Interpersonal Relationships ----- Friendship
Adverbial clauses: having (done)
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1. look at the sentences from the pass
age. Answer the questions below. Having lost all my old friends, I felt shy and lonely at my new school. Having left sth. In the cloakroom, I went inside to get it. That weekend, having thought about the situation for a while, I decided to ask Roy about the theft.
a) Do the words in bold refer to the present or the past? The past
a) Do the two parts of each sentence refer to the Yes, they do. same person?
Grammar 1 Study: (tense) The old man, having seen his son off, came back to the room. Having realised why he had failed in the exam, he has made up his mind to work harder from now on. Having found out all the details about it, you will come back to me and report. Conclusion:
Study: Be careful when crossing the road. Don’t talk while eating. Conclusion:
-ing短语前可加when, while强调动作同时发生; Before? After? 他出国前在北京大学读书。
Before going abroad, he studied in Peking University.
Study: On arriving in Beijing, he went to see his uncle. = As soon as…,… Conclusion:
Think: The bus was held up by the snowstorm, and as a result it caused the delay. = The bus was held up by the snowstorm, thus _____ ____ causingthe delay.
Think: Though he worked hard, he couldn’t make enough money to pay off his debt. = _________ _____ hard, he couldn’t… Though working conclusion:
Complete the sentences: Having known Roy for years, ____________. Having discussed a personal matter, _____________. Having chatted twice, ______________. Having been shy and lonely when I arrived at the new school, ____________.
2. Match the two parts of the sentences:
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1.Having known Roy a) I felt I was getting to know him. d for years, 2. Having discussed a b) I hope he would not tell anyone. very personal matter, b c) I was very happy when I made some 3. having chatted good friends. together two or three times, a Having been shy and lonely when I arrived at d) I did not expect him to be like this. the new school, c
Keys to Activity 1 on page 32
(1) The past. (2) Yes, they do.
1. He felt shy and lonely because he had lost all his old friends. 2. He went inside because he had left something in the cloakroom. 3. He decided to confront Roy after he had thought about the situation for a while.
Keys to Activity 3 on page 33
(1) d (2) b (3) a (4) c
1. Having been to his house a few times, I started to get to know his family. 2. Having talked to him for a while, I started to like him. 3. Having lived next door to them for years, we were sad when we had to move house. 4. Having argued all day, we laughed and agreed that we had been stupid.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Having been was I’ll thought of to pointing 8. After 9. look 10.when 11.urgently /immediately / at once 12.up 13.forgotten 14.On
我记得第一次见到她。 I remember meeting her for the first time. 你要记得保持联系。 You must remember to keep in touch. 我后悔那样做。 I regret doing that. 我要遗憾地说，我已和四五个朋友失去联系。 I regret to say that I have lost touch with four or five friends. Conclusion: 谓语动词后用 –ing，通常表示已经发生的事情； to do表示未发生的或将要发生的事情。
Activity 1 &2 (Page 34)
meeting I remember _________ her for the first time.
you need to do You must remember ___________ in touch. to keep doing I regret _________ that now. happened in the past
happened in the past
I regret _________ that I have lost touch with to say
four or five friends.
You are sorry about something that you are doing now.
Quiz for Part 1
Teaching ________(teach) biology is his full-time job. To cut ____(cut) down such a big tree in such hot weather in a day is beyond my ability. to find What I want to do now is _____(find) a place to rest. paying I suggest _______(pay) another visit to the exhibition. to know I’d like_______(know) what they are up to at present. to take/taking His habit is _____ (take) a walk after supper.
Part 2 to turn I forgot ______(turn) off the light when I went to bed last night. seeing I forgot _______(see) the film before, so I went to see it a second time.
-You have steeped on my foot. -I’m sorry, but I didn’t mean ___so. A. having done B. to have done C. to do D. doing not having studied I regret _________________(not study) hard at school. Now I was bad at English in college. rising Unemployment is likely to go on _________ (rise) this year.
动词-ing与to do 区别
? 动词-ing与to do都具备名词的功能，在句子 中作主语，宾语，表语等，但也有区别。 区别如下： ? 一、 doing 表示性质，状态，习惯或经常 性；to do形式表示具体的，一次性的，将 发生的动作。如： ? 1). Swimming is my favorite sports. ? 2). Our work is serving the people.
