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Grammar and usage
Overview of adverbial clauses

What is adverbial clause?
Definition: An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb. ? Compare the two sentences: ? Every morning he sits there. ? Every morning he sits where there is a palm tree.

Time Place Reason Adverbial Clause

时间状语从句 地点状语从句 原因状语从句

Condition 条件状语从句 Purpose 目的从句 Result 结果从句 Manner 方式状语从句 Concession 让步状语从句 Contrast 比较状语从句

Adverbial Clause of Time 时间状语从句
连接词: when while as before after until/till immediately directly the moment the instant the minute by the time each time every time whenever

when while as before after until/till ? While Jenny was doing the washing up, Jane was watching TV. the moment the instant the minute ? The instant I saw him, I knew I have seen him before. by the time ? The train had left by the time they rushed to the station.

each time every time ? Every time I went to visit him, he was playing computer games. ? Each time we met with difficulties, they came to our help.

Adverbial Clause of Place 地点状语从句
连接词: where everywhere anywhere ? Put the key where you can find it later. ? Everywhere they went, they were kindly received.

Adverbial Clause of Reason 原因状语从句
连接词: because since as for that in that now (that) considering that

seeing that

because since as for ? —Why are you late? “because”从句强调原因; 常用来回答“why” —Because my car broke down on the way. 的提问,强调句中强调原因只能用because从 ? It was because my car broke down on 句。 the way that I was late. ? You could help me with my homework “since” “as”从句表示的是显而易见的、或已 since you’ve finished yours. 知的原因 ; 强调的内容是主句。 ? It must have rained, for the ground is “for”从句表示的是附加、或者推断的原因。 wet.

that in that now (that) seeing that considering that ? I’m happy that you’ve told the truth. ? Some people say man differs from animals in that we have the ability to laugh. ? Considering that his wife has just had a bad cold, he decided to go to the party alone.

Adverbial Clause of Condition 条件状语从句 真实条件句


连接词:if, unless, so long as, in case 虚拟条件句

If unless as long as in case ? I will go to the party if I am invited. ? I won’t go to the party unless invited. on condition that provided that given that ? We’ll let you use the room on condition that you keep it clean. ? Given that the patients have some disabilities, we still try to enable them to be as independent as possible.

Adverbial Clause of Purpose 目的状语从句 连接词:so that in order that … ? Speak louder so that everyone can hear you. ? They started early in order that they could arrive home before dinner time.

连接词:lest for fear that … ? We dare not play jokes on him lest he (should) be angry. ? We stood under the tree quietly for fear that the bird (should) fly away.

Adverbial Clause of Result 结果状语从句

连接词:so … that such … that ? He was so angry that he yelled at me. ? It was such a nice day that we picnicked on the grass. so …, such … 置于句首,会引起倒装。 ? So angry was he that he yelled at me. ? Such a nice day was it that we picnicked on the grass.

Adverbial Clause of Manner 方式状语从句 连接词:as ? You’d better take things as they are. ? She lost her papers, just as I said she would.

连接词:as if as though 从句常用虚拟语气 ? He looked at me as if I were mad. ? He acted as though he had been there before.

Adverbial Clause of Concession 让步状语从句
连接词: though although even if even though whether … or while no matter what/who/where/when/how … whatever whoever wherever whenever however

连接词:though, although, even if, even though ? Though he is young, he could solve the problem on his own. Young as he is, he could …

? Although he is a child, he could solve the problem on his own. Child as he is, he could …

让步状语从句的倒装 we use “as” in the inverted sentence in order to refer to concession: ? Try as he may, he never succeeds. ? Fail as I did, I would not abandon my goal.

连接词:whether … or … ? Whether she be right or wrong, I love her all the same. ? I’m going whether you like it or not. 连接词:while ? While they are my neighbours, I don’t know them well. ? While I’m willing to help, I don’t have much time available.

连接词: no matter what/who/where/when/how … whatever whoever wherever whenever however
No matter how cold it is, she always goes swimming. No matter what you do, don’t touch this switch. However cold it is, she always goes swimming. Whatever you do, don’t touch this switch.

You can’t go in, no matter who you are. You can’t go in, whoever you are. whatever, whoever, whichever还可以引导 主语从句、宾语从句: ? Buy whichever is the cheapest. ? Whoever breaks the rule deserves a fine.

Adverbial Clause of Contrast 比较状语从句 连接词:as than ? She loves the dog more than he does. ? The little girl wants to be as clever as her brother.

Read the dialogue in Part A on page 41 and fill in the blanks. Answers: 1. when/as 2. since 3. if 4. as though 5. as 6. no matter what 7. if 8. unless

Read the passage in Part B on page 41 and fill in the blanks. Answers: 1. because/as/since 2. so that/in order that 3. when 4. in order that/so that 5. While/When 6. If 7. where 8. Although/While/Though 9. If 10. before

Tell the function of the following adverbial clauses:
? If you give me some money, I’ll help you escape. condition ? I have to get my car fixed no matter how much it costs.

? They are generous although they are poor. concession ? While you are in the kitchen, bring me a glass of water.

? He travelled a great deal before he eventually settled time down. ? Since all the tickets have been sold out, we had to leave.

? She must have gone out early, for she had not shown up reason for breakfast. ? Although it was very noisy, I managed to get some sleep.

? ? ? ? ?

Where there is a will, there is a way. place Daddy is upset that little Tom lied to him. reason Do as I tell you to. manner Should he be interested, I’ll phone him. condition Turn up the music so that everyone can enjoy it. purpose

C ? The earth revolves a little more rapidly ___ it is closer to the sun. A. than B. or C. when D. wherever ? I would prefer to go on Friday, ___ B it is all the same to you. A. unless B. if C. while D. as long as ? The old man was knocked down by a motorcar ____ A he saw it. A. before B. after C. when D. till

? It won’t be long ___ D man can explore the Mars. A. since B. until C. when D. before ? Mr. Lee was firm ___ C he felt himself to be right. A. what B. that C. where D. how ? ___ B human beings live in large numbers, the waters are likely to be polluted. A. That B. Where C. Once D. As

? Human behavior is mostly a product of learning, ___ A the behavior of animals depends mainly on instinct. A. while B. as C. and D. or ? ___ D the plan has been made, let’s get down to carrying it out. A. After B. As soon as C. For D. Now that ? Someone must have left the tap on, ___ C the water is running all over. A. therefore B. because C. for D. besides

? ___ D you can see the moon or not, it is always round. A. If B. Which C. What D. Whether ? Don’t walk in the road, ___ D you get run over. A. if B. so C. so that D. lest ? ___ A the problem is, he faces it with patience. A. Whatever B. However C. Despite D. Although

? They did not get married for a month ___ C they quarreled. A. until B. unless C. before D. although ? Please tell my classmates your interesting experience exactly ___ A you have told it to me. A. as B. that C. and D. what C he is too frightened that he doesn’t ? It is ___ know how to deal with the situation. A. since B. as C. because D. that

? I couldn’t move my legs ___ C they were stuck to the floor. A. because B. as C. as though D. even though ? ___ D the plan has been made, let’s get down to carrying it out. A. After B. For C. As soon as D. Now that ? It was found out that although the girl could recognize things with her fingers, this ability C her hands got wet. stopped ___ A. while B. for the last time C. the moment D. until

? We had not gone far ___ A we saw a great crowd of people. A. before B. after C. as soon as D. while ? It is four months ___ C she left for the US. A. when B. after C. since D. that ? We must leave the party at exactly 9:00 ___ D we can go to work on time. A. but B. so C. in order to D. so that

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