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专题名词性从句练习


什么叫名词性从句?
? 在句子中起名词作用的从句叫名词性从 句 (Noun Clauses) ? 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在 复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同 位语等 ? 因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名 词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从 句、表语从句和同位语从句

主语从句 subject clause

名词

性从句 noun clause

宾语从句 object clause
表语从句 predicative clause 同位语从句 appositive clause

名词性从句学习有三关

? 第一关:语序关
语序:陈述句语序

? 第二关:引导词关
连接词、连接代词、连接副词

? 第三关:时态关
宾语从句中要注意
关键词: 1、主从要一致(主现可灵活,主过从过) 2、客观真理、自然现象,从句用一般现在时。

引导名词性从句的关联词
主语 从句 that whether 不能省 句首 whether 宾语从句 动宾 可省 介宾 禁用 表语 从句 不能省 只能 whether 同位语 从句 不能省 只能 whether

if
代词 副词

whether or 只能 not whether

what-物,who/whom-人 when-时间,where-地点,why-原因,how-方式

注意:所有句子均为陈述语序

名词性从句作何成分 1.What_he_did_made me extremely angry. 主语 2 .Whether_we_will_go_picnicking_tomorrow depends on the weather.(不用 if) 主语 3.My suggestion is that we should turn the land into rice fields. 表语 4 .He said that he got up late and that he was late for_class.

宾语

5.She has made it clear that she will get married next month.

宾语
6.Our success depends on whether everyone works hard.(不 用 if)

宾语

7.Let me know whether_or_not_you_can_come.(不用 if)

宾语

8 .The

fact

that_he_tells_lies_all_the_time

makes

us

surprised.

同位语

9.The advice that_she_wait_till_next_week is reasonable.(不 用 which)

同位语

归纳小结:名词性从句,顾名思义,其用法相当于一个名词 的用法,在句中可作主语、表语、同位语、宾语,分别叫做 主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句和宾语从句。

一、主语从句 (一)从句引导词: that,whether,who,whom,whose,

what,which,when,where,why,how等。
.That people cut down too many trees destroyed the balance of nature.

.Who will win the match is still unknown.
.Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved.

注意: 放在名词性从句句首, 表示“是否”, 只能用 whether, 不能用 if。

(二)位置 .That he knows Japanese is known to all.

.What surprised me was to see him here.
.When he will come is unknown. .Whether he is coming doesn’t matter much. .It remains a secret how they climbed up the mountain.

一、主语从句 ? 引导词: ? 由that引导的主语从句: ? That he spends too much time playing computer games worries me.

? 强调

? 为避免头重脚轻, 我们长用it做形式主语,而把真正的主语放 在句子最后。 It worries me that he spends too much time playing computer games.

? 练习:
? That he has made such a mistake is a pity.
It is a pity that he has made such a mistake.

? That he can’t do well in his exam is certain.
It is certain that he can’t do well in his exam.

? That the boy failed his exam is no surprise.
It is no surprise that the boy failed his exam.

? That playing computer games can made people feel successful is reported.
It is reported that playing computer games can make people feel successful.

? Whether he is going to give it up depends on himself.
It depends on himself whether he is going to give it up.

归纳小结:主语从句的位置 1. 在句首; 2.主语较长时通常放在后 面,句首主语用 It。
1.It + be +形容词 + that 从句 (obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, certain, probable, etc.) + that
造句:很可能他把一切都告诉她了

2.It + be +名词词组(duty/pity...) + that 从句 (no wonder, an honour, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)
很遗憾我们不能去。 It is a pity that we could not go there.

It is possible that he told her everything.

3.It+ be + 过去分词(said/thought...) + that 从句 (said, reported, thought, expected, decided, announced, arranged, etc.) +that 从句。
据说格林先生已经到了北京。
It is said that Mr. Green has arrived in Beijing.

? 4.It +不及物动词(seem/happen...) + that从句 ? It seems /appears that the boy is not going to change his mind at all. 似乎 ? It happened (to me) that I have a good idea to make him change his mind. 碰巧 ? 5. It + doesn’t matter (makes no difference, etc.)+连接 代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。
? whether he will listen to me or not doesn’t matter.

