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LTC4053-4.2 USB Compatible Lithium-Ion Battery Charger with Thermal Regulation

FEATURES
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DESCRIPTIO

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Charges Single-Cell Li-Ion Batteries Directly from USB Port Thermal Regulation Maximizes Charge Rate without Risk of Overheating* Programmable Charge Current with ±7% Accuracy Low Dropout Operation No External MOSFET, Sense Resistor or Blocking Diode Required Programmable Charge Termination Timer Preset Charge Voltage with ±1% Accuracy C/10 Charge Current Detection Output AC Present Logic Output 25A Supply Current in Shutdown Mode Automatic Recharge Tiny Thermally Enhanced 10-Pin MSOP Package Charge Current Monitor Useful for Gas Gauging* Thermistor Input for Temperature Qualified Charging

The LTC4053 is a standalone linear charger for lithiumion batteries that can be powered directly from a USB port. The IC contains an on-chip power MOSFET and eliminates the need for an external sense resistor and blocking diode. Thermal regulation automatically adjusts charge current to limit die temperature during high power or high ambient temperature conditions. This feature protects the end product and the LTC4053 from thermal stress while the IC charges the battery at maximum rate without interruption. The charge current and charge time can be set externally with a single resistor and capacitor, respectively. When the input supply (wall adapter or USB supply) is removed, the LTC4053 automatically enters a low current sleep mode, dropping the battery drain current to less than 5A. The LTC4053 also includes NTC temperature sensing, C/10 detection circuitry, AC present logic, low battery charge conditioning (trickle charging) and shutdown (25A supply current). The LTC4053 is available in a 10-pin thermally enhanced MSOP package.
, LTC and LT are registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation. *US Patent 6522118

APPLICATIO S
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Cellular Telephones Handheld Computers Charging Docks and Cradles MP3 Players Digital Cameras

TYPICAL APPLICATIO
USB PORT 4.35V TO 5.5V 2 VCC BAT

Charge Current vs Input Voltage
600 500 400 IBAT (mA) 300 200 VBAT = 4.15V 100 0
4053TA01

USB Powered Standalone Li-Ion Charger
9 SYSTEM LOAD Li-Ion BATTERY

VBAT = 3.95V

+

LTC4053-4.2 4 4.7F 8

TIMER

SHDN

SUSPEND 3.74k USB CONTROL C 100mA/ 500mA

GND NTC PROG 5 6 7 15k

0.1F

4.0

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TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k VBAT = 4.05V 4.5 VCC (V)
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5.0

5.5

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LTC4053-4.2
ABSOLUTE
(Note 1)

AXI U RATI GS

PACKAGE/ORDER I FOR ATIO
TOP VIEW CHRG VCC FAULT TIMER GND 1 2 3 4 5 10 9 8 7 6 ACPR BAT SHDN PROG NTC

Input Supply Voltage (VCC) ....................................... 7V BAT ........................................................................... 7V NTC, SHDN, TIMER, PROG ............ –0.3V to VCC + 0.3V CHRG, FAULT, ACPR .................................. –0.3V to 7V BAT Short-Circuit Duration .......................... Continuous BAT Current (Note 2) ............................................. 1.3A PROG Current (Note 2) ....................................... 1.3mA Junction Temperature .......................................... 125°C Operating Temperature Range (Note 3) ...–40°C to 85°C Storage Temperature Range ................ – 65°C to 150°C Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec)................. 300°C

ORDER PART NUMBER LTC4053EMSE-4.2 MSE PART MARKING LTZT

MSE EXPOSED PAD PACKAGE 10-LEAD PLASTIC MSOP TJMAX = 125°C, θJA = 40°C/W (Note 4) EXPOSED PAD IS GROUND. (MUST BE SOLDERED TO PCB).

Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges.

The q denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 5V
SYMBOL VCC ICC PARAMETER VCC Supply Voltage VCC Supply Current Charger On; Current Mode; RPROG = 30k (Note 5) Shutdown Mode; VSHDN = 0V Sleep Mode VCC < VBAT or VCC ≤ 4V RPROG = 3k; Current Mode RPROG = 15k; Current Mode Shutdown Mode; VSHDN = 0V Sleep Mode VCC < VBAT or VCC < (VUV – VUV) VBAT < 2V; RPROG = 3k VBAT Rising VCC Rising SHDN Pin Voltage
q

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

CONDITIONS
q q q q q q q

MIN 4.25

TYP 1 25 25

MAX 6.5 2 50 50 4.242 535 107 ±3 ±3 65

UNITS V mA A A V mA mA A A mA V mV

VBAT IBAT

VBAT Regulated Float Voltage Battery Pin Current

4.158 465 93

4.2 500 100 ±1 ±1 50 2.48 100 4 200

ITRIKL VTRIKL VTRIKL VUV VUV VMSD VASD

Trickle Charge Current Trickle Charge Trip Threshold Trickle Charge Trip Hysteresis VCC Undervoltage Lockout Voltage VCC Undervoltage Lockout Hysteresis Manual Shutdown Threshold Voltage

q

35

4.25 1.3

0.6 35 70

Automatic Shutdown Threshold Voltage (VCC - VBAT) High to Low (VCC - VBAT) Low to High

