The Renaissance Contents
I. General introduction II. Renaissance in Europe A. Renaissance in Italy B. Renaissance in France C. Renaissance in Spain D. Renaissance in England III. Sci-tec
h Advances IV. Impact of the Renaissance
I General Introduction
What does "Renaissance" mean? Generally it refers to the period between the 14th and mid 17th century. The term Renaissance, literally means "rebirth". Rebirth is used in two ways: 1. The rediscovery of ancient classical texts and learning and their applications in the arts and sciences. 2. The revival of European culture in general. How to appraise the renaissance? ? It is an influential cultural movement; It brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation It marks the transitional period between the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the Modern Age in Europe. Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance. At the heart of the Renaissance philosophy was the assertion(坚持,断言)of the greatness of man. (坚持,断言) Intellectuals of humanist believed in the promotion of wealth, pleasure and a frank admiration for the beauty of human body. Man's interest was shifted from Christianity to Humanity, from religion to philosophy, from heaven to earth, from beauty of God to the beauty of the human body in all its joys and pains, senses and feelings. Start of Renaissance Renaissance happened gradually at different places at different times. The movement occurred in different countries with different emphasis. 1. In Italy it was mostly in fine arts. (艺术—指诗歌,音乐,绘画,雕塑,建筑等) 2. In France it was literature. 3. In England it was philosophy and drama. The starting place of the Renaissance is almost universally ascribed to(把…归于) ( 归于) 归于 Central Italy, especially the city of Florence. Italy is known as the cradle of the Renaissance.
II Renaissance in Europe A. Renaissance in Italy
a. Renaissance Art The Distinct Features of the Renaissance Art 1. Art broke away from the domination of the church. 2. Themes of painting changed from purely celestial(天上的,神圣的) realm to an appreciation (天上的,神圣的) of nature & man.
3. Studies of the ruins of Roman and Greek temples were carried out and the principles of ancient civilization were practiced. 4. Artists introduced in their works scientific theories of anatomy 解剖学) perspective 透视法) and . (解剖学) (透视法) Early Renaissance Artists Giotto (乔托) Donatello(多那太罗) Filippo Brunelleschi (伯鲁乃列斯基) Sandro Botticelli (波提切利) Giotto (about 1266-1337) 乔托) (乔托) Forerunner of the Renaissance He led the way of restoring dignity to human figures. An Italian painter and architect from Florence Art features of Giotto The flat, symbolic figures gave way to the figures interacting in perspective space. He managed to adopt the visual language of the sculptors — by lending his figures volume and weight. Donatello (1386-1466) (多那太罗) 多那太罗) A famous sculptor One of the first artists engaging in anatomy for the knowledge of human body His most famous sculpture: Hebrew king David, which is in perfect proportion of human body. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)(伯鲁乃列斯基) (伯鲁乃列斯基) A famous architect devoting himself to the study of classical buildings, His works showed a systematic use of perspective, He was widely imitated during the Renaissance, He built the dome 穹顶 for the cathedral in Florence, which became the most original construction in the building of domes in the world architecture history. Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) 波提切利 An Italian painter during the Early Renaissance Most famous work is The Birth of Venus(维纳斯的诞生) The High Renaissance Art (Late15th- and Early 16th-century Italian Art) 1. This period represented a culmination of the Renaissance. 2. Artists no longer pondered the art of antiquity.(古代) 3. They went their own way with the tools, technology, training and confidence. The "Big Three Names" of the High Renaissance 1. Leonardo da Vinci 达芬奇 2. Michelangelo Buonarroti 米开朗基罗 3. Raphael (Raffaello Sancio) 拉斐尔 Leonardo da Vinci (达芬奇) (1452-1519) 达芬奇) an Italian Renaissance Artist who was an architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter a universal genius famous for his masterly paintings, such as The Virgin of the Rocks 岩间圣母 Mona Lisa and 岩间圣母, The Last Supper.