Where we shall meet the boy makes no difference.

引导词: 由wh-how引导的主语从句:
? ? ? 1.what vs that What you lack is self-confidence. That more and more students are admitted into universities is true.
that : 不做句子成分,没有实在意义。当它引导的主语从句放在句首时,that不 能省略;如果用it 做形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时,that 可以省略。 What:做句子成分,有具体意义。

? ? ?

练习:用what 或that填空 What he told us this morning was just a lie. that It worries my mom _________ she is beginning to get a little fat.

如果主语从句置于句首,不能用if引导,此时,需用whether。但 如果用it作形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时,也可以用if 引导。 ? ? ? ? 练习:用whether 或if填空 whether It doesn’t matter______ he will come or not. Whether _____ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. It was doubtful_____ Tom really saw Lily.
if/whether

? ? ? ? ? ?

whoever=no matter who=any one who Whomever=no matter who=any one who Whichever=no matter which=any one which Whatever=no matter what=anything that Eg: Whatever you say will have no effect on the boy. Whichever method can persuade the son into giving up computer games is not clear.

注意:
? (1)主语从句的语气 ? It is necessary/ natural/important/strange…+ ? that-clause句型中,that从句中的谓语通常用“should+动词原 形” 表示虚拟语气。 ? It is necessary that the problem should be solved at once. ? It is strange that a lot of children should like playing computer games.

.(2)It 作形式主语 VS 强调句 ? ? ? ? ? 主语从句常用it作形式主语?一般常用句型为? It is+{名词/形容词/过去分词}+主语从句? It is still a question whether she will come or not. It is strange that you should like him. It is still unknown which team will win the match.

? 而强调句则不同?它的结构是?It+be+被强调部分 +who/that+从句 ? 原句:Mary bought this pen in the shop yesterday. ? 强调主语? It was Mary who bought this pen in the shop yesterday.
? 强调宾语 It was the pen that was bought by me in the shop yesterday. ? ? ? 强调状语? It was in the shop that the pen was boughtyesterday.

二、宾语从句
? 宾语从句在句中作及物动词或介词的宾语。 ? We all know (that) the Earth is round. ? Yao Ming will talk to us about what he saw in the USA.

? 关键词: ? 1、主从要一致(主现可灵活,主过从过) ? 2、客观真理、自然现象,从句用一般现在时。

宾语从句之引导词

1. 当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和否定句),连词由that引导,
因为 that 在从句中不作任何成分,也没有任何具体意思,因此在口语 或非正式文体中常省略

?Lin Tao feels (that) his own team is even better. ?She says (that) she won’t take part in the sports

meeting
next Sunday. ?Jim thought (that) the train was like a big moving party.

?He said (that) he would like to see the headmaster.

在主句为动词 be加某些形容词(如 sorry,

sure, afraid, glad等)作表语时,后面所跟
的省略that的从句也可算是宾语从句

?I’m sorry (that) I don’t know .
?We’re sure (that) our team will win .

?I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the
exam .

2. 当宾语从句是一般疑问句时,由连词whether
或if引导(口语中常用if),因为if/whether翻

译成:“是否”,具有一定的意义,所以不
能省略 ?Lily wanted to know if /whether her grandma liked the handbag . ?Let’s see if /whether we can find out some information about that city . ?She asked me if /whether she could borrow

these books .

注意
如果从句中含有or或or not时,只 能用whether而不用if
?Could you tell me whether that’s a fast train or not ? ?Do you know whether he is right or not ? ?I don’t care whether he’ll stay here or not .

?3. 当宾语从句是特殊疑问句时,由连接代词( what, who, whom, which, whose)或连接副词( when, where, how, why)引导,因为连接代词 ? 或连接副词在从句中担任一定的句子成分,具 ? 有一定的意义,所以不可以省略
?Do you know what he said just now ? ? I don’t remember when we arrived .

? I asked him where I could get so much money .
? Please tell me who (whom) we have to see . ? Do you know what time the plane leaves ?