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V mV V mV mV
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LTC4053-4.2
The q denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VCC = 5V
SYMBOL VPROG ICHRG VCHRG VACPR VFAULT IC/10 tTIMER VRECHRG VNTC-HOT VHOT-HYS VNTC-COLD VCOLD-HYS VNTC-DIS VDIS-HYS TLIM RON PARAMETER PROG Pin Voltage CHRG Pin Weak Pulldown Current CHRG Pin Output Low Voltage ACPR Pin Output Low Voltage FAULT Pin Output Low Voltage End of Charge Indication Current Level TIMER Accuracy Recharge Battery Voltage Threshold NTC Pin Hot Threshold Voltage NTC Pin Hot Hysteresis Voltage NTC Pin Cold Threshold Voltage NTC Pin Cold Hystersis Voltage NTC Pin Disable Threshold Voltage NTC Pin Disable Hystersis Voltage Junction Temperature in Constant-Temperature Mode Power MOSFET “ON” Resistance VNTC Rising VNTC Rising CONDITIONS RPROG = 3k, IPROG = 500A VCHRG = 1V ICHRG = 5mA IACPR = 5mA IFAULT = 5mA RPROG = 3k CTIMER = 0.1F Battery Voltage Falling VNTC Falling 44 15 MIN TYP 1.5 30 0.35 0.35 0.35 50 10 4.035 2.5 80 4.375 80 100 10 105 375 50 0.6 0.6 0.6 56 MAX UNITS V A V V V mA % V V mV V mV mV mV °C m

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which the life of a device may be impaired. Note 2: The Absolute Maximum BAT Current Rating of 1.3A is guaranteed by design and current density calculations. The Absolute Maximum PROG Current Rating is guaranteed to be 1/1000 of BAT current rating by design. Note 3: The LTC4053E is guaranteed to meet performance specifications from 0°C to 70°C. Specifications over the –40°C to 85°C operating

temperature range are assured by design, characterization and correlation with statistical process controls. Note 4: Failure to solder the exposed backside of the package to the PC board will result in a thermal resistance much higher than 40°C/W. Note 5: Supply current includes PROG pin current (approximately 50A) but does not include any current delivered to the battery through the BAT pin (approximately 50mA).

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LTC4053-4.2 TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
Battery Regulation Voltage vs Battery Charge Current
4.22 4.21 4.20 VCC = 5V TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k

VBAT (V)

VBAT (V)

4.19 4.18 4.17

VBAT (V)

4.16 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 IBAT (mA)
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Charge Current vs Input Voltage
600 500 400 VBAT = 3.95V TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k

IBAT (mA)

IBAT (mA)

IBAT (mA)

VBAT = 4.05V

300 200 VBAT = 4.15V 100 0

4.0

4.5 VCC (V)

5.0

Undervoltage Lockout Voltage vs Temperature
4.05 4.04 4.03 4.02
ICC (A) VUV (V)

4.00 3.99 3.98 3.97 3.96 3.95 –50 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125

15 10 5 0 –50 –25

VCC = 4.5V

VMSD (V)

4.01

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Battery Regulation Voltage vs Temperature
4.24 4.22 4.20 4.18 4.16 4.14 4.12 4.10 4.08 VCC = 5V RPROG = 3k IBAT = 10mA –25 0 25 75 50 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125
4.210 4.208 4.206 4.204 4.202 4.200 4.198 4.196 4.194 4.192 4.190

Battery Regulation Voltage vs VCC
VCC = 5V RPROG = 3k IBAT = 10mA

4.06 –50

4

4.5

5

5.5 VCC (V)

6

6.5

7
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Charge Current vs Battery Voltage
550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
5.5

Charge Current vs Ambient Temperature with Thermal Regulation
1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 VCC = 5V VBAT = 3.5V RPROG = 1.5k –25 25 50 0 TEMPERATURE (°C) 75 100
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VCC = 5V TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k

THERMAL CONTROL LOOP IN OPERATION

0

0.5

1

1.5

2 2.5 VBAT (V)

3

3.5

4

4.5

0 –50

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Shutdown Supply Current vs Temperature
30 25 20 1.30 VSHDN = 0V VCC = 6.5V VCC = 5.5V 1.25 1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 50 25 75 0 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125

Manual Shutdown Threshold Voltage vs Temperature

VCC = 6V VCC = 5.5V

VCC = 5V VCC = 4.5V

0.80 –50 –25

50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C)

100

125

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LTC4053-4.2 TYPICAL PERFOR A CE CHARACTERISTICS
PROG Pin Voltage vs Charge Current
1.6 1.4 1.2 VCC = 5V TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k

VPROG (V)

VPROG (V)

VPROG (V)

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 CHARGE CURRENT (mA)
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Trickle Charge Current vs Temperature
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IBAT (% OF PROGRAMMED CURRENT)

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VBAT = 2V TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k

