”或“不确定的推测” ,中文常译为“可能,或许” ,相当于 perhaps 或 maybe;may 可用于<疑问句> 表示“请求对方允许” ;在否定答句中,may 的<否定式>可以有两种形式:mustn’t 表示“强烈的禁止” , mayn’t 表示“婉转的禁止” 。 May he do that? 他可能(可以)做那件事吗? 你想跟我们去吗? 他们应该更常看报吗?

Would you like to go with us?

Should they read the newspaper more often? ... used to + V ... 结构︰主词+used to+原形动词?

说明︰此句型意为“以前(常)?” 。等于“<主词>+would often+原形<动词>” 。这是一种表过去的经验 的句构, 对比地叙述过去与现在。 而 “would+原形<动词>” 也可表示过去的习惯, 但 “used to ...” 比 “would ...” 规则。 Difficult problems used to take hours of work with pencil and paper. 困难的问题以前总是需要用笔和纸工作数小时。 There used to be a post office there. 以前在那里有一个邮局。 I used to (=would often) go fishing. 我以前常去钓鱼。 We used to hear the train whistle at night. 过去我们常会在晚上听到火车的汽笛声。 He would sit for hours doing nothing. 他常常什么也不做,一坐就是好几小时。 ... would like to V ...
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结构︰主词+would like+(sb.)+to+原形动词 说明︰此句型意为 “想要?” 。 would like 是一种表示意愿的<动词>, 后接<不定词> to 引导的原形<动词>。 “should like to ...”虽有同样的意思,但较少用于第 2,3 人称。 Would you like to have a look at the picture? -- Yes, I should very much like to. 你想瞧瞧这画吗?--是的!很想! I would like to take a trip around the world toward the end of this year. I would like you to meet Mr. Jones. I would like him to do it. would rather V1 than V2 结构︰主词+would rather+原形动词 1?than+原形动词 2? 说明︰此句型意为“宁愿?也不愿?” 。would rather 和 than 之后都要用原形<动词>。若 than 之后的< 动词>和 would rather 之后的<动词>相同,则 than 之后的<动词>可省略。 I’ d rather take care of the stomachs of the living than (take care of) the glory of the dead in the form of stone memorials. 我宁愿照顾活人的肚子,也不愿以石碑的形式来照顾死者的荣耀。 They would rather go fishing than stay at home. 他们宁愿去钓鱼,也不愿待在家里。 I would rather be laughed at than quarrel with him. 我宁愿被嘲笑,也不愿和他吵架。 他宁愿送分数,也不愿要求利益。 我想让你见见琼斯先生。 我想在今年底环游世界。

我想要他做这事。

He would rather give away a point than claim an advantage.

I would rather fail than cheat in the examination. 我宁愿考不及格,也不愿意考试作弊。 I would rather die than live in disgrace. 我宁可死,也不愿忍辱偷生。 I would rather remain poor than get money by dishonest means. 我宁可安于贫穷,也不愿用不当手段赚钱。 ... had better + V ... 结构︰主词+had better+原形动词? 说明︰此句型意为“最好?;还是?为好” 。用 had better 来执行和一个<助动词>一样的功能。 “had better have+过去<分词>”表“最好已经?”之意; “had best ...”则是“以?为最佳” ,比 had better? 的意思还 要强调。 You had better consult a doctor soon. 你最好快点去看医生。

The policeman said to him, "You’d better come with me and tell me all about the accident." 警察对他说: “你最好跟我来,并告诉我这次事故的经过。 ” You had better have stayed at home. 你留在家里那是最好。 你不认为写一份市场报告好些吗? 你最好到厂里去看一看。

Hadn’t you better make a market report?

You had better go to the factory and have a look. You had best not accept the offer. May you + V ... 结构︰May+第二、三人称主词+动词原形+其他

你最好是不要接纳这要求。

说明︰此句型意为“祝?” 。may 此处表示祝福与愿望,多用于书面语中,口语中有时也用,但显得较庄
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重。本<句型>的特点是:may 不是在<主词>后面,而是摆在句子开头,使全句成倒装语序,表达出祝愿 的意义。 May you recover soon! 愿您早日康复! 祝您生意兴隆!