时态
1. 如果主句是现在的时态 (包括一般现在时 ,现在进行时,
现在完成时),从句的时态可根据实际情况而定,(包括一般现 在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,现在完成时等)

?I know he lives here . ?I know he lived here ten years ago . ?I have heard that he will come tomorrow .

2.如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时),那么 从句的时态一定要用相对应的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时, 过去进行时,过去将来时, 过去完成时)

?I knew who lived here. ?I saw she was talking with her mother. ?He asked whether his father would come back tomorrow.

?He said that he had seen it .

3.当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理时用一般现在 时。

?The teacher said that the sun travels around the earth .

注意:①某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句。这些形容 词 和 过去 分词 常见 的有 : afraid , certain , glad , happy , surprised 等。 I am not sure whether I can afford to buy the furniture. ②宾语从句的否定转移:某些动词如 think,believe,expect 等,如果宾语从句的意思是否定句,常把否定转移到主句的 谓语上。如“我认为他不会遵守诺言。”一句,在英语中应 说:I don’t think he will keep his promise.

两副面孔:连词 if 和 when 在不同从句中的区别:
Do you know if ______back next week ? If he ______ C back , please let me know . A. he comes , will come B. will he come , comes C. he will come , comes D. he will come , will come
主句 一般将来时态 祈使句 含有情态动词 一般现在时态 从句

I don’t know when he _________ will come (come) . I can’t wait here any more . When he _______ comes (come) , would you please ask him to call me ?

简化
1. find, see, watch, hear... ? 宾补:不带to 的不定式或V-ing形式
Eg: She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.

简化:连词+宾语从句

连词+to do

?hope, wish, decide, forget, plan, agree等.主语相 同。

?I don’t know what I shall do next . I don’t know what to do next . ?She didn’t decide which one she would choose . She didn’t decide which one to choose .

练习:

have worked (work) 1. Could you tell me if they _____________ in the factory so far . 2. Did your parents tell you that the sun _______ rises (rise) in east ? say (say) just now ? 3. ----- What ______ did he _____ I ____________ (not can hear) him . couldn’t hear said (say) that he ________ planted (plant) ----- He _______ trees with his parents yesterday . to leave (leave) 4. Can you tell me when ________ tomorrow?

5. Did he say that their parents __________ would come (come) here tomorrow .

6. He told me two weeks _______(be) enough. was
7. The teacher told us that the sun ______(be) is bigger than the moon . will tell / have told 8. I think I _______________ (tell) you what _______ to do (do) next . Don't just stay here!

9. A: What are you standing here for ? B: I’m waiting here to ask Mr. Johnson if he will give (give) us a talk on American ________ history . If he _______ has (have) no time , I’ll ask Mr. Smith istead . 10. A: Do you know when Mr Green will ________ come (come) to see us next month ? B: Don't worry . I _______ will tell (tell) you when he comes (come) here . really _______

三、表语从句 表语从句位于主句中的系动词之后。 That is why he was absent from school yesterday. That is where he once lived.

系动词 常见的系动词分为三种: A.表示特征和状态: be, look, sound, taste, smell, seem, appear等 B.表示由一类状态转为另一类状态: get, become, grow, turn, fall, go, come, run等 C.表示某种状态的:remain, keep, prove, continue, stay等

表语从句之引导词
连接词:that / whether /as if /as though 连接代词:who / whom / whose / which / what 连接副词:when / where / why / how / because

1.The question is whether we can rely on him. 2.That’s because we were in need of money at that time . 3.He looked as if he was going to cry . 4.That’s why I was late .

名词主语+be+that引起的表语从句
主语名词常常是表示事实,真理的名词,如:fact, truth 表示看法,观点、问题、麻烦的名词,如: idea, opinion, belief, view, news, advice, feeling, suggestion, plan, trouble, question, problem,

1.The fact is that our team has won the game. 2.The truth is that she was the very person we are looking for.