ICHRG (A)

30 29 28

VCHRG (V)

10

9

8

7 –50 –25

50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C)

Timer Error vs Temperature
5 4 3 2 VCC = 5V CTIMER = 0.1F

tTIMER (%)

0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –50 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125

tTIMER (%)

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100
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PROG Pin Voltage vs VCC Constant Current Mode
1.515 1.510 1.505 1.500 1.495 1.490 1.485 1.515 VBAT = 3.5V TA = 25°C RPROG = 3k 1.510 1.505 1.500 1.495 1.490

PROG Pin Voltage vs Temperature Constant Current Mode
VCC = 5V VBAT = 4V RPROG = 3k

4

4.5

5

5.5 VCC (V)

6

6.5

7
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1.485 –50

–25

0 25 50 TEMPERATURE (°C)

75

100
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CHRG Pin Weak Pull-Down Current vs Temperature
35 VCC = 5V 34 IBAT < C/10 33 32 31 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

CHRG Pin Output Low Voltage vs Temperature
VCC = 5V ICHRG = 5mA

27 26 125 25 –50 –25 50 25 0 75 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 125

0 –50 –25

50 25 75 0 TEMPERATURE (°C)

100

125

LTC1323 TPC05

4053 G15

Timer Error vs VCC
5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 4 4.5 5 5.5 VCC (V) 6 6.5 7
4056 G17

TA = 25°C CTIMER = 0.1F

LTC1323 TPC05

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LTC4053-4.2

PI FU CTIO S
CHRG: Open-Drain Charge Status Output. When the battery is being charged, the CHRG pin is pulled low by an internal N-channel MOSFET. When the charge current drops to 10% of the full-scale current, the N-channel MOSFET latches off and a 30A current source is connected from the CHRG pin to ground. The C/10 latch can be cleared by grounding the SHDN pin, momentarily, or toggling VCC. When the timer runs out or the input supply is removed, the current source is disconnected and the CHRG pin is forced high impedance. VCC: Positive Input Supply Voltage. When VCC is within 35mV of VBAT or less than the undervoltage lockout threshold, the LTC4053 enters sleep mode, dropping IBAT to less than 3A. VCC can range from 4.25V to 6.5V. Bypass this pin with at least a 4.7F ceramic capacitor to ground. FAULT: Open-Drain Fault Status Output. The FAULT opendrain logic signal indicates that the charger has timed out under trickle charge conditions or the NTC comparator is indicating an out-of-range battery temperature condition. If VBAT is less that 2.48V, trickle charging begins whereby the charge current drops to one tenth of its programmed value and the timer period is reduced by a factor of four. When one fourth of the timing period has elapsed, if VBAT is still less than 2.48V, trickle charging stops and the FAULT pin latches to ground. The fault can be cleared by toggling VCC, momentarily grounding the SHDN pin or pulling the BAT pin above 2.48V. If the NTC comparator is indicating an out-of-range battery temperature condition, the FAULT pin will pull to ground until the temperature returns to the acceptable range. TIMER: Timer Capacitor. The timer period is set by placing a capacitor, CTIMER, to ground. The timer period is: Time (Hours) = (CTIMER 3 hr)/(0.1F) Short the TIMER pin to ground to disable the internal timer function. GND: Ground. The exposed backside of the package is also ground and must be soldered to the PC board for maximum heat transfer. NTC: Input to the NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) Thermistor Temperature Monitoring Circuit. With an external 10k NTC thermistor to ground and a 1% resistor to VCC, this pin can sense the temperature of the battery pack and stop charging when it is out of range. When the voltage at this pin drops below (0.5)(VCC) at hot temperatures or rises above (0.875)(VCC) at cold, charging is suspended and the internal timer is frozen. The CHRG pin output status is not affected in this hold state. The FAULT pin will be pulled to ground, but not latched. When the temperature returns to an acceptable range, charging will resume and the FAULT pin will be released. The NTC feature can be disabled by grounding the NTC pin. PROG: Charge Current Program and Charge Current Monitor Pin. The charge current is programmed by connecting a resistor, RPROG to ground. When in constant-current mode, the LTC4053 servos the PROG pin voltage to 1.5V. In all modes the voltage on the PROG pin can be used to measure the charge current as follows: IBAT = (VPROG/RPROG) 1000. SHDN: Shutdown Input Pin. Pulling the SHDN pin to ground will put the LTC4053 into standby mode where the BAT drain current is reduced to less than 3A, and the supply current is reduced to less than 25A. For normal operation, pull the SHDN pin up to VCC. BAT: Charge Current Output. A bypass capacitor of at least 1F with a 1 series resistor is required to keep the loop stable when the battery is not present. A precision internal resistor divider sets the final float potential on this pin. The internal resistor divider is disconnected in sleep and shutdown mode. ACPR: Open-Drain Power Supply Status Output. When VCC is greater than the undervoltage lockout threshold and at least 35mV above VBAT, the ACPR pin will pull to ground. Otherwise, the pin is high impedance.

