! ! Passage One
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage. Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell
if the cause is a cold or flu（流感）may make a difference in how long the misery lasts.? The American Lung Association (ALA) has issued new guidelines on combating colds and the flu, and one of the keys is being able to quickly tell the two apart. That’s because the prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon after the illness sets in. As for colds, the sooner a person starts taking over-the-counter remedy, the sooner relief will come.? The common cold and the flu are both caused by viruses. More than 200 viruses can cause cold symptoms, while the flu is caused by three viruses – flu A, B and C. There is no care for either illness, but the flu can be prevented by the flu vaccine（疫苗）, which is, for most people, the best way to fight the flu, according to the ALA.? But if the flu does strike, quick action can help. Although the flu and common cold have many similarities, there are some obvious signs to look for.? Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a ever. On the other hand, fever is one of the characteristic features of the flu for all ages. And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat and body aches come, it suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms.? The ALA notes that it may be particularly difficult to tell when infants and preschool age children have the flu. It advises parents to call the doctor if their small children have flu-like symptoms.? Both cold and flu symptoms can be eased with over-the-counter medications as well. However, children and teens with a cold or flu should not take aspirin for pain relief because of the risk of Reye syndrome（综合症）, a rare but serious condition of the liver and central nervous system.? There is, of course, no vaccine for the common cold. But frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with people who have colds can reduce the likelihood of catching one. 11.According to the author, knowing the cause of the misery will help ___.? A) shorten the duration of the illness? B) the patient buy medicine over the counter.? C) the patient obtain cheaper prescription drugs? D) prevent the people from catching colds and the flu 12.We learn from the passage that ___.? A)one doesn’t need to take any medicine if he has a cold or the flu? B) aspirin should not be included in over-the-counter medicines for the flu? C) delayed treatment of the flu will harm the liver and central nervous system? D) over-the-counter drugs can e taken to ease the misery caused by a cold or the flu 13.According to the passage, to combat the flu effectively, one should ___.? A) identify the virus which causes it? B) consult a doctor as soon as possible?
C) take medicine upon catching the disease? D) remain alert when the disease is spreading 14.Which of the following symptoms will distinguish the flu from a cold?? A) A stuffy nose. C) A sore throat.? B) A high temperature. D) A dry cough. 15.If children have flu-like symptoms, their parents ___.? A) are advised not to give them aspirin? B) should watch out for signs of Reye syndrome? C) are encourage to take them to hospital for vaccination? D) should prevent them from mixing with people running a fever
Passage Two? Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage. In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools, surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction. In one investigation, 300 Japanese and 210 Americans preschools teachers, child development specialists, and parents were asked about various aspects of early childhood education. Only 2 percent of the Japanese respondents（答问卷者）listed “to give children a good start academically” as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. In contrast, over half the Americans respondents chose this as one of their top three choices. To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writhing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. The vast majority of young Japanese children are taught to read at home by their parents.? In recent comparison of Japanese and American preschool education, 91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. Sixty-two percent of the more individually oriented（强调个体发展的） Americans listed group experience as one of their top three reasons. An emphasis on school education.? Like in America, there is diversity in Japanese early childhood education. Some Japanese kindergartens have specific aims, such as early musical training or potential development. In large cities, some kindergartens are attached to universities that have elementary and secondary schools. Some Japanese parents believe that if their young children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children’s chances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities. Several more progressive programs have introduced free play as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanese kindergartens. 16.We learnt from the first paragraph that many Americans believe ___.? A) Japanese parents are more involved in preschools education than American parents? B) Japan’s economic success is a result of its scientific achievements? C) Japanese preschools education emphasizes academic instruction? D) Japan’s higher education in superior to theirs