2). What I would suggest is to put off the meeting. 3). To be kind to the enemy is to be cruel to the people. ? 二、动词-ing与to do做宾语时的若干区别： ? 1. 有的动词后只能跟不定式做宾语，如：agree, ask, aim, arrange, choose decide, fail, hope, learn, long manage, plan, prepare, pretend, refuse等。 ? 有的动词后只能接动词-ing做宾语,如: admit, consider, enjoy, finish, keep, imagine, mind, practice, suggest, give up, put off 等。
? 2. 在下列动词后，两者都可以接，但意义有所不 同。 ? 1）need, require, want后接动词-ing 形式表示被 动意义，也可接不定式，但要用被动形式。 ? Your handwriting needs/requires improving/to be improved. ? 2) hate, love, like接不定式表示特定的，具体的， 一次性的，将发生的动作。接动词-ing 表示习惯， 经常性的，一般的行为。 reading writing ? I like ________ (读书)，but I hate ________ (写文章)。 to go shopping ? I like _________________ (逛商店)now。
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3）在下列情况看下，一般用不定式。 A. hate, love, like前有would, should时。 I would like to have a cup of coffee. B. 当谓语动词begin, continue, start等本身 是进行式时。 ? The students are starting to work on the maths problem. ? C. begin, continue, start与know, understand 等状态动词连用时。 ? I soon began to understand what was happening.
? 4), forget / remember / regret to do 表示 现在，未来或未做的动作；forget / remember / regret doing 表示动作已经发 生。 ? A. He forgot to turn off the light in the office. So the light was on the whole night. ? B. He forgot turning off the light in the office. So he went back to turn it off, only to find that the light was not on.
? 5）mean to do/doing ? mean to do 打算，想要做 ? mean doing 意味着 ? 6）try to do 设法尽力做某事 ? try doing 试着做 ? 7）can’t help doing 禁不住 ? can’t help to do 不能帮助干 ? They couldn’t help jumping up at the news. ? Sorry I can’t help to clean the room the room for you. I must go now.
? 8) go on to do 继续作不同的事或不同内 容的事。 ? go on doing 指同一动作的继续 ? After he finished doing math exercises, he went on to write a composition. ? We’ll go on fighting so long as there is oppression in the world.
? 9), cease to do 表示“长期，甚至永久性 的停止做某事”； ? cease doing 表示“暂时停止做某事，以 后还会做”。 ? That department has ceased to exist for ever. ? The sales girl ceased chatting for a moment when the customs came in.
动词 跟不定式含义 remember, 表示该去做的事, forget, regret 不定式动作在后 跟动名词含义 表示曾经做过的事, 动名词动作在前
继续(或停止)原来在 go on, stop 转到另外的事情上 做的事情 want, need, 表主动含义 表被动含义 require try 尽力去做 尝试去做
Activity 3 on page 34
1. The girls stopped talking when the teacher came into the room. The girls were talking but didn’t do it any more when the teacher came into the room. 2. The girls were walking along the road. They stopped to look in a shop window. The girls were walking along the road, but stopped in order to look in a shop window.
Activity 3 on page 34
3. I’ll never forget meeting her. She was so kind to me. I have met her before. I won’t forget what is like to meet her. 4. I won’t forget to meet her after school.
I am going to meet her after school. I’ll remember to meet her.
Activity 3 on page 34
5. The teacher was talking about relationships when Liao Mei came in. She looked up, then went on talking. The teacher continue to talk about the relationships. 6. The teacher was talking about relationships when Liao Mei came in. She went on to talk about homework. (The topic were different.) The teacher was talking about relationships and then talked about homework.
Complete the sentences. (Activity 4)
1. Remember to keep in touch when you go away. Email me! 2. Do you remember going to school for the first time? Did you feel shy? 3. I never forget to phone my parents when I’m away from home. 4. I’ll never forget saying that. It was stupid of me. I really hurt my friend. 5. I regret telling you that you will not be in the same class as your friends.
Complete the sentences. (Activity 4)
6. The joke was really funny and the two girls couldn’t stop laughing. 7. I walk home from school with a friend. We often stop to buy some sweets. 8. I didn’t like Chen at first but we went on to become good friends. 9. First we discussed our families, then we went on to talk about personal matters.
Keys to Activity 5 on page 35
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) time same seeing to was arrived playing playing
(9) to say
(11)to cry / crying