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LTC4053-4.2

SI PLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRA

105°C


TA

TDIE

+

NTC 6

NTC MP VA CA



CHRG 1

HOT COLD DISABLE STOP C/10 30A LOGIC 1.5V

SHDN R3

ACPR 10 ACPR R4

FAULT 3 FAULT

C/10

CHARGE

COUNTER C3 OSCILLATOR 2.485V 4 TIMER CTIMER



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VCC 2 D1 D2 D3 M2 ×1 M1 ×1000

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MA

+
30A R1 9 BAT

+ –
R2

+
2.485V REF

8 SHDN

+
C2

0.15V R5



+
TO BAT 7 PROG RPROG 5 GND
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Figure 1

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LTC4053-4.2

OPERATIO

The LTC4053 is a linear battery charger designed primarily for charging single cell lithium-ion batteries. Featuring an internal P-channel power MOSFET, the charger uses a constant-current/constant-voltage charge algorithm with programmable current and a programmable timer for charge termination. Charge current can be programmed up to 1.25A with a final float voltage accuracy of ±1%. No blocking diode or sense resistor is required thus dropping the external component count to three for the basic charger circuit. The CHRG, ACPR, and FAULT open-drain status outputs provide information regarding the status of the LTC4053 at all times. An NTC thermistor input provides the option of charge qualification using battery temperature. An internal thermal limit reduces the programmed charge current if the die temperature attempts to rise above a preset value of approximately 105°C. This feature protects the LTC4053 from excessive temperature, and allows the user to push the limits of the power handling capability of a given circuit board without risk of damaging the LTC4053 or the external components. Another benefit of the LTC4053 thermal limit is that charge current can be set according to typical, not worst-case, ambient temperatures for a given application with the assurance that the charger will automatically reduce the current in worst-case conditions. The charge cycle begins when the voltage at the VCC pin rises above the UVLO level, a program resistor is connected from the PROG pin to ground, and the SHDN pin is pulled above the shutdown threshold. At the beginning of the charge cycle, if the battery voltage is below 2.48V, the charger goes into trickle charge mode to bring the cell

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voltage up to a safe level for charging. The charger goes into the fast charge constant-current mode once the voltage on the BAT pin rises above 2.48V. In constantcurrent mode, the charge current is set by RPROG. When the battery approaches the final float voltage, the charge current begins to decrease as the LTC4053 enters the constant-voltage mode. When the current drops to 10% of the full-scale charge current, an internal comparator latches off the MOSFET on the CHRG pin and connects a weak current source to ground (30A) to indicate a near end-of-charge (C/10) condition. The C/10 latch can be cleared by grounding the SHDN pin momentarily, or momentarily removing and reapplying VCC. An external capacitor on the TIMER pin sets the total charge time. When this time elapses, the charge cycle terminates and the CHRG pin assumes a high impedance state. To restart the charge cycle, remove the input voltage and reapply it, or momentarily force the SHDN pin to 0V. The charge cycle will also restart if the BAT pin voltage falls below the recharge threshold. For lithium-ion and similar batteries that require an accurate final float voltage, the internal reference, voltage amplifier and the resistor divider provide regulation with ±1% (max) accuracy. When the input voltage is not present, the charger goes into a sleep mode, dropping battery drain current, IBAT, to less than 5A. This greatly reduces the current drain on the battery and increases the standby time. The charger can be shut down (ICC = 25A) by forcing the SHDN pin to 0V.
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LTC4053-4.2

APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)

An internal undervoltage lockout circuit monitors the input voltage and keeps the charger in shutdown mode until VCC rises above the undervoltage lockout threshold. The UVLO circuit has a built-in hysteresis of 150mV. Furthermore, to protect against reverse current in the power MOSFET, the UVLO circuit keeps the charger in shutdown mode if VCC falls to within 35mV of the battery voltage. If the UVLO comparator is tripped, the charger will not come out of shutdown until VCC rises 70mV above the battery voltage. Trickle Charge And Defective Battery Detection At the beginning of a charge cycle, if the battery voltage is low (below 2.48V) the charger goes into trickle charge reducing the charge current to 10% of the full-scale current. If the low battery voltage persists for one quarter of the total charge time, the battery is assumed to be defective, the charge cycle is terminated, the CHRG pin output assumes a high impedance state, and the FAULT pin pulls low. The fault can be cleared by toggling VCC, temporarily forcing the SHDN pin to 0V, or temporarily forcing the BAT pin voltage above 2.48V. Shutdown The LTC4053 can be shut down (ICC = 25A) by pulling the SHDN pin to 0V. For normal operation, pull the SHDN pin above the manual shutdown threshold voltage level. Do not leave this pin open. In shutdown the internal linear regulator is turned off, and the internal timer is reset. Programming Charge Current The formula for the battery charge current (see Figure 1) is: ICHG = (IPROG) 1000 = (1.5V / RPROG) 1000 or RPROG = 1500V/ICHG where RPROG is the total resistance from the PROG pin to ground. Under trickle charge conditions, this current is reduced to 10% of the full-scale value.

