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Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1998, 37, 569-575

569

Mass Transfer Coefficients and Correlation for CO2 Absorption into 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) Using Structured Packing
Adisorn Aroonwilas and Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul*
Process Systems Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A2

The volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient (KGav) for CO2 absorption into aqueous solutions of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) was investigated with an absorption column packed with laboratory structured packings. The KGav value was evaluated over ranges of main operating variables; that is, up to 10 kPa partial pressure of CO2, 46.2-96.8 kmol/(m2 h) gas molar flux, 6.1-14.6 m3/(m2 h) liquid loading, and 1.1-3.0 kmol/m3 liquid concentration. To allow the mass transfer data to be readily utilized, an empirical KGav correlation for this system was developed. The values of mass transfer coefficient for the CO2-AMP system using a random and the tested structured packings are also compared. For a given system and operating conditions, the structured packing provides, in general, more than eightfold higher overall KGav values compared with those of commercial random packings.
1. Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered an important commercial gas consumed by industry. The CO2 gas can be produced by the CO2 absorption process, which consists of absorbing CO2 from gas phase into a liquid solvent in an absorber and liberating the absorbed CO2 from the solvent at the regeneration unit. Successive operations of the CO2 absorption process would be achieved by using effective absorption solvents. The most commonly used absorption solvents are alkanolamines, which were discovered in the late 1920s by Robert Roger Bottoms (Maddox, 1982; Astarita et al., 1983). These alkanolamines can be classified into three chemical categories: primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. According to DuPart et al. (1993), the most popular solvent is monoethanolamine (MEA), which belongs to the primary chemical class. This is primarily due to its high reactivity with CO2. Recently, a new class of acid gas-treating solvents called sterically hindered amines has been introduced by Exxon Research and Engineering Company (Kohl and Riesenfeld, 1985). Of these hindered amines, 2-amino-2-methyl-1propanol (AMP) is the most promising solvent because it has the same hindered form as the primary amine MEA. On the basis of stoichiometry, AMP can react with CO2 at a theoretical ratio of 1 mol CO2/mol of amine (Kritpiphat and Tontiwachwuthikul, 1996). This ratio is a superior characteristic of the hindered amine compared with the conventional MEA whose theoretical reaction ratio is only 0.5 mol CO2/mol amine. In addition to its outstanding absorption capacity, AMP induces less corrosion, which is considered the major operational problem in the conventional CO2 absorption plants (Veawab, Tontiwachwuthikul, and Bhole, 1996). However, use of the hindered amine AMP is limited by its reactivity with CO2. Compared with conventional MEA, AMP has a relatively low rate of CO2 absorption (Alper, 1990).
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Telephone: (306) 585-4726. Fax: (306) 585-4855. E-mail: ptonti@meena.cc.uregina.ca.

The use of high-efficiency column internals is an alternate approach to using highly reactive solvents that would allow successive absorption operations in small column dimensions. At present, there are many different types of gas-liquid contactors developed for gas treating purposes, and the majority of those used are either packed or tray towers. Considering packed towers, column internals may be classified into random (dumped) and structured (ordered) packings. In comparison with the random type, the structured packings provide a superior performance in term of mass transfer characteristics. Documentation of the excellent performance of structured packings used in absorption and distillation applications has been published (Zanetti et al., 1985; Sulzer, 1987; Kean et al., 1991; Hausch et al., 1992), basically suggesting that the use of structured packing would improve the mass transfer performance in a CO2-AMP absorption system. The primary objective of this study was to obtain the mass transfer performance of the CO2 absorption process using structured packing and aqueous solutions of AMP as the column internal and absorption solvents, respectively. The performance of the process is presented in terms of the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient (KGav). An empirical KGav correlation for this system was also developed to allow the mass transfer data to be readily utilized. 2. Determination of Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient (KGav) The mass flux of component A (NA) transferring from a gas stream to a liquid bulk at a steady state can be expressed in terms of gas-side mass transfer coefficient kG, total system pressure P, and gas phase driving force (Treybal, 1980):

NA ) kGP(yA - yA,i)

(1)

where yA and yA,i represent mole fraction of component A in the gas bulk and that on the gas-side of the gasliquid interface, respectively. In fact, the mass transfer driving force (yA - yA,i) takes place over extremely small

S0888-5885(97)00482-X CCC: $15.00 ? 1998 American Chemical Society Published on Web 02/02/1998

