概念： 表语从句是在复合句中作表语的名词性从句。 放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+系动词+表语从句”可以接表语 从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。 可以接表语从句的系动词有： 1：be（being,been,am,is,are,was,were) 2: feel , seem , look, appear ,s
ound, taste , smell 3: stand , lie , remain ,keep, stay 4: become ,get , grow , turn ,go ,come, run, fall 5: prove, turn out The trouble is that we are short of money.困难是我们资金短缺。 That is why stone walls are used instead of fences around New England fields.这就是为什么在新英格兰用石头墙而不用栅 栏的原因。 At that time, it seemed as if I couldn't think of the right word anyhow.当时,我似乎怎么也想不出一个恰当的字眼来。 引导表语从句的词： 从属连词 that、whether、as though、 as if（That 引导表语从句时，在口语中，间或可以省略。 ） 关系代词 who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 等； 关系副词 when, where, why, how, however, whenever, wherever 等。 由从属连词 that，whether 引导的表语从句。 that 在引导表语从句时无词义，而 whether 有词义，意为、“是否”。这时主句的主语常常是些抽象名词，如 question(问 题)，trouble(麻烦)，problem(问题)，result(结果)，chance(可能性)，suggestion(建议)，idea(想法)，reason(理由)等。表语 从句对主句主语进行说明、解释，使主语的内容具体化。例如： The trouble is (that) she has lost his money. 麻烦的事是他丢了钱。 The question is whether we need more ice cream.问题是我们是否还需要一些冰淇淋。 The problem was that it was too valuable for everyday use.问题是它作为日常之用太贵重了。 What she couldn’t understand was that fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. 我们不能理解越来越少的学 生对他的课不感兴趣。 由关系代词引导的表语从句。 关系代词 who, what, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever 等引导表语从句，在句中作主语、宾 语、表语，关系代词不能省略。例如：The question is which of us should go.问题是我们哪一个应该去。 The problem was who could do the work.问题是谁能做这项工作。 That's what he is worrying about.那就是他在担心的事。That's what we should do.那是我们应该做的。 由关系副词引导的表语从句。 关系副词 when, where, how, why 除在句子起连接作用外，在从句中还充当时间，地点，方式或原因状语，本身具有词 义。例如：Go and get your coat. It's where you left it. 去把雨衣拿来。就在你原来放的地方。 I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. That’s why I got wet through. 我们既没伞也没雨衣，这是我们淋湿的原因。 That is how mice ruin many stores of grain every year.那就是老鼠是怎样每年损害大量粮食的。 That is what he is worried about.那就是他所担心的。 由连词 because，as if/as though 等引导的表语从句。 It looked as if it was going to snow.看起来好像要下雪了。 That's because we never thought of it.这是因为我们从未想过此事。 It seems as if he didn’t know the answer.好像他不知道答案。 注意 A. 表语从句一定要用陈述语序。 False: The question is when can he arrive at the hotel. Right: The question is when he can arrive at the hotel. B. 不可以用 if，而用 whether 连接表语从句(as if 例外） 。引导宾语从句时可以互换 if/whether 位于介词后要用 whether 位于句首时要用 whether。引导表语从句，主语从句，同位语从句时要用 whether。 False: The question is if the enemy is marching towards us. Right: The question is whether the enemy is marching towards us.
Right: It looked as if he had understood this question. C.不像宾语从句，在有表语从句的复合句中，主句时态和从句时态可以不一致。 Right: The question is who will travel with me to Beijing tomorrow. Right: The question is why he cried yesterday. D. that 在表语从句中不可以省掉。 基本用法 表语从句只能置于主句之后，而主句的动词只能是联系动词。名词性从句在 be 等系动词后作表语时被称为表语从句 例如：The problem is how we can get the things we need. 问题是我们怎样能弄到我们需要的东西。 (how 在表语从句中充当方式状语) The scissors are not what I need. 这把剪刀不是我所需要的。(what 在表语从句中充当宾语) What I told him was that I would find him a good play. 我告诉他的是我会给他找个好剧本。(what 在主语从句中作直接宾 语， that 作为表语从句的引导词在该表语从句中不充当句子成分，不能省略) That is what I want to tell you.那就是我想要对你讲的。(what 在表语从句中充当直接宾语) That is why she failed to pass the exam. 那就是她考试不及格的原因。(why 在表语从句中充当原因状语) What I told him was that I would find him a good play. 我告诉他的是我会给他找个好剧本。(what 在主语从句中作直接宾 语， that 作为表语从句的引导词在该表语从句中不充当句子成分， 不能省略) That is what I want to tell you.那就是我想要对你讲的。(what 在表语从句中充当直接宾语) That is why she failed to pass the exam. 那就是她考试不及格的原因。(why 在表语从句中充当原因状语) 注意 “That is why...”是常用句型， 意为“这就是??的原因/因此??” ， 其中 why 引导的名词性从句在句中作表语， 该句 型通常用于针对前面已经说明过的原因进行总结， 又如： That is why you see this old woman before you know, Jeanne. 珍妮， 这就是现在这个老太婆出现在你面前的原因。(前文提 到 Jeanne 对老妇人显得苍老憔悴深感诧异， 说话人对她讲述了其中的原因之后，用这一句来进行概括)。 That is why I came. 这就是我来的原因。 