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For example, if 500mA charge current is required, calculate: RPROG = 1500V/0.5A = 3k For best stability over temperature and time, 1% metalfilm resistors are recommended. If the charger is in constant-temperature or constantvoltage mode, the battery current can be monitored by measuring the PROG pin voltage as follows: ICHG = (VPROG / RPROG) 1000 USB and Wall Adapter Power Although the LTC4053 allows charging from a USB port, a wall adapter can also be used to charge Li-Ion batteries. Figure 2 shows an example of how to combine wall adapter and USB power inputs. A P-channel MOSFET, MP1, is used to prevent back conducting into the USB port when a wall adapter is present and Schottky diode, D1, is used to prevent USB power loss through the 1k pull-down resistor. Typically a wall adapter can supply significantly more current than the 500mA-limited USB port. Therefore, an Nchannel MOSFET, MN1 and an extra 3k program resistor can be used to increase the charge current to 1A when the wall adapter is present.
5V WALL ADAPTER 1A ICHG USB POWER 500mA ICHG LTC4053 D1 2 MP1 VCC PROG 7 BAT 9 ICHG SYSTEM LOAD

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Li-Ion BATTERY

3k 1k MN1 3k

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Figure 2. Combining Wall Adapter and USB Power

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LTC4053-4.2
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
Programming The Timer The programmable timer is used to terminate the charge cycle. The timer duration is programmed by an external capacitor at the TIMER pin. The total charge time is: Time (Hours) = (3 Hours) (CTIMER/0.1F) or CTIMER = 0.1F Time (Hours)/3 (Hours) The timer starts when an input voltage greater than the undervoltage lockout threshold level is applied and the SHDN pin is greater than the manual shutdown threshold voltage level. After a time-out occurs, the charge current stops, and the CHRG output assumes a high impedance state to indicate that the charging has stopped. Connecting the TIMER pin to ground disables the timer function. Recharge After a charge cycle has terminated, if the battery voltage drops below the recharge threshold of 4.05V a new charge cycle will begin. The recharge circuit integrates the BAT pin voltage for a few milliseconds to prevent a transient from restarting the charge cycle. If the battery voltage remains below 2.48V during trickle charge for 1/4 of the programmed time, the battery may be defective and the charge cycle will end. In addition, the recharge comparator is disabled and a new charge cycle will not begin unless the input voltage is toggled off-thenon, the SHDN pin is momentarily pulled to ground, or the BAT pin is pulled above the 2.48V trickle charge threshold. Open-Drain Status Outputs The LTC4053 has three open-drain status outputs: ACPR, CHRG and FAULT. The ACPR pin pulls low when an input voltage greater than the undervoltage lockout threshold is applied and becomes high impedance when power (VIN < VUV) is removed. CHRG and FAULT work together to indicate the status of the charge cycle. Table 1 describes the status of the charge cycle based on the CHRG and FAULT outputs.
High 30A pull-down 30A pull-down High High

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Table 1.
FAULT High Low CHRG Low Low Description Charge cycle has started, C/10 has not been reached and charging is proceeding normally. Charge cycle has started, C/10 has not been reached, but the charge current and timer have been paused due to an NTC out-oftemperature condition. C/10 has been reached and charging is proceeding normally. C/10 has been reached but the charge current and timer have paused due to an NTC out-oftemperature condition. Normal timeout (charging has terminated). If FAULT goes low and CHRG goes high impedance simultaneously, then the LTC4053 has timed out due to a bad cell (VBAT <2.48V after one-quarter the programmed charge time). If CHRG goes high impedance first, then the LTC4053 has timed out normally (charging has terminated), but NTC is indicating an outof-temperature condition. Low High Low

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CHRG Status Output Pin When the charge cycle starts, the CHRG pin is pulled to ground by an internal N-channel MOSFET capable of driving an LED. When the charge current drops to 10% of the full-scale current (C/10), the N-channel MOSFET is latched off and a weak 30A current source to ground is connected to the CHRG pin. After a time-out occurs, the pin assumes a high impedance state. By using two different value pull-up resistors a microprocessor can detect three states from this pin (charging, C/10 and timeout). See Figure 3. When the LTC4053 is in charge mode, the CHRG pin is pulled low by the internal N-channel MOSFET. To detect this mode, force the digital output pin, OUT, high and measure the voltage at the CHRG pin. The N-channel MOSFET will pull the pin low even with the 2k pull-up resistor. Once the charge current drops to 10% of the

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LTC4053-4.2

APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
V+ 8 VCC LTC4053 CHRG 3 400k 2k PROCESSOR OUT IN
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VDD