570 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998

distances; thus, it is in practice difficult to determine the concentration of component A at the gas-liquid interface. Only concentrations in the main body of the fluids can be determined. Therefore, it is more practical to express the mass flux in terms of the overall mass transfer coefficient (KG) and equilibrium mole fraction of component A in gas phase (yA*) as follows:

NA ) KGP (yA - yA*)

(2)

The relationships between the overall mass transfer coefficient and the individual-phase coefficients can be given as follows:

1/KG ) (1/kG) + (H/kL)

(3)

where H and kL are Henry’s law coefficient and liquidside mass transfer coefficient, respectively. In case of chemical absorption, such as CO2 absorption into an amine solution, the overall coefficient can be expressed as a function of the term called enhancement factor I:

1/KG ) (1/kG) + (H/Ik° L)

(4)

where k° L denotes the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient without chemical reactions. In a gas-absorption apparatus such as packed column, the effective gasliquid interfacial area (av) is considered another important parameter in mass transfer process in addition to the mass transfer coefficients. Therefore, it is more practical to present rates of absorption in terms of transfer coefficients based on a unit volume of the absorption column rather than on an interfacial area unit as follows:

Figure 1. Experimental apparatus for CO2 absorption.

(dYA/dZ) at a particular yA, is then used for evaluating the KGav value according to eq 8. 3. Experimental Section Experimental Apparatus. Figure 1 shows the experimental equipment used in the study. The absorption experiments were performed in a 1.77-m high and 0.019-m i.d. structured packed column. The column shell was made of acrylic plastic. The packing, which is EX type laboratory structured packing provided by Sulzer Brothers Limited, Winterthur, Switzerland, was made of 316 stainless steel. The total height of the packing section was ?1.10 m. To achieve maximum performance, the structured packing was placed with each layer rotated by 90° with respect to the previous one. Because the gas concentration profile along the absorption column is required, as mentioned earlier, the absorption column was designed in such a way that the gas phase could be sampled through sampling points at different column levels. Auxiliary equipment, such as liquid feed and storage tanks, digital gas flowmeters, and a liquid rotameter, were used in this work. The 20-dm3 liquid feed and storage tanks, made of high-density polyethylene, were purchased from Canadawide Scientific Ltd. Two calibrated mass flowmeters (Aalborg Instruments & Controls Inc.; model GFM 17) were used to measure the air and CO2 flow rates. The maximum measurable flow rates were 15.00 and 2.00 (std) dm3/min for air and CO2, respectively. The rotameter used for measuring liquid flow rates was made from stainless steel to reduce the corrosion problem. The maximum measurable flow rate of the rotameter was 132 cm3/min. Experimental Procedure. The CO2 absorption experiments commenced by preparing the AMP solutions at the desired concentration. Air from a major supply line and CO2 from a cylinder were introduced through the mass flowmeters at the desired rates, mixed, and flowed in the same gas line into the bottom

1/KGav ) (1/kGav) + (H/Ik° Lav)

(5)

Apparently, the overall coefficient KGav can be directly determined from eq 5. However, this approach is not extensively used because experimental determinations of the individual mass transfer coefficients involve the use of extremely difficult techniques. A more practical approach that can be used for the overall coefficient determination is performing absorption experiments where the concentration profile of absorbed component in gas phase must be measured along the test column. Considering an element of column with height Z, the mass balance can be given as follows:

NAav dZ ) GI d[yA/(1 - yA)] KGavP(yA - yA*) dZ ) GI dYA

(6) (7)

where GI represents inert gas molar flux and YA is the mole ratio. From eq 7, the overall mass transfer coefficient per unit volume of packing (KGav) can be defined as follows:

KGav ) {GI/[P(yA - yA*)]} {dYA/dZ}

(8)

In this study, CO2 absorption was conducted in a tested column packed with structured packing. The CO2 concentration in the gas phase along the column was measured, interpreted in term of mole ratio (YA) and subsequently plotted as functions of column height (Z); this plot is called the CO2 concentration profile. The slope of the profile, expressing concentration gradient

