班别：高一（ ）班 姓名：__________ 学号：______
A Edmund Halley was an English scientist who lived over 200 years ago. He studied the observations of comets (彗星) which
other scientists had made. The orbit of one particular comet was a very difficult mathematical problem. He could not figure it out. Neither could other scientists who dealt with such problems. However, Halley had a friend named Newton, who was a brilliant mathematician. Newton thought he had already worked out that problem, but he could not find the papers on which he had done it. He told Halley that the orbit of a comet had the shape of an ellipse (椭圆). Now Halley set to work. He figured out the orbits of some of the comets that had been observed by scientists. He made a surprising discovery. The comets that had appeared in the years 1531, 1607, and 1682 all had the same orbit. Yet their appearances had been 75 to 76 years apart. This seemed very strange to Halley. The different comets followed the same orbit. The more Halley thought about it, the more he thought that there had not been three different comets, as people thought. He decided that they had simply seen the same comet three times. The comet had gone away and had come back again. It was an astonishing idea! Halley felt certain enough to make a prediction of what comet would happen in the future. He decided that this comet would appear in the year 1758. There were 53 years to go before Halley's prediction could be tested. In 1758 the comet appeared in the sky. Halley did not see it, for he had died some years before. Ever since then that comet has been called Halley's comet, in his honor. 1. Edmund Halley figured out the orbit of________. A. some different comets appearing several times B. the same comet appearing at different times C. three different comets appearing three times D. several comets appearing at the same time 2. Halley made his discovery________. A. by doing experiments B. by means of his own careful observation C. by using the work of other scientists D. by chance 3. Halley made a surprising,but correct prediction in the year________. A. 1704 B. 1705 C. 1706 D. 1707 4. This passage in general is about________. A. Halley and other scientists B. the orbit of a comet C. Newton and Halley D. Halley and his discovery 5. Which of the following is TRUE? A. Edmund Halley was an American scientist. B. Halley made his discovery by doing experiments. C. Newton was a famous mathematician. D. The orbit of a comet had the shape of an around. B Copernicus was born in Torun, Poland, on February 19, 1473. Little is known about his early life except that his father died when he was 10. An uncle adopted him, his two sisters and his brother. The uncle saw to it that the two boys received a good education. Copernicus went to the University of Cracow. There he studied such subjects as Latin, mathematics and astronomy. It was probably at that time that he changed his Polish name, Niklas Koppernigk, to the Latin form of Nicolaus Copernicus. In 1496, Copernicus went to Italy, where he spent the next 10 years studying at various universities.
In Copernicus’ time, people still believed that all things—the sun, the stars and the planets—moved around the earth. It was an old belief that few men had ever questioned. Aristotle had based his theory of astronomy on this belief. Because the Church had long been the center of learning, the theory was also linked to religious beliefs. In 1506, Copernicus returned to his homeland. A few years later, he began to work for the Church. All those years, Copernicus carried on his work in astronomy. He had just the most basic equipment and, like other scientists of his day, made observations with only his eyes. Still, using mathematics and logic, Copernicus worked out a different theory, which held that the planets went around the sun. Copernicus did not announce his ideas. He did not want to make trouble. But he could not hide the scientific truth. So he talked about his theory with his friends, who strongly advised him to have his work published. His great book, on the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, appeared at the very end of his life. Copernicus saw the first copy on the day he died, May 24, 1543. 6. Which of the following is TRUE about Copernicus? A. He had two brothers and a sister. B. He used to be called Niklas Koppernigk. C. He lost his father soon after he was born. D. He spent 10 years at the University of Cracow. 7. From the passage we can see that "astronomy" is________. A. the life experience of great men B. the movement of the stars and the planets C. the scientific study of natural objects in space D. the theories developed by scientists of old times 8. Copernicus developed his theory________. A. using various telescopes B. based on Aristotle's beliefs C. through observations and reasoning D. under the encouragement of his friends 9. The writer of the passage tells us that________. A. Copernicus did not tell about his discovery until the day of his death B. for many years Copernicus dared to do nothing openly against the Church C. pushed by his friends Copernicus decided to write a book in May,1543 D. shortly before he got back to Poland Copernicus started to work for the Church 10. Copernicus had his great book published because________. A. he didn't agree with Aristotle B. he could not hide the scientific truth C. he worked for the Church D. his friends advised him to do so C Of all the planets, none has captured the world's imagination like Mars. Its reddish color and changes in brightness over time make the planet an unforgettable sight. In Cosmos, the television science series from the 1980s, scientist Carl Sagan talked about some traditional ideas about Mars. Some of these ideas are from the English science fiction writer H. G. Well's The War of the Worlds. Others are from the mistaken science of Percival Lowell, the American astronomer who believed intelligent beings lived on Mars. Wells described Martians as threatening. Lowell imagined them as the hopeful engineers of great works. Carl Sagan said that both ideas influenced the public deeply. Today, Mars continues to excite humans—not as the object of science fiction but of scientific study. Space scientists have collected a wealth of information from spacecrafts that have orbited, landed on and dug into the Martian surface. The Smithsonian's Mars Day offered a chance for people of all ages to touch Mars, or at least a piece of it. Allison and Alycia from Silver Spring, Maryland, brought their children, Grace, Sam, Ryan and Emma. They heard about Mars and its geology from experts. They could see a test version of the Viking landers that reached Mars in July of 1976. They also saw meteorites (陨星) known to have come from the red, or reddish planet.
Eight?year?old Sam learned that the ancient description of Mars as red is not exactly right. He said, "It's actually orangish more than red and it's also kind of brown." Emma is six. She learned about the volcanic activity that has shaped the surface of Mars. She said, "The closest thing to Mars—the stuff—is from volcanoes mostly." Mars Day offered Allison and Alycia's children a chance to learn more about a world that they are very likely to set foot on within their lifetimes. 11. What is Paragraph 2 mainly about? A. Why Martians were considered threatening. B. Why Mars has captured the world's imagination. C. What people generally thought of Mars in the past. D. How H. G. Wells got the idea for his science fiction. 12. It is implied in Paragraph 3 that________. A. today's space scientists still know nothing about Mars B. today's space scientists are very interested in Mars C. science fiction films are no longer set in Mars D. space scientists haven't made any progress, in knowing Mars 13. Sam would probably agree that________. A. Mars is not really red B. no meteorites have come from Mars C. Mars cannot be described as a little brown D. the ancient description of Mars' color is true 14. What is the writer's attitude toward the idea that humans will set foot on Mars? A. He thinks it may happen in this year. B. He thinks it will always remain a dream. C. He thinks it will come true within hundreds of years. D. He thinks it may happen in the following decades. 15. The Smithsonian's Mars Day might NOT offer people a chance to________. A. learn about the surface of Mars B. see a test version of some Viking landers C. see meteorites known to have come from Mars D. sit in a spacecraft to experience the life of an astronaut 常用单词短语积累(四） 英文 observation figure it out work out discovery prediction experiment astronomy equipment theory scientific revolution telescope encouragement brightness astronomer threatening 中文 英文 mathematical brilliant orbit astonishing in his honor adopt various logic announce publish natural object reasoning imagination unforgettable intelligent wealth
spacecraft land on ancient volcanic activity astronaut
surface geology description science fiction
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