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?大学英语四级写作
文章及段落的结构
英语四级写作一般要求三段: ? 引言段 ? ↓ ? 正文段 ? ↓ ? 结语段 ? 从全文结构上来看,引言段应开门见山地表达出中心思想 ,即全文主题。正文段的内容应围绕全文主题进行阐述﹑评 论。正文段的段首主题句应该与全文主题一致,可采用重复 关键词,改变句型等方式是正文段与引言段自然过渡。结语 段应与引言段相呼应,或总结

﹑或提出建议﹑或提供解决问 题的方法。所以,要分清段落写作与全文写作的关系,段落 与段落之间的自然衔接﹑承传得当非常关键。
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文章三部分的比例
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大学英语四级作文写作要求学生在30分钟的时间内写出一篇 120-150左右的的短文。由于时间和字数的限制,学生一定 要有布局观念,合理组织段落。根据字数的限制,可大致讲 全文分为10个句子,并根据主次关系合理分配。例如:3-43,2-5-3,3-5-2。 英语的句子不论长短都是以 “句号”为一个单元。考虑到 四级作文的字数在120-150字左右,从句子的均衡安排考虑 ,平均下来就是10句左右,一句约12-15字。段落句子数目 主要是使全文段落保持一定的比例,并非是一种绝对的安排 ,学生可根据标题和段落提示,有所侧重。即:中间部分较 大;两头部分较小。既要避免“头重脚轻”也要避免“头轻 脚重”,至少保持一定的平衡。

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综合历年四级考试作文真题,重点介绍七类常见的写作类型。
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对比选择型 ? Ⅱ. 现象解释型 ? Ⅲ. 原因阐释型 ? Ⅳ. 问题解决型 ? Ⅴ. 应用型 ? Ⅵ. 综合叙事型 ? Ⅶ. 图表型

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Ⅰ. 对比选择型 (1) 特点及写作要求

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对比选择型议论文是大学英语四级考试写作最常见的写作题型。一般来 说,这类议论文的通常是对一个观点或事物的正反两方面或者两种不同 的观点或事物进行对比,从而引出主题,得出结论。在对两种不同的观 点或事物进行对比时,主要运用比较和对比两种写作技巧。在四级考试 中曾多次出现此类议论文。 (2) 写作流程 第一段:简单介绍某一现象或事物。
第二段:分析某一观点或事物的正反两面,或比较两种不同的观点或事 物。 第三段:得出结论,或提出自己的看法。 或者 第一段:简单提及某一现象或事物,并分析该现象或事物的好处。 第二段:分析该现象或事物的利弊。 第三段:得出结论,或提出自己的看法。

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(3) 真题分析 ? 2006年1月大学英语四级考试真题 ? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists? You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:
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1. 名校校园正成为旅游新热点 ? 2. 校园是否对游客开放,人们看法不同 ? 3. 我认为….
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【范文】Should the University Campus Be Open to Tourists? (1)Nowadays, many well-known university campuses in China have become popular tourist attractions. During holidays, large numbers of tourists can be seen on university campuses, particularly, Peking University and TsingHua University. (2)Should the university campus be open to tourists? People’s opinions vary from one to another. (3)Some maintain that opening university campuses to tourists can not only increase university’s financial income but also provide young students a good opportunity to know the university so that they can be encouraged to study harder to realize their dreams. (3)While others argue that opening university campuses to tourists may ruin both their natural and academic environment. (4)As far as I am concerned, university campuses should not be open for profit as tourist attractions, because it is a place for study and research, not for tourism. Its purity and beauty will be destroyed if it becomes a profitable organization. (4)However, I think university is a property for the whole society so that it can be open to individual visitors so long as the visit does not disturb its order.

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(4) 参考模板【模板一】 When it comes to the issue of , different people have different opinions. (进一步介绍这种现象或观点). Some people think that . They hold this opinion because (they think) . Others, however, take a negative / positive attitude to . (Others, nevertheless, are more pessimistic / optimistic about it). From their point of view, . Besides, . In my opinion/Personally /From my point view /If asked my attitude, I am more in favor of . I stand in / hold this attitude /opinion / view because . It’s true that , but it doesn’t mean that . Therefore / In a word/ In short, . Instead, we should .
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(4) 参考模板【模板二】

Nowadays, wherever you go, you will hear people talk about . Whether you like it or not, it had become a part of our life. Generally, it is believed that there are several advantages with . Firstly, . What’s more . But every coin has two sides, and is no exception. There are also some disadvantages with . To begin with . Beside, . And most important of all, . But all in all, . Therefore, we should .