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998 571
Table 1. Experimental Results for CO2-AMP System CO2 concentration in gas phase (%) run (#) TL-201 TL-202 TL-203 TL-204 TL-205 TL-206 TL-207 TM-201 TM-202 TM-203 TM-204 TM-205 TM-206 TM-207 TH-201 TH-202 TH-203 TH-204 TH-205 TH-206 TH-207 TH-208 TH-209 TH-210 TH-211 gas molar flux (kmol/(m2 h)) 46.2 46.2 46.2 46.2 46.2 48.7 56.5 71.3 71.3 71.3 71.3 71.3 71.3 71.3 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 96.8 liquid loading (m3/(m2 h)) 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 14.6 9.7 9.7 6.1 7.4 10.0 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.7 12.2 14.6 5.9 7.3 9.7 12.1 AMP conc. (kmol/m3) 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 2.02 3.00 1.14 2.02 2.02 2.02 2.95 2.95 2.98 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.02 2.02 2.02 2.02 column top 7.35 5.70 4.50 2.20 0.55 6.65 8.90 6.00 7.40 7.00 5.60 4.45 7.50 9.45 8.50 6.50 4.50 2.25 8.10 7.00 6.10 10.00 9.60 8.90 8.60 column bottom 15.15 13.30 11.85 9.45 4.70 13.95 13.70 11.50 13.90 13.90 13.90 15.00 13.70 13.70 12.10 10.10 7.80 5.70 14.00 14.00 14.00 12.10 12.10 12.10 12.10 CO2 loading in liquid phase (mol/mol) column top 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.037 0.368 0.439 0.000 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.008 0.272 0.405 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.368 0.368 0.368 0.368 column bottom 0.449 0.423 0.402 0.364 0.227 0.524 0.557 0.437 0.475 0.418 0.373 0.316 0.461 0.541 0.395 0.383 0.331 0.331 0.421 0.397 0.367 0.578 0.565 0.559 0.535 mass balance (%) +1.98 +2.16 +3.00 -1.35 +3.91 +4.70 +0.46 +2.67 -4.39 -4.75 -4.29 -4.49 -1.98 +1.32 +0.94 +2.31 +1.10 +1.10 +3.58 -4.75 +1.90 -1.90 -4.43 -2.80 -3.25

of the column. At this point, the prepared solution from the feed tank was pumped to the top of the column at the desired flow rate. This procedure brought both gas and liquid phases into contact counter-currently, and CO2 in the gas phase was then absorbed. The exit gas, containing a low CO2 content, finally left the column at the top, and the CO2-rich solution, leaving from bottom of the column, was collected in the storage tank. Each absorption experiment was operated until steadystate conditions were reached, which normally takes ?20-30 min when the gas-phase CO2 concentration profile along the column was measured and recorded. This CO2 concentration was determined by an infrared (IR) gas analyzer (model 301D, Nova Analytical Systems Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada), that was installed as close as possible to the sampling point. During the experiments, the gas compositions at different levels along the absorption column were sampled by switching the sampling point from one port to another, and readings were taken after a steady state for each level was reached. To verify the CO2 absorption rates calculated from the gas phase CO2 concentration profile, the CO2-rich solution at the column bottom was simultaneously sampled and then used for analyzing the amount of absorbed CO2 in the liquid phase. The CO2 content in the liquid sample was then determined by the standard method given by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This method involved acidifying a precisely measured quantity of the sample by adding excess HCl solution. The CO2 gas released was collected in a precision gas burette. The amount of released CO2 was later used to calculate the CO2 loading of the amine solution. 4. Results and Discussion Twenty-five runs of the absorption experiments were conducted in this study. The experimental results are given in Table 1, which includes mass balance percent-

Figure 2. Effect of CO2 partial pressure on overall mass transfer coefficient, KGav (AMP concentration ) 1.1 kmol/m3, CO2 loading ) 0.15, and liquid loading ) 9.73 m3/(m2 h)).

ages that present differences between the amount of CO2 removed from gas phase and that absorbed in liquid phase. These results were plotted as profiles of CO2 concentration (which was converted to a term of mole ratio, YA) and liquid composition along the packed column and were subsequently interpreted in term of the overall mass transfer coefficient (KGav) according to eq 8. These KGav values are reported as functions of the main operating variables, namely CO2 partial pressure, gas molar flux, liquid loading, and liquid composition. The KGav values for structured packing and random packing are also compared. Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient KGav and Operating Variables. The effect of CO2 partial pressure on the overall KGav value for CO2 absorption using AMP solution is graphically illustrated in Figure 2. The value tends to move upwards when the partial pressure of CO2 decreases from 10.0 to 3.0 kPa. However, the effect is not quite significant, especially within the range 6.0-10.0 kPa.

572 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998

Figure 3. Effect of gas molar flux on overall mass transfer coefficient, KGav (AMP concentration ) 1.1 kmol/m3, CO2 loading ) 0.15, CO2 partial pressure ) 8.0 kPa, and liquid loading ) 9.73 m3/(m2 h)).

