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试论新课标下高中学生如何在议论文写作中运用论证


试论新课标下高中学生如何在议论文写作中运用论证“七 法”中英文互译

Try to talk about how under the new standard high school students in the writing of argument using demonstration method of "seven" in bo

th Chinese and English translation
《高中语文新课程标准》表达交流部分明确要求:观点要明确,能围绕中心选取材料, 进一步提高记叙、议论、叙述、描写、抒情等基本表达能力,并学习运用多种表达方式。 《新 课标》对作文教学提出了明确的要求,议论成为学生必须掌握的表达方式之一,因而议论文 也成为学生必须掌握的文体之一,可是现实情况是有百分之七八十的学生不会写作议论文, 主要原因是前几年高考话题作文一统天下, 无论是老师还是学生淡化了文体意识。 基于这种 情况,学生写记叙文多叙述,缺乏生动、形象的描写;写作议论文,不着边际的叙述代替了 深刻有力的分析;写作说明文,不知如何下笔。 Express communication parts of the high school language new curriculum standard explicitly request: arguments should be clear, can around the center select materials, further improve the narrative, argument, narrative, description, lyrical and other basic skills, and learn to use a variety of expressions. "New standard" put forward clear requirements for composition teaching, discussion become one of the students must master the expression, thus argument has become one of the students must master the style, but the reality is that there are seventeen students won't write what topic the main reason is that a few years ago the university entrance exam composition dominated, both teachers and students played down the stylistic awareness. Based on this situation, students write a narrative account, more lack of vivid, image description; Writing what irrelevant account instead of a deep and strong analysis; Expository writing, do not know how to write. 新课标要求学生必须掌握议论这种基本的表达方式, 因此议论文也成为高中学生必须学 会运用的一种文体。针对学生写作中普遍存在的问题,作为老师应该担负起引导者的责任, 指导学生写作,切实提高学生议论文写作水平。我认为,教给学生具体论证的方法,是一种 有效的途径,在教学过程中,我作了如下几尝试,略见成效,仅此抛砖引玉。 Talk English curriculum requires students to master the basic form of expression, so the argument became a high school student must learn to use a kind of literary style. Aiming at the problems in student writing, as a teacher should shoulder the responsibility of the guide, guide students to write, to improve students' writing level to develop argumentative essays. I think, teach students the method of the argument, is a kind of effective way, in the teaching process, I made the following a few to try, just to see, that's something.

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一、喻证法 A proof, yu 喻证法就是比喻论证,是将比喻用于论证观点,是形象论证的方法,它能将抽象的说理 变为形象的论述。 Yu proofs is the analogy reasoning, is a metaphor for an argument, is the image proof of the method, it can turn abstract reasoning into the image. 虽然高中学生对议论文的相关知识非常熟悉, 可是在写作议论文时运用的论证方法很单 一, 因而写出来的作文在写作形式上毫无新颖之处。 学生如果能认真学习高中语文教材的议 论文, 在具体写作时借鉴其论证方法, 那么在规定的时间内写出一篇论证思路清析的议论文 将不是一件难事。在现行的高中语文教材中, 《寡人之于国也》《劝学》《拿来主义》等都 、 、 是运用比喻论证方法的课文。现以孟子的《寡人之于国也》这篇课文为例,来分析比喻论证 在课文中的具体运用以及表达效果。面对自称是“寡人之于国也,尽心焉耳矣”的梁惠王, 孟子在回答“邻国之民不加少,寡人之民不加多”这个问题之前,并没有直接向梁惠王提出 实行“王道”的政治主张,而是用“王好战,请以战喻”的方式启发梁惠王,接着顺理成章 地指出“施仁政、行王道”是解决“寡人之民加多”这个问题的唯一方法。试想一下如果孟 子直截了当地向梁惠王提出以仁政治国, 梁惠王能心悦诚服地接受其观点吗?由此可见, 在 写作议论文时运用比喻论证的方法,不仅能把抽象的道理表达地具体生动,明白易懂,而且 也使文章更具说服力,给读者留下深刻的印象。 Although high school students to familiarize yourself with the knowledge argument, but in writing using the method of reasoning is a single argument, no novel and written composition in writing form. If students can study the argument of high school language teaching material, its reasoning method, use for reference for the specific writing so within the prescribed period of time to write an argumentation thinking clear analyse what will not be a difficult task. In the current Chinese textbook for senior middle school, me also is to the countries, "QuanXue", "si" and so on are used analogy reasoning methods of the text. Now in mencius "me also is to the countries to the text, for example, to analyze the metaphor argument in the concrete application in the text and expression effect. Face, who describes himself as "my also is to the countries, with ear yi" Liang Huiwang, mencius in response to the neighboring countries of people, not less, my people do not add more "this problem before, there is no direct to Liang Huiwang outlined a" king "of politics, but with the" king of belligerence, please with war metaphors "way inspire Liang Huiwang, then naturally, points out that the" ShiRenZheng, king "is solve the problem of" sovereign people and more "this the only way. Imagine if mencius asked Liang Huiwang point-blank, governing the country by benevolent governance can Liang Huiwang could accept their views? Thus, using the method of analogy reasoning argument in writing, not only are able to express abstract reason to vivid, specific and intelligible, but also make the article more convincing, to give readers leave deep impression. 二、引证法