May you succeed in business.

May our two parties achieve even greater successes in our business. 祝我们双方在生意中取得更大的成功。 may well + V ... 结构︰may well + 原形动词 说明︰此句型意为“理当?;大可?” 。may 是<助动词>,well 是<副词>,后接原形<动词>。 若将 well 置 于<主词>前面,可加强<语气>。 You may well find that the end of the book is better than the beginning. 你应该会发现这本书的结尾比开头好。 You may well get angry with him. 你大可对他发脾气。 她以儿子为傲也是应该的。

She is proud of her son, and well she may.

An unlimited arms race may well increase the danger of war. 无限度的武器竞赛当然会增加战争的危险性。 Since he can play many musical instruments, he may well be called a man of accomplishments. 他能演奏许多乐器,当然称得上是个多才多艺的人。 may as well + V ... 结构︰may as well+原形动词 说明︰此句型意为“最好?;不妨?” 。等于 had better,但<语气>比较委婉。 We may as well leave the table after dinner is over. 晚餐后我们不妨离开桌子。 You may as well keep it a secret. 你最好将这件事保密。

You are not (physically) strong, so you may as well take care of your health. 你的体格不壮,因此最好注意健康。 ...may as well ... as ... 结构︰may/might as well+原形动词 A+as+原形动词 B 说明︰此句型意为“与其 B 倒不如 A” 。相当于“had better A than B” 。 “may as well ... as”实现的可能性 较大,而“might as well ... as”实现的可能性较小。 Since it is raining hard, you may as well stay here as leave. 既然雨下得这么大,你与其离开倒不如待在这儿。 You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him. You might as well not know a thing at all as know it only a little. 你借他钱不如把钱扔到海里去。 只知道一点点,不如完全不晓得。

I may as well die as marry him.我与其嫁给他,倒不如去死算了。 (我若嫁给他,很可能去死。 ) I might as well die as marry him. 我与其嫁给他,倒不如去死算了。 (我不太可能嫁给他,也不太可能去死。 )
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You might as well talk to a stone as try to argue with a stubborn woman. 你与其跟一个倔女人争吵,还不如对一块石头说话。 You might as well advise me to give up my fortune as my argument. 你劝我停止辩论,倒不如劝我抛弃一切财产。 You might as well ask the tree for help as request him to reduce the price. 你与其要他减价还不如求助于一棵树。 ... must have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+must have+过去分词? 说明︰此句型意为“一定曾经?” 。本<句型>是对过去之事做肯定之推测,而“must+原形<动词>”是对 目前或将来之事做推测。 Anyway, he must have eaten a lot because now he is fat. 无论如何,他一定吃了很多东西,因为现在他胖了。 You must have mistaken her for her sister. They must have left. 你一定是把她误认为是她的姊妹了。

他们一定是离开了。

The rubbing must have worked. 搓揉一定是有效了。 They must have read the article. 他们一定读过这篇文章。 You must have seen him before. He must have forgotten my name. He must have told you about it. 你以前一定见过他。 他一定忘了我的名字。 他一定告诉过你这件事。 汤姆一定是弄错了才拿了你的字典。

Tom must have taken your dictionary by mistake.

The poet must have been very young when he wrote this poem.诗人写这首诗时一定非常年轻。 ... may have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+may/might have+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“很可能曾经?” 。表示对过去之事做不太肯定的推测。而“may/might+原形<动词>” 是对现在或未来事物做推测。might have 所表示的可能性要比 may have 低一些。 He may have overslept this morning. 今天早上他或许睡过头了。