Figure 5. Effect of CO2 loading on overall mass transfer coefficient, KGav (AMP concentration ) 2.0 kmol/m3).

Figure 4. Effect of liquid loading on overall mass transfer coefficient, KGav (AMP concentration ) 2.0 kmol/m3).

Figure 6. Effect of AMP concentration on overall mass transfer coefficient, KGav (liquid loading ) 9.73 m3/(m2 h)).

In addition to the influence of CO2 partial pressure, Figure 2 also shows that variation in gas molar flux does not affect the mass transfer coefficient. This result is presented in Figure 3, where the gas molar flux varies from 46.2 to 96.8 kmol/(m2 h). This lack of effect of gas molar flux indicates that the mass transfer process in this case is primarily controlled by the resistance residing in the liquid phase; therefore, further experiments need not consider the effect of changes in the rate of gas flow. Rate of liquid irrigation through the packing is another factor that affects the value of KGav for the CO2-AMP system. Figure 4 shows that the coefficient increases proportionally with liquid loading varying from 6.1 to 14.6 m3/(m2 h). The reasons for this increase are that the higher liquid loading leads to (1) the higher k° L coefficient, which is directly proportional to the KG coefficient in case of liquid-phase controlled mass transfer, and (2) the more AMP molecules reacting with CO2 per unit time. Although change in liquid loading can affect the degree of effective area (av) for CO2 reaction in the case of random packing (Perry et al., 1984), it seems to have no effect on the effective area in the case of gauze structured packing in this study (Bravo et al., 1985). Therefore, the increasing KGav value in this case is not caused by increased effective area of the packing surface.

Liquid composition also has an important effect on the mass transfer coefficient. This effect can be divided into (1) the effect of CO2 loading in the liquid phase, and (2) the effect of amine (AMP) concentration. The effect of CO2 loading is graphically shown in Figure 5, which shows that the KGav value is strongly dependent on the CO2 loading. The coefficient is decreased by >80% as the loading increases from 0.15 to beyond 0.50 mol CO2/mol amine. The effect is simply caused by the reduction of free AMP molecules, which is available for CO2 reaction. The effect of AMP concentration varying from 1.1 to 3.0 kmol/m3 is shown in Figure 6. Increasing AMP concentration leads to higher KGav value. This effect is simply due to an increase in the enhancement factor, which is functionally related to the absorbent concentration. Comparison with Random Packings. The values of mass transfer coefficient and operating conditions for the CO2-AMP system using a random and the tested structured packings are compared in Table 2. There is no significant difference between the test conditions for both cases except the CO2 partial pressure. However, reducing in the partial pressure from 9.9 kPa (structured packing) to the value for the random packing (7.8 kPa) induced a slightly higher KGav value, which represents the higher performance of the tested structured packing. The data in Table 2 indicate that the

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998 573
Table 2. Comparison between Random and Structured Packings for CO2-AMP System condition system packing type amine concentration, kmol/m3 CO2 loading, mol CO2/mol AMP liquid loading, m3/(m2 h) CO2 partial pressure, kPa overall KGav value, kmol/(m3 h kPa) Tontiwachwuthikul et al., 1989 CO2-AMP 1/2 in. ceramic Berl Saddles 2 0.15 8.76 7.8 0.11 this study CO2-AMP EX type structured packing 2 0.15 9.73 9.9 0.89

Table 3. Comparison between CO2-MEA and CO2-AMP System condition system packing type amine concentration, kmol/m3 CO2 loading, mol CO2/mol amine liquid loading, m3/(m2 h) CO2 partial pressure, kPa overall KGav value, kmol/(m3 h kPa)
a

Strigle, R. F., Jr., 1987 CO2-MEA 3” metal Pall Rings 3 0.15 9.78 7.0 0.29a

this study CO2-AMP EX type structured packing 3 0.15 9.73 9.6 1.00

Evaluated from the information summarized by Strigle (1987).