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Ⅱ. 现象解释型

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(1) 特点及写作要求 这种类型的作文通常先指明一种现象或提出一种观点,然后对这一现象 或观点进行解释,最后得出结论或发表个人见解。
(2) 写作流程 第一段:简要描述某一现象或某一观点。 第二段:具体阐释现象或观点的正确性或危害性等。 第三段:表明自己的态度或看法。 或者 第一段:简单描述某一现象或观点。 第二段:具体阐述引起这种现象的或持有这种观点考虑的主要因素。 第三段:对现象或者观点进行评价。

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(3) 真题分析 ? 2006年6月大学英语四级考试真题 ? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic of students selecting their lecturers. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese: ? 1. 有些大学允许学生自主选择某些课程的任课老师 ? 2. 学生选择老师时所考虑的主要因素 ? 3. 学生自选任课教师的益处和可能产生的问题
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【范文】On Students Selecting Lecturers ? (1)At present, in some colleges and universities, students are allowed to select lectures on their own. (2)It may someday become the main trend when people give more priority to academic freedom. ? (3)Students would take three major elements into consideration when making selections. (4)First of all, they will take lecturers’ teaching styles into account. Teaching styles to students’ taste would help them learn more efficiently. (4)Moreover, most students tend to choose lecturers with more experience, because such teachers tend to know more about how to stimulate and inspire students and will help them master their subjects with more ease. (4)Last, students also put emphasis on the lecturers’ academic background. From their perspective, teachers with higher academic degrees may provide more enlightening suggestions.
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【范文】On Students Selecting Lecturers (5) Everything has both positive and negative aspects, and students’ selecting lectures is of no exception. (6)It encourages students to be actively involved in the teaching process, and at the meantime, spurs teachers to improve their teaching quality. (6)However, it is possible that some students would choose lectures blindly without due guidance. And it is not uncommon that some teachers employ some abnormal devices to attract more students, such as promising higher marks or more “freedom” of attendance.

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(4) 参考模板【模板一】

In recent years, (描写现状或趋势). This has caused a lot of problems. First, (结果1). For example, (细 节,说明结果1). Second, (结果2). (细 节,说明结果2). Finally, (结果3). (细节, 说明结果3). Since is such a serious problem, we should take effective measures to . First, we should (措施1). Besides, (措施2). And finally, (措施3).

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(4) 参考模板【模板二】

At present/ In recent years/ Nowadays, (描写现状 或趋势). It may someday become the main trend when ( 进一步描述这一现象或观点). Three major elements/factors would be taken into consideration when (doing sth.). First of all, ( 主要因素1). Moreover, (主要因素2). Last, ( 主要因素3). From their perspective, . Everything has both positive and negative aspects, and ( 这种现象或观点) is of no exception. (这种现象或 观点的正确性). However, (这种观点或现象的危害性).

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III. 原因解释型
(1) 特点及写作要求 原因解释型作文的重点在于探讨产生某一社会现象或问题的原因。近十 年来,原因阐释型议论文在四级考试中出现的并不多。 (2) 写作流程 第一段:对某一社会现象进行描述。 第二段:阐释产生这一社会现象的原因。 第三段:发表个人看法,或提出解决思路。 (3) 真题分析 2002年12月大学英语四级考试真题 Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic It Pays to Be Honest. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese. 1. 当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象 2. 诚实利人利己,做人应该诚实

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【范文】It Pays to Be Honest

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(1) What is honesty? Honesty means speaking the truth and being fair and upright in act. (2)Regarded as a virtue, it is admired in every country and every culture. (2)The one who lies and cheats is dishonest. Dishonesty is generally looked upon as an evil, and is despised and condemned by everyone. ? (3) From the mass media and also with our own eyes, we know that dishonest behavior exists in our society. For example, students copy one another’s homework or download illicit paper from Internet to cheat their teachers; businessmen sell fake products to cheat their customers; and even worse there are medical persons who produce fake medicine harming the patients.
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【范文】It Pays to Be Honest (4) However, those people may succeed for a time, but sooner or later, they will bring them nothing but troubles. (5)As an English proverb goes, “Honesty is the best policy.” (5) For one thing, if you want to be trusted and respected by your friends, you must be honest. A liar is always looked down upon and avoided by the people around him. (5)For another, if you want to succeed in your work, the first qualification you should have is honesty. (6)Therefore, whatever your aim is, you must work honestly to attain it.