下面是两个与“That is why...”形式相似的结构， 它们与“That is why...”结构之间的关系要能够辨析清楚： (1)“That is why...”与“That is the reason why...”同义， 只不过从语法结构上讲， “That is the reason why...”中 why 引导的是—个定语从句， 将其中的 the reason 去掉则与“That is why...”结构一样， 例如： That is (the reason) why I cannot agree. 这就是我不能同意的理由。 (2)“That is because...”句型中从属连词 because 引导的名词性从句在此作表语， 这也是个常用句型， 意为“这就是为 什么??/因为??” 。 “That is because...” 与 “That is why...” 之间的不同在于 “That is because...” 指原因或理由， “That is why...” 则指由于各种原因所造成的后果， 例如： He did not see the film last night. That is because he had to help his little sister with her homework. 昨天晚上他没有去 看电 影， 那是因为他得帮助他的妹妹做作业。(第一句话说明结果， 第二句话说明原因) He had seen the film before. That is why he did not see it last night.他以前曾看过那部电影， 因此他昨天晚上没有去看。 (第 一句话说明原因， 第二句话说明结果) 表语从句与宾语从句的关系 宾语从句和表语从句都属于名词性从句。其作用跟名词在句中的作用相同。故充当宾语的句子叫宾语从句，充当表语 的句子叫表语从句。 宾语从句 (1)对于宾语从句要掌握以下三点 ①语序: 从句的语序必须是陈述句语序, 即“主语 + 谓语”这种形式。 ②时态: 当主句是一般现在时或一般将来时的时候, 从句可以是任何时态, 而当主句是一般过去时的时候, 从句, 从句时 态必须是过去时范围的时态, 即(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去完成时, 过去将来时)。 ③连接词: 当从句意思完整, 主句意思肯定时, 连接词用 that, 且可以省去, 当从句意思完整, 主句意思不确定或含否定含 意时, 常用 if 或 whether(是否), 当从句意思不完整时, 连接词则是代替不完整部分的特殊疑问词。 表语从句 在句子中起表语作用的从句叫做表语从句，位于主句系动词的后面。表语从句的引导词和主语从句的引导词相同。也 是名词性从句的一种。 如： What the police want to know is when you entered red the room 警察想知道的是你什么时候进的房间。
The trouble is that we are short of funds 困难是我们缺乏资金。 This is what we should do 这是我们应当做的。 注意：从句中的疑问句用正常语序，即陈述语序。 as if, as though, because 也可用来引导表语从句。 She seems as if she had done a great thing 她看起来好像做了一件大事。 It is because you eat too much 是因为你吃得太多了。 单项选择 1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meet next week. A. that B. if C. when D. whether 2．The reason why he failed is ________he was too careless. A. because B. that C. for D. because of 3. Go and get your coat. It’ s ________you left it A. where B. there C. there where D. where there 4．The problem is _________to take the place of Ted A. who can we get B. what we can get C. who we can get D. that we can get 5. What I want to know is ______ he likes the gift given by us. A. that B. if C. whether D.不填 6. The reason is_________ I missed the bus. A. that B. when C. why D. what 7. That is __ ___ we were late last time. A. that B. when C. why D. what 8. She looked _________ she were ten years younger. A. that B. like C. as D. as though 9.—I fell sick!--I think it is _______ you are doing too much. A. why B. when C. what D. because 10. The reason why he hasn’t come is ___________. A. because his mother is ill B. because of his mother’s being ill C. that his mother is ill D. for his mother is ill 11. —He was born here.-- That is _______ he likes the place so much. A. that B. what C. why D. how 12.That is ______ Lu Xun once lived. A. what B. where C. that D. why 13．_______your father wants to know is________ getting on with your studies. A. What; how are you B. That；how you are C. How；that you are D. What；how you are 14. The trouble is__________ we are short of tools. A. what B. that C. how D. why that 15. America was __________was first called “India” by Columbus. A. what B. where C. the place D. there where 16. China is becoming stronger and stronger. It is no longer_________ . A. what it used to be B. what it was used to being C. what it used to being D. what it was used to be 17. ________he really means is ________he disagrees with us. A. What … that B. That … what C. What … what D. That … what 18. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work. A. that B. which C. what D. such 19 —I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.—Is that_____ you had a few days off？ A. why B .what C. when D. where 20 .I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ____I got wet through. A. It’s the reason B. That’s why C. There’s why D. It’s how 21. See the flags on top of the building? That was ______ we did this morning. A. when B. which C. where D. what 22. --- Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game? ---Oh, that’s _____. A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited 23. What surprised me was not what he said but ______ he said it. A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 句子翻译 1.这就是我想做的 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.这房子正是他最需要的东西。 _________________________________________________________________________ 3. 这就是 Henry 怎样解决问题的 ________________________________________________________________________ 4.问题是谁能完成这项困难的任务 _______________________________________________________________________ 5.今天讨论的话题是未来的学校会是怎样的 ________________________________________________________________ 6.他迟到的原因是交通拥堵. _____________________________________________________________________________ 7.事实是他对我撒谎了.__________________________________________________________________________________
8. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is _____________________________________________ . (disagree) 你一直说每个人应该是平等的?这就是我不同意之处。 9.Your coat is still _______________________________________________ . (where) 你的外套仍然在你放的地方。 10.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella. That is _________________________________________ through. (get) 我既没有 雨衣?也没有雨伞。这就是为什么我全身被淋湿的原因。 11. It sounds ____________________________________________________ the door.(as if) 听起来好像某人正在敲门。 12. It seems ______________________________ interested in Henry. (become) 好像伦敦所有人都变得对亨瑞感兴趣。 13.The last time we had great fun was _____________________________________________________ the Water Park.(visit) 上一次我们玩得很开心的时候是我们正在参观水族公园的时候。 that/what 的区别 1．_______your father wants to know is________ getting on with your studies. A. What; how are you B. That；how you are C. How；that you are D. What；how you are 2. The trouble is__________we are short of tools. A. what B. that C. how D. why that 3. America was __________was first called “India” by Columbus. A. what B. where C. the place D. there where 4. China is becoming stronger and stronger. It is no longer_________ . A. what it used to be B. what it was used to being C. what it used to being D. what it was used to be 5. ________he really means is ________he disagrees with us. A. What … that B. That … what C. What … what D. That … what 6. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work. A. that B. which C. what D. such 系动词分类： 一、根据系动词后所跟结构，我们可以把英语系动词分为两大类：完全系动词（其后只能跟表语的动词，如 be, seem） 和 半 系 动 词 （ 其 后 既 可 跟 表 语 作 系 动 词 用 法 ， 也 可 跟 宾 语 或 状 语 作 实 义 动 词 用 ， 如 look ） 例 如 ： 1） He looked sadly at the boy.(“看着” ，实义动词用法) He looks a clever boy .（ “看起来” ，系动词用法） 2） He looks at a clever boy.（ “看着” ，实义动词用法） 在英语中，某一动词是多义词，既有实义动词用法，又有系动词用法。 二、根据系动词的意义，我们把英语系动词分为四类： A．五大感官系动词 B．状态系动词 C．动态系动词 D．双谓语系动词 A．五大感官系动词，描述一种感官性质。 由实义感官动词变化而来，都是半系动词。 1．look“看起来像是” ，后接 adj.、n.、分词、介词短语、不定式等。 The girl bit her lips and looked thoughtful.这位女孩咬着嘴唇，看上去若有所思。 2．smell“闻起来” ，后接 adj.分词。 The flowers smell sweet. 这些花气味真香。 3．sound“听起来” ，后接 adj.\分词。 The music sounds sweet.这首诗听起来真悦耳。 4．taste“尝起来” ，后接 adj.\分词。The apples taste very good. 这些苹果很好吃。 5．Feel ①“摸起来，给??感觉” ；②“觉得” ，后接 adj./p.p. You will feel better after a night’s sleep. 睡上一晚，你会觉得好些。 B．状态系动词： 1．be， “是” ，属完全系动词。 I am a student. 我是一个学生。 2．seem,“似乎，好像” ，完全系动词。 They seem quite happy. 他们似乎很快乐。 3．appear,“显得，看起来好像” ，半系动词。 It appeared(to be)a true story.看来这是一个真实的故事。 4．keep, “保持??的状态” ，半系动词，后接 adj 或介词短语。 You’d better go to bed and keep warm. 你最好躺在 床上去暖和一下。 5．remain,“仍是” ，半系动词。 I remained silent. 我仍然缄默。 6．stay“保持（某种状态） ” ，半系动词，后接 adj.、过去分词。 The window stayed open all the night. 7.prove “证明是” ，半系动词，后接 adj.\n. The treatment proved to be successful. 这种疗法证明是成功的。 C．动态系动词：都属于半系动词，描述状态变化过程。 1．get“变成，变得??起来” ，后可接形容词、分词、介词短语。 The days are getting longer and longer. 白天变得越来越长了。 2．fall“进入（某种状态） ，成为” ，后常接以下形容词： asleep, lame, silent, ill, sick, flat.