The tea is hot; he may have been here before. 茶还热着,不久前他很可能在这里。 He may have known the truth; otherwise he wouldn’t be so angry now. 他当时很可能知道事情的真相,否则他不会这么生气。 The boy might have known the truth, but I am not quite sure. 这男孩当时也许知道真相,但我不很确定。 ... cannot have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+cannot have+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“不可能曾经?” 。是对过去之事做否定的推论,此时一定要用 cannot have 或 cannot, 不能使用 must not have 或 must not。而“cannot+原形<动词>”是对目前或将来之事做否定的推论。 She cannot have written the letter herself. 这封信不可能是她自己写的。
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He is honest, so he cannot have stolen my money.他是个老实人,所以他不可能偷了我的钱。 He cannot have caught a cold, because I saw him dancing with Mary the same day. 他不可能感冒,因为当天我还看到他跟玛丽跳舞。 ... would have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+would have+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“原本会?但却未如此” 。用以表示“与过去事实相反”的<假设语气>。 He would have attended meeting, but upon learning that he had no time, he dropped the idea. 他原本要出席会议的,但知道没有时间,就打消了这个念头。 I would have told you the truth, but you didn’t give me a chance. 我本来要告诉你事情的真相,但是你不给我机会。 I would have done it, but I had no time. 我本来要办这事的,可是没时间。

She would have married him, but when she learned that he was a rascal, she parted with him. 她本来会嫁给他的,但知道他是个流氓后,她就离开他了。 ... could have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+could have+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“原本能够?但却未如此” 。 He could have bought the car, but soon his company went bankrupt. 他本来能买那辆车的,但没多久他的公司就倒闭了。 He could have finished it on schedule, but somehow he fell behind. 他原本能按预定进度做完这件事的,但不知怎地却落后了。 I could have done it if I had wanted to. 如果我那时想做,我能做得到的。 ... should have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+should/ought to have+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“原本应当?但却未如此” 。此<句型>表示没有实现之过去的行为、状态,含有讲话者 的责难或遗憾之意。 You should have spoken up in the meeting. 会谈时你实在应该发言(然而你却没有) 。 He should at least have come to say good-by. 他至少也该来道个别(然而却没来) 。

He ought to have kept his promise. 他原本应该遵守自己的诺言。 You should have been more careful in money matters. 在钱方面,你本当更小心点的。 He ought to have arrived there by now. 他现在应该已经到那里了。 The drama drew a capacity audience; you should have gone to see it. 这出戏吸引了满场观众;你真该去看的。 I should have known better 结构︰主词+should have known better(than to+原形动词) 说明︰此句型意为“本来不应该那样笨(而?) ” ,是指已经做过之事,而 know better(不致那样笨)是指 未做之事。
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I should have known better.

我本来不应该那样笨。

You should have known better than to talk like that. 你本应更懂事而不致说这样的话。 You should have known better than to go mountain climbing alone. I know better than to go swimming after dinner. ... need not have V-ed ... 结构︰主词+need not have+过去分词 说明︰此句型意为“原本不必?但却?” 。表示“与过去事实相反”的<假设语气>,即做了没有必要做的 事。 而 “didn’ t need to+原形<动词>” 则表示 “过去的事实” , 译为 “当时不必?而且也没?” 。 need not have 在<疑问句>中表对过去之必要性的强烈疑问,即“有?的必要吗?” 。 You need not have bought extra oil for this short trip.在这么短的旅程中,你实在没有必要多买油。 You need not have got up so early. 你不必起得那么早。 他有必要到车站去接她吗? 你本来不该笨得单独去爬山。

我不致笨得吃过饭就去游泳。

Need he have gone to the station to meet her?

He need not have come. (But he came.) 当时他不必来。 (但却来了) He didn’t need to come. (And he didn’t come.) 当时他不必来。 (而且也没来) It was fine that day, so I need not have brought an umbrella with me. 那天天气很好,我原本不必带伞的(但却带了) 。 含代名词之句型 It is warm in ... 结构︰It is+天气+in+四季名称。 说明︰此句型意为“在某季节天气是?” 。it 此处指天气=the weather;<介系词> in,常加在四季名称的前 面。 It is warm in spring. 春天天气是暖和的。

It is cold in winter. 冬天天气是寒冷的。 It is hot in summer. It rains a lot in ... 结构︰It rains/snows+a lot+in+地方。 说明︰此句型意为“在某地下很多的雨/雪” 。<代名词> it 可用于指“天候” ,如下雨,下雪等。常放在 句首,当<主词>。rain 当“下雨”解,是<动词>,a lot 当<副词>,用于修饰<动词>。相当于 very much。 It rains a lot in Taipei. 在台北下很多的雨。 It snows a lot in New York. 在纽约下很多的雪。 夏天天气是炎热的。

