当前位置:首页 >> 高中作文 >>

雅思大作文-范文30篇


全球化的缺点:
? 经济上,发展中国家的劳动力被剥削,资源被取用,而产品却不能够进人发达国家,国内产业受到外商和外企 的冲击; ?社会上,外国的产品流人一个国家,会改变人们的生活习惯和购买习惯;年轻人比较喜欢外同产品, 比如说食品、衣服、电子产品和娱乐方式; ? 文化上,本土文化会被削弱,本土语言会受到威胁,文化多样性会逐步损失; ? 环境上,工业化生产和交通量的加大会增加温室气体的排放;游人的增多会对自然环境构成威胁。

Topic 1: Increasing travels between countries enable people to learn different cultures or to increase tension between people from different countries?
外来人口的增加有利于文化的交流: ? 游客或者移民都具备经济利益和价值 (commercial interest and economic value); 而外同人的停留时间是和东道 国的合作密切相关的 (The length of stay depends on the cooperation of the host society.);很多当地人因此表现得非常 好客和友好,这有助于文化的交流(Many local people are very friendly and hospitable, which promote the cultural communications.); ? 对其他的文化和人民更为了解(a better understanding of other cultures and other peoples),改变人们对其他民族和 文化的态度 (alter one's attitudes towards another people or culture);人们因此可以接受不同的文化和价值观 (embrace different values and cultures),可以和平共处(create motivation to coexist peacefully), 并促进对"多元文化的理解 (promote multi-cultural understanding); ? 促进文化的融合(promote integration),消除文化障碍(remove cultural barriers), 外来人口的增加导致冲突: ? 违反当地的习俗会激怒当地人(breach of local customs can irritate the locals); ? 不同文化的人看待同一事物总有不同的角度( harbour different perceptions),并给予不同的解释(different interpretations),比如对手势、衣服、言行举止有不同的理解;举止不当会引起当地人意想不到的反应(provoke unanticipated responses); ?外国游客增多会对当地环境造成压力,甚至破坏环境,而移民增多可能导致工作机会 减少,致使竞争更加激烈,这些都有可能引起当地人的反感(cause resentment in local communities). 范文 Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to any activity that involves more than one country, for example, travel from one country to another. The dramatic increase in transnational travel in recent years has sparked controversy over the potential impacts of this trend on individual countriesf especially those new member states of globalization. Some people are concerned that the upsurge in new arrivals will prompt local hostility against visitors instead of promoting their understanding on mutual cultural background. This notion should be rejected as one can see many facts in favor of this development between countries. The first reason why international travels would never bring conflict is rooted in the fact that both visitors and locals are economically motivated. International travel opens up opportunities for business development throughout the world. Entrepreneurs are interested not only in the domestic market but also in the oversea market. Foreigners should learn the culture of a country before winning over the local people. In turn, locals should show their hospitality to visitors in exchange for their trust. They share a view that acceptance of each other's cultural background is a necessary condition for cooperation. Understanding a culture has other implications. Differences in social background, cultural values and religious belief might make the discrepancy of foreigners and local inhabitants on some issues indelible; however, the higher interaction, the higher level of communication and understanding. Arabians, for example, used to consider westerners as their foes. Now they have concrete relations with their western allies in many fields. In the initial stage, their divergence seemed
1

inherent but over time, with better mutual understanding, they take the same position on many issues. Undeniably, it is likely that in some resorts, foreign visitors repel the local community with their scant regard for the local environment and conventions when they first arrive. However, it should be noted that most offense is accidental, rather than intentional. Instead, visitors disobey rules and conventions simply because they have no knowledge of them. This situation is expected to be improved with the passing of time when visitors from different countries increase their knowledge of a local culture. According to the above analysis, we can observe that the increase in the international travel should not be taken as the cause of any conflict that arises between two countries. Alternatively, one should recognize its role in improving mutual understanding between two countries. 近义词表 1. catch-all = all-embracing:包罗甚广的 ;包括一切的 2. hostility=enmity=resentment:敌意,怨'恨,愤恨 3. rooted in=derived from=based on:基于 4. entrepreneur=tycoon=mogul=industrialist:企业家, 实业家 5. discrepancy=disagreement=difference=divergence:分歧,矛盾 6. foe=enemy=rival:敌人,竟争对手 7. concrete=tangible=solid:具体的,实际的 8. overtime=in due course=sooner or later:最终,早 9. resort:胜地;tourist resort:旅游胜地;holiday resort:度假胜地;beach resort:海边度假胜地; scenic spot:景观; place of interest: 旅游景点 10. repel=revolt=repulse:使厌恶,憎恶 11. scant=limited=scarce:缺乏的,不足的