Other talents He was anatomist and physiologist at the same time. (生理学家) His study of human anatomy led also to the design of the first known robot in recorded history. Leonardo's study of embryos(胚胎) and proportions of the human body Leonardo produced detailed studies of the flight of birds, and plans for several flying machines He even designed a helicopter powered by 4 men. The glider based on Leonardo's design gained a resounding success. His notebooks also contain several designs for military machines: machine guns, an armored tank powered by humans or horses, cluster bombs(集束炸弹 etc (集束炸弹), Other inventions include a submarine, a cog-wheeled(嵌齿轮的 ) device that has been ( 嵌齿轮的) interpreted as the first mechanical calculator, and a car powered by a spring mechanism Michelangelo Buonarroti (米开朗基罗)(1475-1564) 米开朗基罗) A Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. His artistic works are realistic. He believed that art originated from inner inspiration and from culture. Major works the fresco(壁画)ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; the Last Judgment over the altar; sculptures of David , Moses; the design of the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.(正方形教堂) the fresco ceiling of the Sistine Chapel 西斯廷天顶画 Raphael (Raffaello Sancio) (拉斐尔) (1483-1520) 拉斐尔) A painter and architect His works are of a sweetness of temper (秀美风格) Best known for the portrayal of Madonna (圣母像) Also famous for the painting School of Athens (雅典学派) b.Italian Literature and Poetry b. Giovanni Boccaccio (卜伽丘) (1313-1375) 卜伽丘) 卜伽丘 an Italian author and poet, a close friend of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist, the author of the great work ---The Decameron 《十日谈》 十日谈》 The Decameron Setting: in 1348, the Black Death 黑死病, in a villa(别墅) outside Florence. Character: 7 ladies and 3 young gentlemen Plot: each one tells one story on each one of the ten nights at the villa; by the end of the ten days, totally 100 stories are told. Analysis--witty licentious stories full of praises of true love and wisdom and satire on the hypocrisy of the priest and the aristocrat. With this book, the courtly themes of medieval literature began to give way to the voice and mores 民德,道德观念 of early modern society.
B. Renaissance in France
Historical Background Under the influence of Italian renaissance, there emerged in France a whole generation of humanist writers. They began to study Greek culture and philosophy and this gave rise to writings of Rebelais and Montaogne.
Franois Rabelais (拉伯雷 拉伯雷) 拉伯雷 A Humanist writer Best known for the satirical work Gargantua and Pantagruel 《巨人传》 巨人传》 In it he praises the greatness of man, expresses his love of life & his reverence 尊敬 and sympathy for humanist learning. Michel Eyques de Montaigne (1533-1592) 蒙田 An influential French Renaissance writer. Generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. His main work is known as Essais (Essays) (in simple style) 随笔集
C. Renaissance in Spain
Historical Background In 1492, Columbus discovered America and claimed America for Spain. This is the beginning of the age of exploration for Spain. The 16th century saw the beginning of the Golden age of Spanish literature. Miguel de Cervantes(1547-1616)(塞万提斯) (塞万提斯) A novelist, a dramatist and a poet. Known for his immortal masterpiece Don Quixote 堂吉珂德 吉珂德 Recognized as the father of the modern European novel Don Quixote(堂吉珂德) 吉珂德) ( 吉珂德 Published in 1605, the book was reprinted six times within the next year. An adventure story of the poor country gentleman, Don Quixote and his peasant servant Sancho Panza. The whole adventure was put against the reality of 17th century Spain. The book is a parody satirizing the romance of chivalry. Its sources are romantic as well as realistic, truthful and imaginative.
D. Renaissance in England
Historical background "English Renaissance" is a term often used to describe a cultural and artistic movement in England from the early 16th century to the mid-17th century. This era in English cultural history is sometimes referred to as "the age of Shakespeare" or "the Elizabethan era," In the period, the country gained both political and religious stability and economic prosperity. Main figures Philosophy: Thomas More,Francis Bacon Play: William Shakespeare Thomas More(托马斯 莫尔) 莫尔) (托马斯莫尔 An English lawyer, writer, and politician. He earned a reputation as a leading humanist scholar. His best known work—Utopia 乌托邦 乌托邦. Utopia 乌托邦 (written in 1515) In the book, a fictional traveler, Raphael Hythloday, describes the political arrangements of an imaginary island nation named Utopia. It is an ideal non-Christian state where everybody lives a simple life and shares the goods in common, possesses a good knowledge of Latin, fights no war and enjoys full freedom in