It showers a lot in Guangzhou. 在广州下很多阵雨。 This is my ... 结构︰This is+所有格(my/your/?)+名词。 说明︰相当于“This+名词+is+所有代名词(mine/yours/?) 。 ”<所有代名词>由“ <所有格>+s”构 成,如 yours,ours,theirs,hers。但是 mine, his 二字除外,字尾不可加 s。<所有代名词>用于代替句 前已出现的<名词>,故后面不可接<名词>。<所有格>不可与 a,an,the,this,that,these 或 those 等一
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起使用。 This is my pen. This pen is mine. 这是我的钢笔。 这钢笔是我的。

This is your box. 这是你的箱子。 This box is yours. 这箱子是你的。 This is his bicycle. 这是他的脚踏车。 This bicycle is his. My pen is ... 结构︰所有格(My/Your/?)+名词+be 动词+形容词。 说明︰此句型意为“某人的?是?” 。相当于“所有代名词(Mine/Yours/?)+be 动词+形容词。 ”译 为“某人的是?” 。<所有格>的后面必须接<名词>。当<主词>用的<所有代名词>,如果代替单数<名词>, 则取单数<动词>;如果代替复数<名词>,则取复数<动词>。 My pen is new. 我的钢笔是新的。 Our bedroom is small. 我们的卧室是小的。 这脚踏车是他的。

Their cars are blue. 他们的汽车是蓝色的。 Mine is new. 我的是新的。 Ours is small. 我们的是小的。

Theirs are blue. 他们的是蓝色的。 Are these your pens? 结构︰问句:Be 动词+主词+所有格+名词?? 答句:Yes/No,主词+be/not+所有代名词。 说明︰<名词>的<所有格>和<所有代名词>完全相同,都是在<名词>的后面加(’s) 。 Are these Mary’s pens? No, they are not hers. 这些是玛丽的笔吗?不,它们不是她的。 Are those Bob’s books? Yes, they’re his. 那些是鲍伯的书吗?是的,它们是他的。 Is this your parents’ apartment? No, it’s my brother’s. One/Each of the ... 结构︰One/Each of the+复数名词(或代名词)+单数动词?。 说明︰此句型意为“?其中之一(每一个)?” 。one,each 为<不定代名词>,one (each) of 指“二者以上” 的每一个; 跟随 of 表示限定范围的若为<名词>, 则<名词>前须加 the, 若为复数 <代名词>, 前面不加 the。 该结构中<动词>须用单数。 One of the boys is nice. 这些男孩之中有一位是好的。 One of them needs a new jacket. 他们之中有一位需要一件新夹克。 每家电影院都上映不同的电影。 这是你双亲的公寓吗?不,它是我兄弟的。

Each of the theaters has different movies. Both of the girls are ...

结构︰Both/Three/Some/Many/All of the+复数名词(或代名词)+复数动词+?。 说明︰此句型意为“?其中两个(三个,一些,许多,全部)?” 。both,three,some,many,all 都是<
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不定代名词>;若跟随 of 表示限定范围的为复数<代名词>,则<代名词>前不加 the。该结构中<动词>须 用复数。 Both of the girls are nice. 这两位女孩是好的。 Many of the supermarkets are having sales. 很多这些超级市场正在举行拍卖。

Three of the students came here yesterday. 这些学生中有三位昨天来这里。 ... who ... 结构︰主词(人)+关系代名词(Who)+动词+?。 说明︰who 是主格<关系代名词>,引导<形容词子句>,前面的先行词接“人” ,后面接<动词>,必须和先 行词保持一致。who 可用 that 代替。 The man who called was tired. 打电话的那个男人是疲倦的。 正在跟海伦谈话的那男孩喜爱踢足球。

The boy who is speaking to Helen enjoys playing soccer.