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(4) 参考模板【模板一】 Nowadays, we often hear that (提出现象). This phenomenon is not accidental, and there is social and individual background. Why ? For one thing, (原因1). For another, (原因2). For instance, (举 例说明). From that, we . As far as I am concerned, I agree that . I think that (作者本人的观点). .
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第三段或为: We should take measures to . First, (措施1). Second, (措施2). Finally, (措施3).

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(4) 参考模板【模板二】

As is known to all, _________. People seem to get Accustomed to _________. In fact, _____________. The reason lies in several aspects. Firstly, ______. Secondly, ___________. Thirdly, _______________. Finally,________. As a matter of fact, _________. On the one hand, ___________. On the other hand, ______________. Therefore,____________.

IV. 问题解决型 ? (1) 特点及写作要求
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问题解决型的作文通常先说明情况,提出问题,随后提出解决方法或处 理方式,最后给予评价。 (2) 写作流程 第一段:描述现状、形势、提出问题。 第二段:提出解决问题的方法。 第三段:简要评价提及的方法,或选择其中一、两种自己认为合适的方 法并说明理由。 (3) 真题分析---2000年12月大学英语四级考试真题 Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic How to Succeed in a Job Interview? You should write at least 120 words and you should base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below: 1. 面试在求职过程中的作用 2. 取得面试成功的因素:仪表、举止谈吐、能力、专业知识、自信、实 事求是……

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【范文】How to Succeed in a Job Interview (1)Nowadays, great importance has been attached to interviews by both the employer and the job-hunter. (2)On the one hand, the interviewer can take advantage of the occasion to learn about the candidates, such as their work experience, education and their personalities, so as to pick out the right person. (2)On the other hand, the interviewee can make use of the opportunity to know the job, including salary, working conditions and opportunities for future development. (3)Therefore, the job interview is very important to a job-hunter. But how can we succeed in it? (4)Firstly, dress properly and neatly since the first impression is one of the keys to success. (4)Secondly, behave politely and confidently. Don’t be too proud, and neither too shy. Show your expertise and abilities to the employer with respect and confidence. (4)Last but not the least, the interviewee ought to be honest about his or her personal as well as academic background, for honesty is the best policy.

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【范文】 How to Succeed in a Job Interview (5)To sum up, the job interview is really important, but there is no need to be nervous. (5)As long as you have the ability for the job and put the above principles into practice, you will most probably succeed in it.

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(4) 参考模板【模板一】

Nowadays, great importance has been attached to (目前 的现象及存在的问题). Many ways can contribute to (要解决的问题), but the following ones may be effective. First of all, (方法1). Besides, (方 法2. Finally, (方法3). In conclusion/ To sum up, the ways I have mentioned above should never be separated from each other. (希 望).