The old men, unable to express himself, fell silent. 那位老人说不清自己的意思，就不做声了。 My father fell ill and died. 我的父亲生病死了。 3．grow“渐渐变得??起来，长得” It’s growing warm. 天气渐渐暖和起来了。 4．turn“转变成（新的与原来完全不同的色彩或性质） ，变质（色） ” 。 Maple trees turn red in autumn. 枫叶在秋天变红了。 It was cloudy this morning, but fortunately it has turned fine. 今天早上是阴天，幸好已经转晴了。 5．go， “变成（某种坏的状态） ” The telephone has gone dead. 电话不通了。 The material has gone a funny colour. 这料子的颜色变得奇怪了。 go 之后常接的 adj. 还有：bad, blind, wild, wrong, sour, hard, hungry, mad, red, with, anger, white, pale, blue, grey. 6．become“变成，成为（好坏均可的情况） ” I became interested in drawing. 我开始对素描感兴趣了。 He became angry with me. 他对我生气了。 They became good friends. 他们成了好朋友。 7．come， “变成为（已知的状态） ，证实为” ，后常接形容词或前缀 un-的过去分词作表语，表示状态或情况的变化。 His wish to become a pilot has come true. 他想当飞行员的愿望实现了。 If you look into the matter, everything will come clear. 如果你调查一下这事，一切都会清楚。 后面常接的形容词还有：apart, dear（昂贵） ，natural, open, short, right（好了） ，unstuck（没有粘住） ，untied（松开） 。 8．run,“变成” ，后接 adj. The price ran high. 价格上升了。 9．make， “达到某种状态[后接形容词]，如 sure, certain, merry, bold, free We must make certain of facts.我们一定要弄清事实。 D．双谓语系动词 此类系动词既有系动词的功能，后接表语，又保留原实义动词本身的含义。 例如：The run rose red.太阳升起红艳艳。 She stopped and stood quite still.她停下来然后一丝不动地站着。 The snow lay thick on the ground. 雪厚厚地堆积在地上。 He married young. 他结婚很早。 Lei Feng died young.雷锋早逝。 He continued silent.他继续沉默不语。 系动词单项选择题 ①The story sounds_________________(MET 89) A. to be true B. as true C. being true D. true ②Those oranges taste__________(MET 91) A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well ③---Are you feeling________? ---Yes, I’m fine now/(NMET92) A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better ④----Can I join the club, Dad. ----You can when you _________a bit older.(NMET 94) A. get B. will get C. get D. will have got ⑤---Do you like the material? ----Yes, it _______very soft.(NMET 94) A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt ⑥I love to go to the seaside on Summer. It_____ good to lie in the sun or swim in the cool sea.(NMET 96) A. does B. feels C. gets D. makes ⑦Cleaning women in big cities usually get _______by the hour.(NMET 98) A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay ⑧Why don’t you put the meat in the fridge? It will _____ for several days.(NMET2003） A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed 系动词巩固练习 ①What you have said_______. A．is sounded interesting B sounds interesting C．sound interested D．listens interested ②The class begins. Please keep________. A．silent B．silence C．the silence D．silently ③Look! Several people in the crowd seemed_____. A． to be fighting B． to have fought C． being fought D． having fought ④How _____the song she sings sounds! I have never ______a better voice. A．beautifully, sounded B．beautiful, sounded C．sweet, listened to D．sweet, heard ⑤Her feeling about the marriage ______rather strange. A．is looked B．is seemed C．seems D．is appeared ⑥The new shirt______ right. A．doesn’t feel B．isn’t felt C．isn’t feeling D．doesn’t touch ⑦How happy it_______ for me to be home again after twenty years abroad! A．gives B．feels C．is felt D．is given ⑧John _____driver since two months ago. A．became a B．has become a C．has turned D．has been a ⑨He _____he felt very _______over the death of the boy. A．seemed that, sad B．seemed as if, sadly C．looked as though, sad D．looked that, sadness ⑩The ice_____ thick on the river. A．is lain B．lay C．laid D．lie
单项选择答案 1~5: DBACC 6~10 :ACDDC 11~15:CBDBA 16~20: AACAB 句子翻译 1.This is what I want to do. 2.The house is what he needs. 3.This is how Henry solved the problem. 4.The question is who can complete the difficult task. 5.The discussion topic for today is what school will be like in the future. 6.The reason why he was late is that the traffic was busy. 7.The fact is that he told a lie to me. 8. where I disagree 9. where you put it 10. why I got wet 11. as if somebody is knocking at 12. as if everyone in London became 13. when we were visiting that/what 的区别 DBAAAC 系动词单项选择题 1.D, 2.A, 3.B, 4.A, 5.C, 6.B, 7.C, 8.B 系动词巩固练习 1——5：BAADC，6——10：ABDCB 21~23: DAA