People who use their free time well are usually healthy and happy. 善于利用空闲时间的人通常健康又快乐。 ... which ... 结构︰主词+动词+名词(物)+关系代名词(which)+动词?。 说明︰which 可作主格或受格<关系代名词>,引导<形容词子句>,前面的先行词接“动物”或“事物” , 后面接<动词>,必须和先行词保持一致。 Here is a book, which is very interesting. 这里有一本非常有趣的书。

I like to watch TV programs which are about sports.我喜欢观赏有关运动的电视节目。 They want to sell the house, which has only one door.他们想卖掉那幢只有一扇门的房子。 ... by oneself ... 结构︰主词(人,物)+动词+by oneself?。 说明︰此句型意为“某人(物)自己?” 。反身<代名词>的人称、数和性别,须和相关的<主词>一致。 They went to Suao by themselves. 他们自己去苏澳。 约翰靠他自己修理录音机。 你不能自己去登山。

John fixed the tape recorder by himself.

You can’t go mountain climbing by yourself. ... that/those of ... 结构︰that/those of 作为避免重复的代名词

说明︰英文句构中,两个<名词>对称而形成<比较>的情况时,为避免重复,第二个<名词>若为单数,就改 为<代名词> that;若为复数,则改为<代名词> those。不过在遇到<所有格>时,可使用<所有格>的<名词> 形态取代 that 或 those。 The population of Tokyo is larger than that of London. 东京的人口比伦敦的多。 The climate here is like that of Taipei. 这儿的气候和台北非常相似。

His children are well bred, whereas those of his sister are naughty. 他的孩子很有教养,但他姊姊的孩子却调皮得很。 The students work harder than those of our school. 这些学生比我们学校的学生用功。
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His car is bigger than mine. 他的车比我的大。 the former ... the latter 结构︰the former ... the latter ... 说明︰此句型意为“前者?后者?” 。可代替单复数<名词>,而“that(指前者)? this(指后者)?”或 “the one(指前者)?the other(指后者)?” ,只能代替单数<名词>。若两个<名词>均为复数时,也可用 “those ... these ...”取代“the former ... the latter ...” 。 Virtue and vice are two different things: the former/that/the one leads to peace, the latter/this/the other to misery. 美德与邪恶是不同的,前者带来和平,后者导致痛苦。

Man differs from beasts in that the former is able to laugh, while the latter aren’t. 人不同于野兽,因前者能笑,而后者却不能。 Jane and Mary are good friends; the former is a teacher, the latter is a nurse. 珍和玛丽是好朋友,前者是老师,后者是护士。 Dogs are more faithful animals than cats; these attach themselves to places, and those to persons. 狗比猫忠心,后者依恋地方,前者依恋人。 ... one ..., the other ... 结构︰?two+复数名词,one?the other? 说明︰此句型意为“一个?另一个?” 。用于限定的两者,只有在“two+复数<名词>”之后才能使用。 I have two aunts; one lives in Tokyo and the other in Osaka. 我有两个姑妈;一个住在东京,另一个住在大阪。 I have two dogs; one is white, and the other is brown.我有两条狗;一条白色的,一条棕色的。 The two brothers often quarrel with each other; one is stubborn, and the other (is) selfish. 这两兄弟经常吵架;一个很固执,另一个则很自私。 I don’t like this one; show me the other. 我不喜欢这个,给我看另一个。 (暗示:这种东西只有两种) ... one ..., another ... 结构︰?three+复数名词,one?another?and the other? 说明︰此句型意为“一个?一个?而另一个?” 。用于限定的三者,只能在“three+复数<名词>”之后使 用。 There are three rooms; one is mine, another is my sister’s and the other is my parents’. 有三间房间:一间是我的,一间是我妹妹的,剩下的一间是我父母的。 He has three brothers; one is a teacher, another (is) a soldier, and the other an artist. 他有三个兄弟:一个是老师,一个是军人,而另一个是艺术家。 They three get along well with one another; one is married, another is still a bachelor, and the other has a girl friend. 他们三人彼此相处愉快;一个已婚,一个仍是光棍,而另一个则已有了女友。