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(4) 参考模板【模板二】

In recent days, we have to face one problem A(存在的问题), which is becoming more and more serious. First, (说明A问题的 现状).Second, (进一步说明现状) ? Confronted with A (存在的问题), we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing,(解决 方法一). For another(解决方法二). Finally, (解决方法三). ? Personally, I believe that (我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because (解决问题带 来的好处).
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(4) 参考模板【模板三】 There has been a discussion recently about(提出现存 的问题). It is obvious that (解决问题很必要的理由一). Additionally, (解决问题很必要的理由二 ) . So it is high time (承上启下,说明解决问题的必要性 ). ? First of all, (解决办法一 ). The reason is (解决办法一 的理由). Secondly, (解决办法二). That is to say, (阐明 解决办法二的理由). Thirdly, (解决办法三). ? In fact, more than three ways can be adopted. As for me,(小结解决问题的根本途径). All in all, (总结全文).
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(4) 参考模板【模板四】
With the development/improvement of (铺垫), (某一 问题). It is necessary that (关注解决现象引出的问题很 必要). On the one hand, (理由一). On the other hand, ( 理由二). ? Therefore, how to (承上启下句,要解决的问题) is worth paying attention to. Firstly, (办法一). Secondly, ( 办法二). For example, (举例解释解决办法二). Thirdly, (办法三). In other words, (阐明解决办法三). ? In fact, the ways to (解决问题的办法多种多样) are countless. It’s time that (强调解决问题时不可待).
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Ⅴ.应用型
应用文就是在现实生活中有实际应用功能的文体,比如书信、 通知、演讲稿、见证书、导游词等。应用文是大学英语四级 考试中常见的考查内容,与议论文、记叙文和说明文相比, 应用型作文与生活、社会的联系更加紧密,在格式、行文习 惯等方面更讲究规矩。因此,无论写哪些应用型作文,都必 须按其各自规范化的、约定俗成的格式来写,不能随意改变 格式。

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(1) 英文书信的特点及写作要求

书信的写作格式比较固定,通常不是考试的重点,重点仍然 是英语解释或说明一件事情的能力。英文书信主要分为私人 信函(Personal letter)和公务信函(business letter)。私人信 函是写给亲朋好友,与他们互通消息、交流感情的渠道。公 务信函包括商务信函、社交信函、事务信函甚至私人事务信 函,如申请书、推荐信、祝贺信、邀请信、投诉信、感谢信、 求职信、道歉信等。 ? 开头部分:点名写信的意图; ? 主体部分:展开说明问题、介绍情况或描写事件; ? 结尾部分:提出愿望或表达感谢、祝福。
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(2) 真题分析
2004年1月大学英语四级考试真题 Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter in reply to a friend’s inquiry about applying for admission to your college or university. You should write at least 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below: 1. 建议报考的专业及理由 2. 报考该专业的基本条件 3. 应当如何备考 A Letter of Reply to a Friend

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December 27th, 2003
Dear × × ×,

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A Letter of Reply to a Friend December 27th, 2003

Dear × × ×, ? I was glad to receive your letter two days ago. (1)In answer to your question about how to apply for admission to our university, (1) I will give you the following advices. I suggest you to apply for the English major. (2)For one thing, the English major of our university is famous for its modern teaching equipments and prestigious professors. (2)For another, generally graduates majored in English in our university get desirable employment on job markets. ? (3)There are some requirements for this major. (3)For example, you have to have a good foundation in English. (3)Moreover, you have to pay a higher tuition than students of other majors.

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(4) Besides, you have to make some preparation for the test. (4)On the one hand, you should pay attention to enlarging your vocabulary and practicing the grammar. (4) On the other hand, you should practice the listening and oral English persistently. (4) Last but not least, to reach the goal, lots of exercises are necessary. Yours sincerely, Liang Chen

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综合叙事型

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(1) 特点及写作要求 综合叙事型文章是以记人叙事为主要内容、以叙述为主要表达方式的 文章。写这类作文要综合记叙、描写和议论等写作方法,既要交代时间、 地点、人物、事情的发生、发展和变化,也要分析事情发生的原因或写 出个人感受。 (2) 写作流程 第一段:引出主题,交待清楚事情发生的背景,如时间、地点及人物等。 第二段:描述事情发生的起因、经过和结果。 第三段:分析事件发生的原因或者写出个人的感受。

(3) 真题分析 ? 2003年6月大学英语四级考试真题 ? Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below: ? 假设你在某日某时某地目击一起车祸,就此写一份见证书。 见证书包括以下几点: ? 1. 车祸发生的时间及地点 ? 2. 你所见到的车祸情况 ? 3. 你对车祸原因的分析
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【范文】 An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident
(1)On May 5th, 2003, I witnessed and an accident on Wuyi Road on my way to the Pedestrian Street. (2)It was around one o’clock in the afternoon that I was riding my bicycle. (2)Hardly had I got to a major crossroad when the green traffic light flashed, so I stopped. The traffic light soon turned red, but a middle-aged man, also riding a bicycle, passed me on my right and decided to take a risk. To my surprise, he was followed by three or four people. It was most unlucky for the man who first rushed out and was hit by a taxi (2)running at full speed. With a harsh sound of the emergency brake, the car stopped but the man fell down, (2)mourning and bleeding. The red light was still on at that moment. (3) In my opinion, the accident was due to the bicycle-rider’s breaking the traffic regulation. The taxi driver is also to be blamed—if he had slowed down at the crossroad, the consequence would not have been so serious. How I wish people could be more careful, in that case, such tragedies could become fewer and fewer.