17.Most Americans surveyed believe that preschools should also attach importance to ___.? A) problem solving C) parental guidance? B) group experience D) individually-oriented development 18.In Japan’s preschool education, the focus is on ___.? A) preparing children academically? B) developing children’s artistic interests? C) tapping children’s potential? D) shaping children’s character 19.Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to ___.? A) broaden children’s horizon C) lighten children’s study load? B) cultivate children’s creativity D) enrich children’s knowledge 20.Why do some Japanese parents send their children to university-based kindergartens? They can ___.? A) do better in their future studies? B) accumulate more group experience there? C) be individually oriented when they grow up? D) have better chances of getting a first-rate education
Passage Three? Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Lead deposits, which accumulated in soil and snow during the 1960’s and 70’s, were primarily the result of leaded gasoline emissions originating in the United States. In the twenty years that the Clean Air Act has mandated unleaded gas use in the United States, the lead accumulation worldwide has decreased significantly.? A study published recently in the journal Nature shows that air-borne leaded gas emissions form the United States were the leading contributor to the high concentration of lead in the snow in Greenland. The new study is a result of the continued research led by Dr. Charles Boutron, an expert on the impact of heavy metals on the environment at the National Center for Scientific Research in France. A study by Dr. Boutron published in 1991 showed that lead levels in arctic（北极的）snow were declining.? In his new study, Dr. Boutron found the ratios of the different forms of lead in the leaded gasoline used in the United States were different from the ratios of European. Asian and Canadian gasolines and thus enabled scientists to differentiate（区分）the lead sources. The dominant lead ratio found in Greenland snow matched that found in gasoline from the United States.? In a study published in the journal Ambio, scientists found that lead levels in soil in the Northeastern United States had decreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline.? Many scientists had believed that the lead would stay in soil and snow for a longer period.? The authors of the Ambio study examined samples of the upper layers of soil taken from the same sites of 20 forest floors in New England. New York and Pennsylvania in 1980 and in 1990.The forest environment processed and redistributed the lead faster than the scientists had expected.? Scientists say both studies demonstrate that certain parts of the ecosystem（?态系统） respond
rapidly to reductions in atmospheric pollution, but that these findings should not be used as a license to pollute. 21.The study published in the journal Nature indicated that ___.? A) the Clean Air Act has not produced the desired results? B) lead deposits in arctic snow are on the increase? C) lead will stay in soil and snow longer than expected? D) the US is the major source of lead pollution in arctic snow 22.Lead accumulation worldwide decreased significantly after the use of unleaded gas in the US ___.? A) was discouraged C) was prohibited by law? B) was enforced by law D) was introduced 23.How did scientists discover the source of lead pollution in Greenland?? A) By analyzing the data published in journals like Nature and Ambio.? B) By observing the lead accumulations in different parts of the arctic area.? C) By studying the chemical elements of soil and snow in Northeastern America.? D) By comparing the chemical compositions of leaded gasoline used in various countries. 24.The authors of the Ambio study have found that ___.? A) forests get rid of lead pollution faster than expected? B) lead accumulations in forests are more difficult to deal with? C) lead deposits are widely distributed in the forests of the US? D) the upper layers of soil in forests are easily polluted by lead emissions 25.It can be inferred from last paragraph that scientists ___.? A) are puzzled by the mystery of forest pollution? B) feel relieved by the use of unleaded gasoline? C) still consider lead pollution a problem? D) lack sufficient means to combat bad pollution
1. 在发展经济的同时，我们必须注意节约资源和防?污染。（attention） While developing economy, we must pay attention to saving resources and preventing pollution. 2. 他的话表明充分意识到了不努?学习的后果。（aware） His words showed that he was fully aware of the consequence of not studying hard. 3. 专家们建议实施这项?程以造福?孙后代。（advise） The experts advised carrying out the project in order to benefit future generations. 4. 听说他昨天闹情绪，没来上班。（absent） I’ve heard that he was absent from work yesterday because he was in low spirits. 5. 尽可能的多看书，你的作?会有进步的。（and） Try to read as many books as possible, and you can make progress in your composition. 6. 有些留学?要过很长时间才能适应新的礼节和风俗。（adapt） It will be long before some overseas students adapt to new manners and custom.