... one ... another ... 结构︰... one ... another ...
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说明︰此句型意为“一个?而另一个?” 。若有三者以上,而未加以限定时,则可使用本<句型>。 I don’t like this one; show me another. 我不喜欢这个, 给我看另一个。 (暗示: 这种东西至少有三种以上) At one time, she is fine, but at another, she is abnormal. 有时候,她表现得很好,有时候又失常。

I really don’t know what kind of man he really is; on one occasion, he is normal, and on another, he acts like a lunatic. 我真不了解他到底是怎样的人;一会儿正常,一会儿又像个疯子。

... one thing, ... another 结构︰... is one thing, and ... is another 说明︰此句型意为“?是一回事,而?又是另一回事” 。 To know is one thing; to teach is quite another. 知道是一回事,教又是另一回事。 (学者未必是良师。 ) It is one thing to make money, and it is another to spend it. 赚钱是一回事,而花钱又是另一回事。

Saying is one thing, and doing is another. 说是一回事,做又是另一回事。 ... one ... or another ... 结构︰one+名词+or another 说明︰此句型意为“某一?” 。本<句型>等于“some+<名词>+or other” 。 Most of us have to read a certain amount of material for one reason or another. 我们大多数人必须为某种理由阅读若干的数据。 He was absent from the meeting for one reason or another.他为某种理由而没有出席会议。 I am sure he will succeed one day or another. 我确信某一天他会成功的。

For one reason or another, she committed suicide. 不知什么原因,她自杀了。 ... some ... others ... 结构︰... some ... others ... 说明︰此句型意为“一些?而另一些?” 。用于非限定的众群,相当于“some ... some ...” 。 Some of us value peace and comfort very highly. Others value pleasure and excitement. 我们有些人非常重视安宁与舒适,有些人重视快乐与刺激。 Some of us can speak English. Others/Some can speak French. 我们有些人会说英语,有些人会说法语。 Some people believe in God and others don’t. 有人相信上帝;有人则不相信。 To some life means pleasure, to others suffering. 对一些人来说,人生的意义是享乐,对另外一些人来说则是受苦。 ... one ... the others ... 结构︰... one/some ... the others ... 说明︰此句型意为“一个/一些?其余?” 。用于限定的三者以上。 We have 30 students in our class; one passed the exam, and the others (=the rest) all failed. 我们班上有三十位学生,只有一位通过考试,其余都不及格。 Of the 40 students, some do well in study, and the others are playing around. 四十个学生中,有一些功课很好,其余的都很混。
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Some of the boys were late, but all the others were in time for the meeting. 男孩子中,有一些迟到了,但其余的人都及时赶上开会。 ..., some ..., others ... 结构︰... some ... others ... still others ... 说明︰此句型意为“一些?一些?而另一些?” 。用于非限定的众多群,相当于“some ... some ... some ...” 。 People vary in taste; some love music, some enjoy taking pictures, and still others are fond of climbing mountains. 每个人嗜好不同,有人喜欢音乐,有人喜欢摄影,还有些人喜欢爬山。 Society is made up of a variety of people; some are good, others (are) bad, and still others (are) in between. 社会是由形形色色的人组成。有些人很好,有些人很坏,也有些人介乎两者之间。 There are many people in the park; some are walking, others are jogging, and still others are doing exercises. 公园里有很多人,有的在散步,有的在慢跑,还有的在做操。 Of all (the) ..., ... 结构︰Of all(the)+复数名词,主词+动词? 说明︰此句型意为“在所有?之中?” 。all 之后有 the,表示“所有这些?” ,是特定的观念;all 之后没 有 the,表示“所有的” ,是泛指的观念。 Of all the fibers now used by man, a very large percentage is man-made. 现在人类所使用的所有纤维之中,有很大的百分比是人造的。 Of all books, the Bible seems to be read most widely. 在所有的书中,圣经是最广泛地被阅读的。