Figure 3. Microprocessor Interface

full-scale current (C/10), the N-channel MOSFET is turned off and a 30A current source is connected to the CHRG pin. The IN pin will then be pulled high by the 2k pull-up. By forcing the OUT pin to a high impedance state, the current source will pull the pin low through the 400k resistor. When the internal timer has expired, the CHRG pin will assume a high impedance state and the 400k resistor will then pull the pin high to indicate that charging has terminated. NTC Thermistor The battery temperature is measured by placing a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor close to the battery pack. The NTC circuitry is shown in Figure 4. To use this feature, connect a 10k NTC thermistor between the NTC pin and ground and a resistor (RHOT) from the NTC pin to VCC. RHOT should be a 1% resistor with a value equal to the value of the chosen NTC thermistor at 50°C (this value is 4.1k for a Vishay NTHS0603N02N1002J thermistor). The LTC4053 goes into hold mode when the resistance of the NTC thermistor drops below 4.1k which should be approximately 50°C. The hold mode freezes the timer and stops the charge cycle until the thermistor indicates a return to a valid temperature. As the temperature drops, the resistance of the NTC thermistor rises. The LTC4053 is designed to go into hold mode when the value of the NTC thermistor increases to seven times the value of RHOT. For a Vishay NTHS0603N02N1002J thermistor, this value is 28.7k which corresponds to approximately 0°C. The hot and cold comparators each have approximately 2°C of hysteresis to prevent oscillation about the trip point. The NTC function can be disabled by grounding the NTC pin.

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VCC 7/8 VCC RHOT 1%

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TOO COLD

+
NTC

RNTC 10k

1/2 VCC

+
TOO HOT



3/160 VCC

+
DISABLE NTC


LTC4053
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Figure 4

Thermistors The LTC4053 NTC trip points were designed to work with thermistors whose resistance-temperature characteristics follow Vishay Dale’s “R-T Curve 2”. The Vishay NTHS0603N02N1002J is an example of such a thermistor. However, Vishay Dale has many thermistor products that follow the “R-T Curve 2” characteristic in a variety of sizes. Futhermore, any thermistor whose ratio of RCOLD to RHOT is about 7.0 will also work (Vishay Dale R-T Curve 2 shows a ratio of RCOLD to RHOT of 2.816/0.4086 = 6.9). NTC Layout Considerations It is important that the NTC thermistor not be in close thermal contact with the LTC4053. Because the LTC4053 package can reach temperatures in excess of the 50°C trip point, the NTC function can cause a hysteretic oscillation which turns the charge current on and off according to the package temperature rather than the battery temperature. This problem can be eliminated by thermally coupling the NTC thermistor to the battery and not to the LTC4053. Furthermore, it is essential that the VCC connection to RHOT is made according to standard Kelvin sense techniques. Since VCC is a high current path into the LTC4053, it is essential to minimize voltage drops between the VCC input pin and the top of RHOT.

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LTC4053-4.2

APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
NTC Trip Point Errors

When a 1% resistor is used for RHOT, the major error in the 50°C trip point is determined by the tolerance of the NTC thermistor. A typical 10k NTC thermistor has a ±10% tolerance. By looking up the temperature coefficient of the thermistor at 50°C, the tolerance error can be calculated in degrees centigrade. Consider the Vishay NTHS0603N02N1002J thermistor which has a temperature coefficient of –3.3%/°C at 50°C. Dividing the tolerance by the temperature coefficient, ±10%/ (3.3%/°C) = ±3°C, gives the temperature error of the hot trip point. The cold trip point is a little more complicated because its error depends on the tolerance of the NTC thermistor and the degree to which the ratio of its value at 0°C and its value at 50°C varies from 7 to 1. Therefore, the cold trip point error can be calculated using the tolerance, TOL, the temperature coefficient of the thermistor at 0°C, TC (in %/°C), the value of the thermistor at 0°C, RCOLD, and the value of the thermistor at 50°C, RHOT. The formula is:

1 + TOL RCOLD – 1 100 RHOT Temperature Error (°C) = 7 TC
For example, the Vishay NTHS0603N02N1002J thermistor with a tolerance of ±10%, TC of –4.5%/°C, and RCOLD/ RHOT of 6.89, has a cold trip point error of:

1 ± 0.10 6.89 – 1 100 Temperature Error (°C) = 7 – 4.5
= –1.8°C, +2.5°C If a thermistor with a tolerance less than ±10% is used, the trip point errors begin to depend on errors other than thermistor tolerance including the input offset voltage of the internal comparators of the LTC4053 and the effects of internal voltage drops due to high charging currents.