religious belief. The traveler Raphael Hythloday is depicted in the lower left-hand corner describing to a listener the island of Utopia, whose layout is schematically shown above him. Francis Bacon(培根) (1561-1626) (培根) an English philosopher, essayist and statesman best known as a philosophical advocate and defender of the scientific revolution held that philosophy should be kept separate from theology His works establish and popularize an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method. Induction 归纳法 implies drawing knowledge from the natural world through experimentation, 归纳法 observation, and testing of hypotheses.(假说) (假说) Major works: The Advancement of Learning 《学术的进步》 The New Atlantis《新大西洲》 The Novum Organum (New Method) 《新工具》 Essays (contained 58 essays)《论说文集》 William Shakespeare (1564-1616) 莎士比亚 an English poet and playwright who has a reputation as one of the greatest of all writers in the English language and in Western literature One of the world's pre-eminent dramatists Shakespeare is among the very few playwrights who have excelled in both comedy and tragedy. a great master of the English language Universally acknowledged to be the summit of the English Renaissance, and one of the greatest writers in the world ever. Major Works Shakespeare Comedies: The Tempest 暴风雨 The Two Gentlemen of Verona 维洛那二绅士 The Merry Wives of Windsor 温莎的风流娘们 Measure for Measure 一报还一报 The Comedy of Errors 错中错 Much Ado About Nothing 无事生非(捕风捉影) Love's Labour's Lost 爱的徒劳 A Midsummer Night's Dream 仲夏夜之梦 The Merchant of Venice 威尼斯商人 As You Like It 皆大欢喜 Taming of the Shrew 驯悍记 All's Well That Ends Well 终成眷属(如愿) Twelfth Night or What You Will 第十二夜 The Winter's Tale 冬天的故事 Pericles, Prince of Tyre 泰尔亲王佩力克尔斯 The Two Noble Kinsmen 两贵亲 Four Comedies 皆大欢喜 (As You Like It) 仲夏夜之梦 (A Midsummer Night's Dream) 第十二夜 (Twelfth Night or What You Will) 威尼斯商人 (The Merchant of Venice)
Shakespeare Tragedies: 特洛埃围城记 Troilus and Cressida Coriolanus 科利奥兰纳斯 Titus Andronicus 泰特斯安特洛尼克斯 Romeo and Juliet 罗密欧与朱丽叶 雅典的泰门 Timon of Athens Julius Caesar 裘力斯凯撒 麦克白 Macbeth Hamlet 哈姆雷特 李尔王 King Lear Othello 奥赛罗 安东尼与克莉奥佩屈拉 Antony and Cleopatra Cymbeline * (normally classed as a comedy today)辛伯林 Four Tragedies Hamlet 《哈姆雷特》 哈姆雷特》 Othello 《奥瑟罗》 奥瑟罗》 King Lear《李尔王》 《李尔王》 Macbeth 《麦克佩斯》 麦克佩斯》 Macbeth a tragedy based loosely on historical events of the king Macbeth of Scotland; Shakespeare's shortest tragedy; seen as a tale of dangers of the lust (贪欲)for power and betrayal of friends. 贪欲) King Lear based on the legend of Leir, a king of pre-Roman Britain; regarded as one of Shakespeare's greatest achievements. Othello also The Moor of Venice a tragedy by Shakespeare written around 1603; Othello made madly jealous by the evil Lago, kills his faithful & loving wife. Hamlet one of Shakespeare's most well-known and oft-quoted plays; "To be or not to be, that is the question." 生存还是毁灭,这是一个问题 may be the most often produced work in almost every western country; has been translated into every major living language.
III. Science and Technology during the Renaissance
Geographical Discoveries Astronomy Anatomy Political Science and Historiography (编史工作) Geographical Discoveries It is a golden age of geographical discoveries. By the year 1600, the surface of the known earth doubled. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) 哥伦布 Navigator and discoverer of the New World Made four voyages with the help of his Spain patrons. On his 4th voyage, he found Central America.
Bartholomeu Dias (1466-1500) 迪亚斯 the Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope He is the first European known to do so since ancient times. Vasco da Gama 达伽马 伽马 A Portuguese navigator He discovered the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope. He is the first person to sail directly from Europe to India. Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)哥白尼 哥白尼 a Polish(波兰) astronomer, mathematician and economist (波兰) Considered as father of modern astronomy. He developed the heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system.(日心说) 日心说) 日心说 His theory affected many aspects of human life, opening the door for young astronomers, scientists and scholars to take a skeptical 怀疑论的,无神论的 attitude toward established dogma. (教理,教条) Anatomy Andreas Vesalius 维萨里 (1514-1564) a Flemish( Belgium) anatomist the founder of modern medicine (anatomy) author of the first complete textbook on human anatomy, On the Workings of the Human Body 《人体构造 》 Political Science and Historiography Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) 马基雅维里 ) 马基雅维 an Italian philosopher/writer Was called "Father of political science" in the West. Major works are Prince 君主论 (1513 年)and Discourses He criticized the Church on the one hand and stated his ideas of liberty and democracy on the other.
IV. Impact of the Renaissance
The Renaissance created a culture which freed man to discover and enjoy the world in a way not possible under the medieval Church's dispensation. In this release lay the way of development of the modern world. "It was the greatest progressive revolution that mankind had so far experienced, a time which called for giants and produced giants in power of thought, passion and character, in universality and learning." --Friedrich Engels