Of all the students in our school, Tom is mathematical genius. 在我们学校所有的学生之中,汤姆是数学天才。 含关系词之句型 ... + N + who/which ... 结构︰?+名词+who/whom/which/that? 说明︰<关系代名词>有 who,whom,which 三种,均用以引导<形容词子句>,修饰前面的<名词>。修饰 人用 who 或 whom;修饰物用 which。that 可用来取代 who,whom 或 which,但须注意其前不可置< 介系词>,也不可有逗点,that 之前若有<插入语>,则不受逗点限制。作受格的 whom, which,that 在 限定修饰的句构中可以省略。 Never trust a man who (that) breaks his word easily. 不要信任一个常常食言的人。 He laughs best who laughs last. He is a man on whom I can rely. 最后笑者笑得最好。 他是我可以信赖的那一种人。 没有人会买一本写得很烂的书。

No one will buy a book which (that) is poorly written.

I have found the bicycle which (that) you lost yesterday.我发现了你昨天丢的那辆脚踏车。 I like my school, which is famous for its excellent facilities. 我喜欢我的学校,它以优良的设备出名。 Volleyball is a sport of which I am very fond. 排球是我很喜欢的运动。

He is a good boy, as far as I know, that (whom) you can trust. 据我所知,他是个好男孩,你可以相信他。 There are many things that money can’t buy. 有很多东西是金钱买不到的。
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Don’t take things that do not belong to you. ... + N + whose ... 结构︰?+名词+whose?

不要拿不属于你的东西。

说明︰whose 为关系<代名词的所有格>,系由 his,her,their,my,your 以及 its 等<所有格>变化而成, 引导<形容词子句>。 People whose homes are in town want to live in the country.住在市区里的人希望住在乡下。 This is a short story whose easy style I love very much. 这是一则短篇小说,我很喜欢它那简单的笔调。 I envy Mike, whose car is fancy. ... those who + V ... 结构︰those+who+动词 说明︰此句型意为“ (那些)?的人” 。those 在此是泛指一般的人。 Christmas is a time for friends and family members to see each other again and to send Christmas cards to those who live far away. 圣诞节是朋友家人互相再见,以及寄圣诞卡给住在远方的人的一段时间。 真羡慕麦克,他的车子真漂亮。

God helps those who help themselves. 自助者神助之。 We can talk to those who live far away by telephone.我们可以用电话和住在远处的人说话。 Those who abandon themselves to despair can not succeed.那些自暴自弃的人无法成功。 There is no easy way to do business, and only those who do their best to win clients can win business. 做生 意无快捷方式可走,只有那些千方百计赢得客户的人才能赢得生意。 ... all (that) ... 结构︰... all (that) ... 说明︰此句型意为“所有?的一切东西” 。 all 等于 everything;that 为<关系代名词>,代替 all。that 在 所引导的<形容词子句>中若做<主词>时,不可省略,但若做<受词>,则往往予以省略。all that 往往可视 为<复合关系代名词> what 看待。 All (that) he said is true. 他说的都是真的。 We must do all that is to be done. 我们必须做该做的事。 All (What) you have to do is (to) follow me. All (that) I want is a beautiful red car. All that he does, he does it well. 你所必须要做得就是跟着我。

我所要的就是一辆美丽的红色车子。

他做任何事都很出色。 做任何事都应不遗余力。

All that you do, do with your might.

All you have to do is call on the house phone. 我只要做的就是拨个室内电话。 All you have to do is learn it by heart. 你只要做的就是把它背出来。