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Constant-Current/Constant-Voltage/ Constant-Temperature The LTC4053 uses a unique architecture to charge a battery in a constant-current, constant-voltage, constanttemperature fashion. Figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram of the LTC4053. Three of the amplifier feedback loops shown control the constant-current, CA, constantvoltage, VA, and constant-temperature, TA modes. A fourth amplifier feedback loop, MA, is used to increase the output impedance of the current source pair, M1 and M2 (note that M1 is the internal P-channel power MOSFET). It ensures that the drain current of M1 is exactly 1000 times greater than the drain current of M2. Amplifiers CA, TA, and VA are used in three separate feedback loops to force the charger into constant-current, temperature, or voltage mode, respectively. Diodes, D1, D2, and D3 provide priority to whichever loop is trying to reduce the charge current the most. The outputs of the other two amplifiers saturate low which effectively removes their loops from the system. When in constantcurrent mode, CA servos the voltage at the PROG pin to be precisely 1.50V (or 0.15V when in trickle-charge mode). TA limits the die temperature to approximately 105°C when in constant-temperature mode and the PROG pin voltage gives an indication of the charge current as discussed in “Programming Charge Current”. VA servos its inverting input to precisely 2.485V when in constantvoltage mode and the internal resistor divider made up of R1 and R2 ensures that the battery voltage is maintained at 4.2V. Again, the PROG pin voltage gives an indication of the charge current. In typical operation, the charge cycle begins in constantcurrent mode with the current delivered to the battery equal to 1500V/RPROG. If the power dissipation of the LTC4053 results in the junction temperature approaching 105°C, the amplifier (TA) will begin decreasing the charge current to limit the die temperature to approximately 105°C. As the battery voltage rises, the LTC4053 either returns to constant-current mode or it enters constantvoltage mode straight from constant-temperature mode.
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LTC4053-4.2
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
Regardless of mode, the voltage at the PROG pin is proportional to the current being delivered to the battery. Power Dissipation The conditions that cause the LTC4053 to reduce charge current due to the thermal protection feedback can be approximated by considering the power dissipated in the IC. For high charge currents, the LTC4053 power dissipation is approximately: PD = (VCC – VBAT) IBAT where PD is the power dissipated, VCC is the input supply voltage, VBAT is the battery voltage, and IBAT is the battery charge current. It is not necessary to perform any worstcase power dissipation scenarios because the LTC4053 will automatically reduce the charge current to maintain the die temperature at approximately 105°C. However, the approximate ambient temperature at which the thermal feedback begins to protect the IC is: TA = 105°C – PDθJA TA = 105°C – (VCC – VBAT) IBAT θJA Example: Consider an LTC4053 operating from a 5V wall adapter providing 1.2A to a 3.75V Li-Ion battery. The ambient temperature above which the LTC4053 will begin to reduce the 1.2A charge current is approximately: TA = 105°C – (5V – 3.75V) 1.2A 40°C/W TA = 105°C – 1.5W 40°C/W = 105°C – 60°C = 45°C The LTC4053 can be used above 45°C, but the charge current will be reduced below 1.2A. The approximate charge current at a given ambient temperature can be approximated by:

IBAT =

105°C – TA (VCC – VBAT ) θ JA

Consider the above example with an ambient temperature of 55°C. The charge current will be reduced to approximately:

IBAT =

105°C – 55°C 50°C = = 1A (5V – 3.75V) 40°C / W 50°C / A

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Furthermore, the voltage at the PROG pin will change proportionally with the charge current as discussed in the Programming Charge Current section. It is important to remember that LTC4053 applications do not need to be designed for worst-case thermal conditions since the IC will automatically reduce power dissipation when the junction temperature reaches approximately 105°C. Board Layout Considerations The ability to deliver maximum charge current under all conditions require that the exposed metal pad on the backside of the LTC4053 package be soldered to the PC board ground. Correctly soldered to a 2500mm2 doublesided 1oz. copper board the LTC4053 has a thermal resistance of approximately 40°C/W. Failure to make thermal contact between the exposed pad on the backside of the package and the copper board will result in thermal resistances far greater than 40°C/W. As an example, a correctly soldered LTC4053 can deliver over 1250mA to a battery from a 5V supply at room temperature. Without a backside thermal connection, this number could drop to less than 500mA. VCC Bypass Capacitor Many types of capacitors can be used for input bypassing. However, caution must be exercised when using multilayer ceramic capacitors. Because of the self resonant and high Q characteristics of some types of ceramic capacitors, high voltage transients can be generated under some start-up conditions, such as connecting the charger input to a hot power source. For more information refer to Application Note 88. Stability The constant-voltage mode feedback loop is stable without any compensation provided that a battery is connected. However, a 1F capacitor with a 1 series resistor to GND is recommended at the BAT pin to keep ripple voltage low when the battery is disconnected. In the constant-current mode it is the PROG pin that is in the feedback loop and not the battery. The constantcurrent mode stability is affected by the impedance at the
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LTC4053-4.2
APPLICATIO S I FOR ATIO
PROG pin. With no additional capacitance on the PROG pin, stability is acceptable with program resistor values as high as 50k. However, additional capacitance on this node reduces the maximum allowed program resistor. The pole frequency at the PROG pin should be kept above 500kHz. Therefore, if the PROG pin is loaded with a capacitance, C, the following equation should be used to calculate the maximum resistance value for RPROG: RPROG < 1/(6.283 5 × 105 C)

LTC4053 PROG GND 5 7 RPROG 10k CFILTER CHARGE CURRENT MONITOR CIRCUITRY

Figure 5. Isolating Capacitive Load on PROG Pin and Filtering

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Average, rather than instantaneous, battery current may be of interest to the user. For example, if a switching power supply operating in low-current mode is connected in parallel with the battery the average current being pulled out of the BAT pin is typically of more interest than the instantaneous current pulses. In such a case, a simple RC filter can be used on the PROG pin to measure the average battery current as shown in Figure 5. A 10k resistor is added between the PROG pin and the filter capacitor and monitoring circuit to ensure stability.
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LTC4053-4.2