表语从句引导词注意事项
1. that引导表语从句时不能省. 2. if不能引导表语从句. 3.除that外的所有引导词都有自己的意义。 4. 除that, whether外的所有引导词都须在从句中
充当相应的成分

表语从句之引导词

既不充当成分又

1.that在表语从句中 有意义 。 The fact is that he hasn’t yet recover from illness. The reason why he has to go is that his mother is ill in bed. ? 2.whether在表语从句中表 “是否” ,但不充当句子的成 分。if 引导表语从句. ? What the doctor really doubts is whether my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. The question is whether it is worth doing.

主语、宾语或表语 3.what 在表语从句中充当______________ 什么,什么样子,或所…的(人或事) 表示____________________________. The question is what caused the accident. That mountain is no longer what it used to be . What he told you was what had been discussed at the meeting.
主语、宾语或表语 4.who 在表语从句中充当______________表示
____. 谁 1. The problem is who could do the work 2. My trouble is who (whom) I can turn to.

定语,表语 5.which 在引导表语从句时,常充_____________ 其中哪一个 表示 。如: I read about it in some book or another,but what I don’t know is which (book) it is.

6.由as if ,as though引导表语从句,表示好像。句子 中的系动词常用look, appear, seem等。
1. It looks as if it was doing to rain. 2.The young man with long hair looks as if he were a girl.

7.当主句的主语为reason,或者是由why引导的从句 时,与它们相关的表语从句用_________, that来引导 而不能由 because _______ 引导; because 引导表语从句时只能用于 It/That/This is /was because… 句型中. ________________________ 1.The reason why I was late was that I missed the train. 2. I was late. It/That/This was because I missed the train. 8. 当表语从句中主语、宾语、表语具备,但是还是要 表示疑问含义,可以判断句子中缺少状语,常常用 相应的特殊疑问词引导,有why, when, where, how等 This is how he did it. That is why the brothers wanted to make a bet. That’s why we’ve given you the letter.

1. That’s ___ the Party called on us to do.

A. why

B. what

C. how

D. that

2. The reason is ___ he is unable to operate the machine. A. because B. why C. that 3 .That is ___ they separated. A. that A. what B. what C. which D. where 4.Jane is no longer ___ she was four years ago. B. which C. that D. when D. Whether

四、同位语从句 同位语从句跟在名词之后,进一步说明该名词的具体内容。 常见的这类名词有: fact, hope, idea, order, problem , belief, doubt,truth,suggestion,thought, question 等。 We all know the fact that he always tells lies. I am glad and excited at the good news that I ’ ve got the first prize for the competition. 听到我竞赛获得一等奖的消息,我既高兴又激动。
注意:①引导同位语从句一般不使用连接代词。 ②如果主句的谓语太短,为了使句子平衡,常把同位语从句 置于主句谓语之后。 The news came that the enemy soldiers were completely wiped out.敌军被完全消灭的消息传来了。

1. The The news news that we won the game is exciting. 2. I have no idea when he will come back home. 3. Word Word came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 4. They are investigating the the question question whether the man is trustworthy.

同位语从句与定语从句的区别
类别
同位 语 从句 定语 从句

性质 功能

引导词that 的作用

Wh- 引导词 的作用

补充 只起连接作用,不能替换所修 饰的名词,有 不做成分 , 不 名词性 说明 能省略。 疑问意义。 修饰 既替代先行 形容 词性 限定 词,同时也 关系词没有疑 在句中做某 问意义,可替换 Tip: 在先行词与与从句之间加一个系动词 be, 使之 种成分,做 先行词. 构成一个新句子,如果句子通顺且符合逻辑,则 宾语可以省 为同位语从句。反之,则为定语从句。 略。

The news that he he told told me. 1. The newsisthat me is that Tom would go abroad next year. 定语从句 同位语从句 The news news is thatTom Tom would abroad. 2. The that wouldgo go abroad is told by him. The suggestion is that the 3. He put forward the suggestion the second 同位语从句 question should be discussed first. that question should be discussed first. The suggestion is that he had put forward 定语从句 4. The suggestion that he had put forward was turn down. The news is that our teacher had told us. 5. We were greatly pleased at the news that our 定语从句 teacher had told us.