All I have to do is persuade him to go with us. 我只要做的就是说服他跟我们一起去。 ... all + N + that ... 结构︰?all/any/every/no+名词+that? 说明︰all, any, every, no 若修饰<名词>, 该<名词>之后的<关系代名词>一般要用 that 取代 who, whom, which。
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All the students that work hard can definitely pass the exam. 用功的学生必能通过考试。 I have no disk that may interest you. 我没有一张唱片能引起你的兴趣。 Every student that comes here should report to me. 每一个到这里来的学生都应向我报告。 Don’t do anything that should go against his will. 不要做违背他心意的事。 ... the only N that ... 结构︰?the only/the very/the first/the last+名词+that? 说明︰the only, the very, the first, the last 若修饰<名词>, 该<名词>之后的<关系代名词>一般要用 that 取 代 who,whom,which。 Man is the only creature that is gifted with speech. 人类是唯一被赋予语言能力的动物。 He is the last person that I’ll get along with. 他是我最不愿与之相处的人。 He is the very person that knows the password. 只有他知道密码。 ... the most N that ... 结构︰形容词最高级+名词+that? 说明︰< 最高级 >的< 形容词 >修饰 <名词> 时,该<名词 >之后的<关系代名词>一般要用 that 取代 who, whom, which。 This is the most interest book that I have ever read. 这是我念过的最有趣的书。 You are the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 你是我见过的最美丽的女孩。 This is the most convincing evidence that I can find to prove my point. 这是我所能找到的最令人信服的证据,以证明我的观点。 Who/What ... that ... 结构︰疑问词(who,what 等)?+that? 说明︰为避免与疑问词重复,可使用 that 取代 who,whom,which。 Who is the boy that is standing over there? 站在那里的男孩是谁?

What is the book about that she is reading? 她在看什么书? Where is the man that owes you $100? what ... V ... 结构︰what+(主词)+动词? 说明︰此句型意为 “?的东西” 。 what 是<复合关系代名词>, 等于 the thing which。 不论 “what+<动词>?” 或“what+<主词>+<动词>” ,都是<名词子句>。 “what+<主词>+be”译成“?的样子/情况” 。 That’s what’s polluting the lake. What do you guess is in the box? 那就是污染湖水的东西。 那个欠你一百块的人住在哪里?

你猜箱子里有什么?

This is what he wanted. 这就是他要的东西。 Character is what we are when we are alone with ourselves in the dark. 品德就是自我在暗地里独处时的样子。 John is not what he was. 约翰不是以前那样的约翰了。

Without Mr. Chang, I would not be what I am.如果没有张先生的话,我就不会有现在的样子。
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... what + be + called ... 结构︰?what+be+called? 说明︰此句型意为“所谓的?” 。等于“what+we/you/they+call” 。 He gathered earlier writings to prepare what are called the Five Classics. 他搜集以前的作品,编成了所谓的五经。 He is very interested in what are called popular songs. 他对所谓的流行歌曲很感兴趣。 We should improve what is called the quality of living.我们应该改进所谓的生活质量。 He is what you call a “walking dictionary”. 他就是你所谓的“活字典” 。 What we do is + V ... 结构︰What+主词+do+is+动词? 说明︰此句型意为“?所要做的就是?” 。<主词>之后一定用 do;至于<动词>,可以看成是 to+<动词> 的 to 被省略了。 What we can not do is make a cloud produce rain if it is not ready to produce it. 我们所办不到的是要使云产生雨,如果它不是随时要产生雨的话。 What you have to do is say (put) in a good word for me.你所必须做的就是为我美言几句。 What we need to do is prepare something to eat. 我们所需要的就是准备一些吃的。 ... what is said above ... 结构︰?what is said above? 说明︰此句型意为“上面所说的” 。 As we learn from what is said above, the tides can be very useful. 依照上面所说的,我们知道潮汐可以是非常有帮助的。 From what is said above, we can draw a conclusion. 由上面所说的,我们可以做一个结论。 We should pay more attention to what is said above. 我们应该更加注意上面所说的。 What follows is ... 结构︰What follows+be 动词? 说明︰此句型意为“以下(跟着来的)是?” 。What follows 是<名词子句>。若要表达其他的意思,可以 把 follows 换成别的<动词>。 What follows is some excerpts of the famous speech he delivered in Washington D.C. 以下是他在华府所发表的那篇著名的演讲中的一些摘录。 What follows is the truth that men are created equal. 以下是人生而平等的真理。 What follows is the process of his being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. 以下是他被颁赠一九六四年诺贝尔和平奖的过程。 ... what little + N 结构︰?what little+不可数名词 说明︰此句型意为“所有的一点点?” 。等于 all the little。 His mother sent him what little money she had saved.他的母亲把所有仅存的钱都寄给他了。
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I’ll let you share what little inform

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