PACKAGE DESCRIPTIO

2.794 ± 0.102 (.110 ± .004)

5.23 (.206) MIN

0.50 0.305 ± 0.038 (.0197) (.0120 ± .0015) BSC TYP RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD LAYOUT

0.254 (.010) GAUGE PLANE

0.18 (.007)

NOTE: 1. DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETER/(INCH) 2. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE 3. DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH, PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS. MOLD FLASH, PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.152mm (.006") PER SIDE 4. DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS. INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.152mm (.006") PER SIDE 5. LEAD COPLANARITY (BOTTOM OF LEADS AFTER FORMING) SHALL BE 0.102mm (.004") MAX

Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.

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MSE Package 10-Lead Plastic MSOP
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1663)
BOTTOM VIEW OF EXPOSED PAD OPTION
0.889 ± 0.127 (.035 ± .005)

1

2.06 ± 0.102 (.081 ± .004) 1.83 ± 0.102 (.072 ± .004)

2.083 ± 0.102 3.2 – 3.45 (.082 ± .004) (.126 – .136)

10 3.00 ± 0.102 (.118 ± .004) (NOTE 3) 10 9 8 7 6

0.497 ± 0.076 (.0196 ± .003) REF

4.90 ± 0.15 (1.93 ± .006) DETAIL “A” 0° – 6° TYP 1 2 3 4 5 0.53 ± 0.01 (.021 ± .006) DETAIL “A” SEATING PLANE 1.10 (.043) MAX

3.00 ± 0.102 (.118 ± .004) NOTE 4

0.86 (.034) REF

0.17 – 0.27 (.007 – .011) TYP

0.50 (.0197) BSC

0.13 ± 0.076 (.005 ± .003)
MSOP (MSE) 0802

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LTC4053-4.2

TYPICAL APPLICATIO S
USB/Wall Adapter Power Li-Ion Battery Charger
5V WALL ADAPTER LTC4053-4.2 BAT USB POWER 2 4.7F 4 1k TIMER SHDN 8 SUSPEND C 3.74k 0.1F 15k 100mA/ 500mA VCC 9 1F 1 IBAT

Li-Ion Battery Charger with Reverse Polarity Input Protection
5V WALL ADAPTER 2 LTC4053-4.2 9 VCC BAT IBAT = 1A

8 4.7F 4

SHDN

TIMER GND

PROG NTC 6

0.1F 5

RELATED PARTS
PART NUMBER LT1571 LTC1729 LTC1730 LTC1731 LTC1732 LTC1733 LTC1734 LTC1734L LTC4050 LTC4052 LTC4054 LTC4056 DESCRIPTION 200kHz/500kHz Switching Battery Charger Lithium-Ion Battery Charger Termination Controllers Lithium-Ion Battery Pulse Charger Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger Controller Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger Controller Monolithic Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger in ThinSOTTM Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger Controller Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger Controller Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Pulse Charger Standalone Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger in ThinSOT Standalone Lithium-Ion Linear Battery Charger Controller in ThinSOT COMMENTS Up to 1.5A Charge Current; Preset and Adjustable Battery Voltages Time or Charge Current Termination, Preconditioning 8-Lead MSOP No Blocking Diode Required, Current Limit for Maximum Safety Simple Charger uses External FET, Features Preset Voltages, C/10 Charger Detection and Programmable Timer Simple Charger uses External FET, Features Preset Voltages, C/10 Charger Detection and Programmable Timer, Input Power Good Indication Standalone Charger with Programmable Timer, Up to 1.5A Charge Current Simple ThinSOT Charger, No Blocking Diode, No Sense Resistor Needed 50mA to 180mA, No Blocking Diode, No Sense Resistor Needed Simple Charger uses External FET, Thermistor Input for Battery Temperature Sensing Fully Integrated, Standalone Pulse Charger, Minimal Heat Dissipation, Overcurrent Protection Up to 800mA Charge Current, Thermal Regulation, USB Compatible, Charge Termination Up to 700mA Charge Current, Charge Termination, Continuous Charging with Poorly Regulated or High Impedance Input Supplies
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ThinSOT is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation.

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Linear Technology Corporation
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900
q

FAX: (408) 434-0507 q www.linear.com

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7

+

Li-Ion CELL

GND NTC PROG 5 6 7

4053 F06

Full Featured Single Cell Li-Ion Charger
VIN = 5V 1k 1k 4k 1% 1 4.7F 8 SHDN 2 VCC ACPR 10 1k

1-CELL+ Li-Ion BATTERY

1.5k 1%
4053 F07

3 CHRG FAULT LTC4053-4.2 6 9 NTC BAT 4 TIMER GND 0.1F 5 PROG 7 3k 1% 1F

IBAT = 500mA

RNTC 10k

1

Li-Ion CELL

4053 F08

LT/TP 0403 2K PRINTED IN USA

LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2001


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