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(4) 参考模板 It is (时间和地点)when (事件) took place. (简单叙述一两句). I saw sight. (描写情景, 注意描写的顺序). To begin with,________________ And then, . Eventually, . As a consequence, (结束语). In my opinion, three factors contribute to . First, ( 原因1).Second, (原因2). Last , (原 因3). All these led to (结束语) ? 第三段或为以下模式: I do believe (个人感受).
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图表型

(1) 特点及写作要求 ? 图表型作文要求根据图表上的数据,找出所反映的某个趋势 或某一个问题、现象,并对该问题、趋势所产生的原因进行 分析。常见的图表型作文有表格(table)、曲线图(line chart)、条形图(bar graph)、饼形图(pie chart)和图 片(picture)。写图表型作文应该做好以下几点: 1.看懂并理解图表的含义,这是写好图表型作文的前提; 2.选择能充分说明图表主题的典型数据; 3.根据分析结果和文章的题目写出各段的主题句并展开论述; 4.合理的结构安排是:第一段简明扼要,尽量少引数据,重在 点明趋势;二、三段的分析是重点,应展开。
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(2) 写作流程 ? 第一段:总体说明图表所反映的趋势、问题、现象,并选用 典型数据进行说明; ? 第二段:分析该问题或该现象的原因或后果; ? 第三段:提出解决问题的办法、建议或进行展望。 ? (3) 真题分析 ? 2002年6月大学英语四级考试真题 ? Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Student Use of Computers. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the chart and the outline given below:
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1.下图所示为1990,1995,2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况,请描述其变化 2.说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明) 3.你认为大学生在使用计算机中有什么困难和问题。

hours/week
20 15 10 5 0 4 2 1990 1995

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【范文】 Student Use of Computers ? (1)This chart shows the increase of students use of computers from the year 1990 to 2000. (1)As we can see, in 1990, the average number of hours a student spends on the computer per week is 2. In 1995, however, the number doubles and in 2000, it soars to 20 hours per week. ? (2)This significant growth can be attributed to (归因于) several factors. (2)Firstly, the value of computers has been gradually recognized. At first, a computer was considered nothing but an expensive typewriter. Later people found it could process pictures, sound as well as words. (2)Particularly, the latest development of Internet has made computers essential to students who hope to obtain information more quickly. (2)Moreover, since 1990, due to technological advances, computer prices have dropped significantly, which has made computer access more affordable to college students.
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【范文】 Student Use of Computers (3)It is true that students have benefits a lot from the use of computers. (4)However, on the other hand, problems have also arisen. Some students indulge themselves in computer games so that they ignore their studies. There are also students who even go astray (歧途,迷途) because of the exposure to the pornography (色情资料) on the Internet. (4)Therefore, as every coin has two sides, the computer is a blessing (令人高兴的事物,带来幸福的 事物) as long as it is used in a proper way.

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(4) 参考模板 Recently there has been a tremendous growth in (指 出第一次数据变化). What amazes us most is (第二 次数据变化). It is true that (点明变化趋势). There are many reasons explaining . The main reason is . What’s more, . Thirdly , . As a result, . Considering all this, I believe (指出大学生在 使用计算机中有困难和问题). For one thing, (困难 一). For another, (困难二). In conclusion, (提 出建议).
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应避免的问题 1. 词性不分 2. 主谓、人称、时态不一致 3. 指代不清 4. 成分残缺 5. 断句错误 6. 垂悬结构 7. 正式语体与非正式语体混用

准则: 四级考试作文主要看内容、结构、语言三个方面。 内容不跑题即可,注意:1.不要妄图以情动人;2.不要妄图在构思上出奇制胜。 结构上牢记总分总:先写主题句(Topic Sentence),再写分论点,最后写总结句 (Conclusion)。 语言最重要,往往使评分产生重大差异,语言要模仿和包装。


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