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Second, the method of citation 引证法,又叫作理论论证。其特点是,引用诗词、歌谣、谚语、名言、警句等,以此论 证论点。 Cited method, called theoretical arguments again. Its characteristic is, citing poetry, songs, proverbs, sayings and aphorisms, through arguments. 在高中写作过程中,可引用诗词、歌谣、谚语、名言、警句,然后用些分析性的文字将 论点和引用的话联系起来。这些名言、警句、诗词等,有的富含哲理,如“世事泂明皆学问, 人情练达即文章” “假作真时真亦假,无为有处有还无” ;有的发人深省,如“生于忧患而死 于安乐也” “少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲” ;有的催人奋进“我要扼制命运的咽喉,它们决不能 使我屈服” “长风破浪会有时,直挂云帆济沧海” ;??名言、警句、歌词等流传广泛,经历 了时间的考验,有长久的生命力,引用它们,可以增强论证的说服力和权威性,运用这种方 法说理,关键是引言要恰当,要与论点有内在联系,通过分析能使它更好地为文章服务,有 一位学生在写《道德·论道理》时,引用了康德的话: In high school in the writing process, can refer to poems, songs, proverbs, sayings, mot, then use some analytical text link argument and quote. These quotes, epigram, poetry, and some are rich in philosophy, such as "the world Jiong Ming are learning, human sophistication that article" the "false true true and false, nothing had also have no"; Some thought-provoking, such as "prosperity and die" "idle young, needy old., idle young, needy old"; In some way "I want to curb the throat of fate, they must not make me give in" "the sea in full, make more straight hanging"; ...... Sayings, epigram, lyrics, etc widely circulated, experienced the test of time, have a long life, reference them, can enhance the persuasive power and authority of argument, reasoning using this approach, the key is the introduction to appropriate, to argument has inner link, through the analysis to make it better service to the article, one student wrote in the theory of truth, virtue, quote Kant's words: 著名哲学家康德曾说: “在这个世界上,有两样东西值得我们仰望终生,一是我们头顶 璀璨的星空,二是人们心中的道德律。 ” Famous philosopher immanuel Kant once said: "in this world, there are two things worth we hope in life, it is bright stars above us, the second is the moral law in people's mind." 道德是灵魂的空气,而次道德却是令人窒息的二氧化碳,坚守心中的那份道德律,让她 开出芳香四溢的兰花。 Morality is the soul of the air, but time is suffocating moral carbon dioxide, stick to the moral law in the heart, let her leave orchid which fragrant. 在这段文字中, 康德的话说明了道德的重要性, 小作者在引用之后及时地写了两个比喻 句“道德昌灵魂的空气”道德对于人的重要性不言而喻, “而次道德却是令人窒息的二氧化 碳” ,次道德是要摒弃的,它会置人于死地,这样将康德的话与论点联系起来,语言简洁, 论证有力。

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In this text, Kant points out the importance of moral, small author wrote in a timely manner after the reference two metaphor sentences "moral chang air of the soul" for the people the importance of self-evident, "and the moral is suffocating carbon dioxide", the moral is to abandon, it will kill people, so will contact point Kant's words, language is concise, compelling. 三、因果法 Three, causal method 事情的发生有它的原因, 在写作过程中我们可以引导学生分析事情的原因, 或者分析事 情的结果、危害。 Happens for a reason, in the process of writing, we can guide students to analyze the cause of things, or things analysis, the result of the damage. 有一则作文材料讲外公年轻时偷别人家的菜, 外公主动承认自己偷了菜, 但被偷的人不 但没告官, 反而送菜给外公, 外公后来成为众口交誉的人。 这则材料, 立意的角度是很多的, 如果从“知错与改错”这个角度立意,可用对比评析法,先举两个相反的例子,如以商纣王 不听比干劝谏和齐宣王虚心纳谏为例,然后我们可以这样评价这两件事:纣王知错不改,最 终落了个国破人亡的下场,齐宣王静下心接受大臣的批评,成为一代霸主,最后总结出知错 不改的一错再错,错误的雪珠球越滚越大,同样面对错误,改或不改,也就让人拥有了截然 不同的生活。通过正反对照,可以揭示“知错与改错”对人的重要影响。 Materials have a composition about grandpa to steal other people's house when he was young, my grandfather voluntarily admitted he stole food, but I can't GaoGuan stolen people not only, instead, to send food to grandpa, grandpa became all handed over to the people reputation. Is a lot of the material, the conception of Angle, if from the perspective of the "acknowledge wrong &error correction conception, can use contrast evaluation method, first two contrary examples, such as shang king zhou than dry admonition and JiXuan king did not listen to modesty and as an example, and then we can evaluate that two things: king zhou of mistakes don't change, end up falling off a country torn apart, JiXuan jing wang to accept the criticism of minister, become a generation of hegemony, and finally summed up the mistakes and not to a wrong again wrong, wrong XueZhu ball rolling, the greater the face the same mistake, change or not, also let people have a different life. Through the positive and negative controls, can reveal "acknowledge wrong and correction" important influence on people. 六、类比法 Six, analogy method 类比法,是一种利用事物的相同属性或相似点进行比较、对照,由个别推出一般的推理 方法。