tested structured packing gives, approximately, a ninefold higher mass transfer coefficient than does the random packing. This difference indicates that use of structured packing can considerably improve the efficiency of CO2 absorption into hindered amine AMP solution. The KGav value from this study was also compared with that for a random packing for CO2 absorption with a conventional amine MEA, as shown in Table 3. The tested structured packing shows almost fourfold superior performance compared with the random packing in CO2-MEA system. In fact, the structured packing used in this study (Sulzer type EX) can be applied to only laboratory columns. To make the comparison more realistic, the performance of industrial-scale structured packing (Sulzer type BX or CY) has to be estimated and subsequently compared. According to Sulzer packing information (Sulzer-Chemtech’s Separation Columns for Distillation and Absorption, 1993), the laboratory structured packing (this study) provides mass transfer performance, which is higher than the performance for industrial packing by about two- to fourfold. This difference means that the KGav value for industrial structured packing ranges from ?0.25 to 0.50 kmol/(m3 h kPa), which is still able to compete with the KGav value from the conventional process (CO2-MEA-random packing). This result confirms that it is possible to use structured packing to design an effective CO2-AMP system, despite its inherently low absorption rate. 5. Mass Transfer Correlation for CO2-AMP Absorption Using Structured Packing The overall mass transfer coefficient KGav for CO2AMP system was found to be a function of the main operating variables, that is, it increases with liquid loading and slightly decreases with partial pressure of CO2 over the AMP solution. Increasing the amount of active AMP molecules, by either reducing CO2 loading of the solution or increasing total amine concentration, can also cause the KGav value to increase. These results are useful for industrial applications, especially for absorption column design. To allow the mass transfer data to be readily utilized, an empirical KGav correlation that includes the observed effects of the associated operating variables should be obtained. Conventional KGav Correlation. Compared with the CO2-AMP system, the absorption of CO2 into

conventional amine MEA solution is a mature technology, where the mass transfer data are available and in some cases represented in the form of correlations. According to Kohl and Riesenfeld (1985), a mass transfer correlation for the conventional MEA system in columns packed with random packings was proposed:

KGav ) F{L′/?L}2/3 {1 + 5.7(Req - R)Ce0.0067T-3.4PCO2} (9)
where KGav is the overall mass transfer coefficient (lbmol/(ft3 h atm)), F is the packing correction factor, L′ is the liquid mass flux (lb/(ft2 h)), ?L is the liquid viscosity (centipoises), Req is the CO2 loading of solution in equilibrium with PCO2 (mol CO2/mol amine), R is the CO2 loading of solution (mol CO2/mol amine), C is the amine concentration of the solution (kmol/m3), T is the temperature (°F), and PCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 over solution (atm) [units are quoted directly from Kohl and Riesenfeld (1985)]. The possibility of applying the conventional correlation to the CO2-AMP system was investigated by calculating the KGav values on the basis of operating conditions from this present study and subsequently comparing the results with the experimental KGav values. A plot of calculated KGav for different packing correction factors (F) versus the experimental coefficient is shown in Figure 7. The disagreement between the two sets of data indicates that the KGav correlation for CO2-MEA system is not suited to the absorption system in this study. Therefore, a new correlation was developed. Proposed Correlation. As mentioned earlier, the mass transfer process for the CO2-AMP system is primarily controlled by the resistance residing in the liquid phase. Therefore, eq 5 can be rewritten as follows:

1/KGav ≈ (H/Ik° Lav)

(10)

In this case, the overall mass transfer coefficient KGav relates to the enhancement factor I and individual mass transfer coefficient k° L as follows:

KGav ∝ Ik° Lav

(11)

According to Perry et al. (1984), the liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient k° L appears to be independent of the

574 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998

Figure 7. Comparison between KGav values calculated from the conventional correlation and those from experiments.

Figure 9. Comparison between KGav values calculated from proposed correlation and those from experiments.

KGav ) 2.119L0.5{(Req - R)C/PCO2 - 0.0193} (15)
The predicted KGav from eq 15 was plotted against the KGav from the experiments in Figure 9. A good agreement between the two data sets was found. It should be noted that eq 15 was developed on the basis of laboratory structured packing data. To apply this correlation to the industrial-scale structured packing, a scale-up factor involving packing geometry might be required. 6. Conclusions The following principal conclusions may be drawn from the present work: (1) The overall mass transfer coefficient for the CO2AMP system using structured packing is a function of main operating variables; that is, it decreases with CO2 partial pressure and CO2 loading in the liquid phase, it increases with liquid loading, and it increases with absorbent concentration. There is no significant effect of gas molar flux on the overall mass transfer coefficient. (2) The structured packing shows superior performance to random packing (1/2 in. Berl Saddles). This superiority indicates that use of structured packing can considerably improve the efficiency of CO2 absorption into hindered amine AMP solution, despite its inherently low absorption rate. (3) The outstanding performance of structured packing allows the CO2-AMP system to compete with CO2MEA absorption using random packing. Therefore, it is possible to use structured packing in designing an effective CO2-AMP system. (4) The overall mass transfer coefficient for the CO2AMP system using structured packing cannot be appropriately predicted by the correlation developed for CO2 absorption into conventional amine MEA. (5) A new empirical mass transfer correlation that includes the observed effects of main operating variables (CO2 partial pressure, liquid loading, CO2 loading, and amine concentration of the solution) was established for CO2 absorption into hindered amine AMP solution. Acknowledgment The financial support of the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of