练习:判断下列哪些含有同位语从句,哪些含有
定语从句。

1. The news that we had successfully sent up another communication satellite spread throughout the world. 同位语从句 2. That’s the best piece of news I’ve heard. 定语从句 3. I’ve no hope that 定语从句 my parents have been

4. Is there any hope that he will be home at 7:30? 同位语从句 5. The possibility that you referred to doesn’t exist at all. 定语从句 6. The fact that we talked about is very important. 定语从句 7. There is a strong possibility that we may be in France for the next week. 同位语从句

综合运用:翻译句子,并说明这个名词性从句的作用。

1. We don’t think you two have met before. 我们想你们两位以前没有见过面。 (宾语从句)

2. It is certain that John will do well in his exam. 约翰肯定会考好。 (主语从句) 3. Whether they are coming or not don’t matter too much. 他们来不来无关紧要。 (主语从句)

4. Now is when we need him most.

现在是我们最需要他的时候。
(表语从句)

5. I have no idea how she got through the
forest. 我不知道她是如何穿过那个森林的。 (同位语从句)

6. The fact that they won the prize made us happy. 他们获奖的事实令我们高兴。 (同位语从句)

用适当的连接代词或连接副词填空。 which 1. I can’t decide _____ book I should buy. 2. China is no longer ____ it used to be. what 3. I am very interested in ____ he improved how his English in such a short time. What 4. ____ we need is more money.

16. The truth that ___ the earth turns around the sun is known to us. 17. When _____ and where _____ we will meet has not been decided yet.

用名词性从句完成下列句子。 1. The news ___________________________ that she has passed the national ___________________________ college entrance examination (她 通过了高考) is exciting. 2. Mike made a promise ___________________________ that he would help me with my _______ (他将帮助我学习英语) English.

_ Bwe’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. (1996) A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where _ you have done might do harm to other B people. (1987) A. That B. What C. Which D. This

_ B has been announced that we shall have our final exam next month. A. As B. It C. What D. That A _ caused the accident is still a complete A mystery. (1998) A. What B. That C. How D. Where

课时达标检测
? 一、用适当的引导词填空 ? 【练习1】(2012· 广州毕业综合二)For example,the agency found that whoever has more household income decides ____________ or not it will be used for family needs. whether

? 【练习2】(2012· 广州毕业综合一)A farmer once organized a competition between his dog and his rabbit.He dug a hole in one of his biggest fields,and hid a carrot and a bone in it.He wanted to see ____________ animal would find them first. which

? 【练习3】(2012· 深圳第二次调研)It can be really upset trying to ask for something in a store or to tell the taxi driver where ____________you are going.

? 【练习4】(2012· 广东三所名校第四次模拟)He said that what ____________ made him happy was doing things for others, and that doing so gave him a nice feeling inside.

? 【练习6】(2012· 高考天津卷)It doesn’t matter ____________ you turn right or left at the crossing—both whether roads lead to the park.

? 【练习7】(2012· 高考陕西卷)As many as five courses are whichever provided,and you are free to choose ___________ ? suits you best.

? 【练习8】(2012· 高考北京卷)Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt ____________ he could have expressed it that differently.

? 【练习9】(2012· 高考四川卷)Scientists study how ____________ human brains work to make computers.

? 【练习10】(2012· 高考江苏卷)The notice came around two in the afternoon ____________ the that meeting would be postponed.

二、语法填空

? Carl was with some of his old friends.They ____________(drink) coffee and talking about the were drinking After worth of things in the world.____________ some minutes,one of Carl’s friends said to him,“Well, Carl,you are a bright man,but you have said nothing on this matter yet.What is the ____________(useful) thing in the world?”Carl most useful answered ____________ onceat ,“I think advice is the most useful thing in the world.” ? His friends thought about it for a few moments,and then ____________ of them asked him,“And what is the most ____________(use) thing in the world?” one
useless

? Again Carl answered at once,“I think it is advice, too.” ? “Are you all right?A moment ago you said that advice is the most useful thing in the world!How can it be ____________ ?” both ? “Well,”answered Carl,“If you think about ____________ matter carefully,you will see that I am the quite right.When you give somebody good advice and he takes it,advice is the most useful thing in world.____________ when But ____________ the you give a person advice and he does not take it,it is the most useless thing in the world.”


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