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Analogy method, it is a kind of using the attributes of the same or similar things point to compare, contrast, typically cooked up by individual reasoning method. 在教“坚持”这个话题时,要求学生写成议论文,并且一定要运用类比法进行论证,先 由他们把已学过的课文中的类比法的例子找出来,马上想到《拿来主义》中的尼采的例子, 然后我顺势利导,有的学生就想到《愚公移山》中的愚公。愚公是坚持的,也有的学生说愚 公是傻子的坚持,那我就要学生举出生活中傻子坚持成功的示例,通过提示,比较爱好音乐 的学生童冰就说:傻子指挥家周周。至此,我也就小结,写作议论文就是好要学会运用论证 方法,并有机的与你们作文的论点联系起来,文章也就能起到事半功倍的效果了。 In teaching the subject is "adhere to the", requests the student written argument, and be sure to use analogy method, first by them has studied example of the analogy method in the text, immediately thought of Nietzsche's example of "takes doctrine", and then I pick the pattern, some students think of the yu gong "yu gong yi shan". Yu gong is the persistent, some students said that the persistence of the yu gong is a fool, that I will be fool adhere to the successful example, students gave life through prompt, compare, hobby music students TongBing said: fools conductor week. At this point, I will summary, write what is good to learn to use reasoning methods, and organic composition argument with you, the article also can have twice the result with half the effort. 七、归纳法 Seven, induction 这是一种由个别到一般的分析方法, 列举多个典型论据之后, 然后归纳总结出它们的共 同特证,从而得到一般性的结论,而这个结论正好是你要证明的论点。如前面所举的“次道 德”材料,也可以归纳材料中三件事发生的原因,然后归纳出他们的共同点,这样可以有力 证明论点,我们可以这样分析西安劫匪和司机开车撞人事例:抢劫不成,反救了不堪威逼的 受害者,他们是害怕逼人跳河身亡,自己也就罪加一等;开车撞人,先打 120 再逃跑,是良 心不安,受害人去世,做鬼也不会放过他,但囊中羞涩,只好让受害人买单。这实际上是逃 避责任,然后归纳两件事的共同点: “次道德”出现并不完全出于内心的真善美,同样也是 自私、逃避责任的产物。这样,否定“次道德”也就顺理成章了。 This is a kind of from the individual to the general analysis method, listed several typical after argument, and then sum up their common appearance, a general conclusion is obtained, and the conclusion is just to prove your argument. As front for "moral" material, can also be induced in materials of three things happened because, then summed up what they have in common, so we can proof the argument, we can analysis that xi 'an robbers rampage and driver example: rob, the saved by victims of bullying, they are afraid of threatening to jump river died, oneself also is doubly guilty; Drove into people, call 120 first, then run away, is the conscience, the victim's death, do ghost also won't let him off, but the cash-strapped, had to let the victims to pay. This is, in fact, avoid responsibility, and then summed up two things in common: "morality" is not entirely out of true heart, is also a selfish, avoid responsibility. So, no "moral" is logical. 总之,在实际写作过程中,以上几种方法可以就一种运用,也可以几种运用,甚至可以

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综合运用,无论用哪种方法,都必须将论点与论据有机联系起来。议论文写作是一项巨大的 系统工程,如果我们能教给学生运用论证的方法,同时引导学生深入社会实践,提高他们辩 证思维能力和创新能力,就有可能打开学生思路的闸门,激活学生的灵感和写作思路,学生 就可以不断创作出思路清晰,富有说服力的议论文,更好地提升高中学生的作文质量。 All in all, in the process of practical writing, the above several ways can is a kind of use, can also be several use, can even integrated use of, no matter use what method, must link arguments with the organic. Argument writing is a huge system engineering, if we can teach students by using the method of demonstration and guide students to social practice, to improve their dialectical thinking ability and innovation ability, it is possible to open the sluice gates of students thinking, activate the students' inspiration and thinking of writing, students can continue to create clear, persuasive argument, to better improve the quality of composition of high school students.

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