Figure 8. Relationship between (KGav/L0.5) and ratio of free amine concentration to CO2 partial pressure, [free AMP]/PCO2.

gas flow rate and increases approximately as the 0.5 power of the liquid loading L. Furthermore, Bravo et al. (1985) suggested that the effective packing area (av) for gauze-type structured packing used in this study is equal to the total geometric packing area (ap). With these fundamentals, eq 11 can be expressed as follows:

KGav ∝ IL0.5

(12)

In case of the CO2-amine system, the enhancement factor I could be related to CO2 partial pressure and concentration of free amine that is available for CO2 reaction as follows (Astarita et al., 1983):

I ∝ {(Req - R)C}/PCO2

(13)

where {(Req - R)C} represents free amine concentration. Therefore, eq 12 could be rewritten as follows:

KGav ∝ L0.5{(Req - R)C}/PCO2

(14)

To confirm this relationship, the term KGav/L0.5 was plotted against {(Req - R)C}/PCO2 as shown in Figure 8. The data in Figure 8 can be explained by a linear relationship, as expected, which consequently leads to the following final correlation:

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 37, No. 2, 1998 575

Canada (NSERC), Arctic Container Inc., Sulzer Brothers Ltd. (Switzerland), Saskatchewan Power Corporation, Prairie Coal Ltd., Wascana Energy Inc., and Fluor Daniel Inc. is gratefully acknowledged. Literature Cited
Alper, E. Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Aqueous Solutions of 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and Carbon Dioxide. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1990, 29, 1725-1728. Aroonwilas, A. High Efficiency Structured Packing for CO2 Absorption Using 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1996. Astarita, G.; Savage, D. W.; Bisio, A. Gas Treating with Chemical Solvents; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1983. Bravo, J. L.; Rocha, J. A.; Fair, J. R. Mass Transfer in Gauze Packings. Hydrocarbon Processing 1985, 64(1), 91-95. DuPart, M. S.; Bacon, T. R.; Edwards, D. J. Part 2-Understanding Corrosion in Alkanolamine Gas Treating Plants. Hydrocarbon Processing 1993, 72(5), 89-94. Hausch, G. W.; Quotson, P. K. ; Seeger, K. D. Structured Packing at High Pressure. Hydrocarbon Processing 1992, 71(4) , 6770. Kean, J. A.; Turner, H. M.; Price, B. C. Structured Packing Proven Superior for TEG Gas Drying. Oil & Gas J. 1991, 89(38), 4146. Kritpiphat, W.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P. New Modified Kent-Eisenberg Model for Predicting Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol (AMP) Solutions. Chem. Eng. Commun. 1996 Vol. 144, pp.77-83.

Kohl, A. L.; Riesenfeld, F. C. Gas Purification, 4th ed.; Gulf Publishing: Houston, TX, 1985. Maddox, R. N. Gas Conditioning and Processing, Vol. 4, 3rd ed.; Campbell Petroleum Series: Norman, Oklahoma, 1985. Perry, R. H.; Green, D. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 6th ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, 1984. Separation Columns for Distillation and Absorption; Sulzer Brothers: Winterthur, Switzerland, 1993. Strigle, R. F., Jr. Random Packing and Packed Towers; Design and Applications; Gulf Publishing: Houston, TX, 1987. Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Meisen, A.; Lim, C. J. Separation of CO2 Using Sterically Hindered Amine Solutions. Proc. Int. Conf. on Recent Developments in Petrochemical and Polymer Technologies: Bangkok, Thailand, 1989; pp 1-38. Treybal R. E. Mass-Transfer Operations, 3rd ed.; McGraw-Hill Book Company: Singapore, 1980. Veawab A.; Tontiwachwuthikul P.; Bhole, S. D. Studies of Corrosion and Corrosion Control in CO2-2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol (AMP) Environment. Ind. & Eng. Chem. Res. 1997, 36, 264-269. Zanetti, R.; Short, H.; McQueen, S. Structured is the Byword in Tower-Packing World. Chem. Eng. 1985, March 4, 22-25.

Received for review July 10, 1997 Revised manuscript received October 10, 1997 Accepted October 17, 1997X IE970482W
X Abstract published in Advance ACS Abstracts, December 15, 1997.


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