Topic2: When international media (including movies, fashion shows, advertisements and other TV programs) convey the same messages to the global audience, people argue that the expansion of international media has negative impacts on cultural diversity. What is your opinion?
媒体信息一致的缺点: ? 国际媒体(global media)—般掌握在少数几个有实力的机构手中(in the hands of a few, large, powerful organizations);有了媒体的宣传(propaganda)后,西方文化成了主流(domineering force),大规模的、有吸引力的广告 (mass seductive advertising )唤起了落后地区人们对物质 新的向往(create fresh desires),经济联系增强(strong economic ties),西方产品取代了本地产 品,使人们更加向往西方的文化; ? 文化开始融合在一起(mingle),人们被新的价值观所围绕(bombarded with new values),对自 己的文化失去信心 和自豪感(confidence and pride),拒绝接受自己的文化传统(rejection of their cultural heritage)转而接受西方的文化 习惯(adoption of Western cultural practices);西方 媒体削弱了民族的特征(ethnic identity)和社会的凝聚力(social cohesion);因为担心失去观众 (a loss of viewers),当地的电视台也开始播放西方的电视节目(television shows), ? 国际媒体的普遍会降低世界文化的品质和多样性(degrade the quality and diversity of world culture);文化被商业 化 (commercialized), —些文化产品 (cultural goods),如音乐、 服装, 变成了商品 都 (commodities in the marketplace)。 因此,即便一些文化在世界其他地方传播,它原 来的性质(authenticity)已经丧失。 媒体信息一致的优点: ? 国家之间的频繁交往会促进文化之间的交流。因此,相互了解和相互认同的可能性 (likelihood of mutual understanding and mutual acceptance )就会增加,这是顺应全球化的趋势; ? 未必一定放弃传统观念(not necessarily lead to the abolition of traditional values),事实上媒体 可以起到宣传和稳 固传统文化的作用; ? 主流媒体一般都会反应文化多元性 (The dominant media reflect cultural diversity.); —些外国 节目其实促进了文 化多元性(Most foreign programming is promoting cultural diversity.),适应 了当地的条件(adapt to local conditions), 注意到了当地文化的敏感性(aware of cultural sensitivity).自我调节来适应市场(exercise self-censorship to suit the
2

market :)。 范文 As international media companies expand across the world, the growing popularity and uniformity of some media programs (such as TV shows, movies, fashion shows) is causing worldwide concern. Many people have strong views toward this trend. In my opinion, international media is closely linked to cultural globalization and cultural homogeneity. The dominance of international media is a sign of Western cultural imperialism and has the potential to thwart cultural diversity. It is not a secret that international media is owned and operated by a handful of giant corporations, such as Time Warner. They control large sectors of the media market and place national media companies at risk. The contraction in the number of media owners will cause a proportional reduction, in the variety of programs broadcasted. For example, painting, music and movies accessible in the media have a small number of genres, imposing restraints on one's knowledge of artworks of different cultural backgrounds. In addition to seizing control over those creative industries, global entertainment companies affect cultural diversity by reshaping the perceptions, beliefs and norms of ordinary citizens in different countries. Most of the cultural values and ideals promoted by the leading mainstream media are of American origin. American culture values individuality, maximization of one's benefits and material wealth, rather than communal life and family solidarity, the values and norms previously treasured in" many Asian countries. Unfortunately, many Asian people now imitate American people, causing the alteration of their perceptions of family. This radical change can be attributed to those movies and TV programs that portray the success of American individuals or corporations. The loss of media diversity is also responsible for people's narrow sense of ways of life. The ruling class of many countries speaks English, favors Western food, wears Western-style jackets and even prefers Western weddings. Young people are captivated by American basketball and some even daubing the names of NBA stars on their school sweatsuits. All these transformations in life are the result of the audience's exposure to Hollywood movies, TV shows and sports reports. The loss of media diversity will lead to degradation of culture and to a minimization of cultural diversity. It is a worrying trend, as people need cultural diversity to preserve and pass on their valuable heritage to future generations, including lifestyle. As shown above, international media, controlled by a handful of transnational media corporations, is exporting Western culture worldwide and putting many indigenous cultures at the risk of extinction. The uniformity of media programs has led to that of artworks, norms and ways of life wherever international media goes. 近义词表 1. dominance=domination=power:统治,力量 2. sign=symbol=mark=signal=indication:标志,象征 3. thwart=prevent=spoil=ruin:阻止,破坏 4. a handful of=a small number of:少数的 5. contraction-reduction :减少 6. proportional=relative:相对的,成比例的 7. perception=view=opinion:看法 8. ideal=value=belief=principle:观点,观念;标准 9. solidarity=unity=harmony=cohesion:团结 10. be captivated by=be obsessed with=be passionate about=be addicted to=be keen on=be enthusiastic about:被…所吸 引 11. pass on=give=impart=convey:传递,灌输

Topic 3: There is a disagreement on the impact of increased business and culture contact between countries on a country's identity. What is your opinion?
3

商业和文化的接触增多会导致一个国家特征的丧失: ? 影响文化: 文化不是静态的, 而是动态的 (not static, but dynamic); —种文化的改变主要是由 于社会环境(social environment)发生了变化。 比如说, 人们的饮食习惯发生了改变, 这是学习 夕卜界文化的结果(People's eating habits have been changed as the result of learned behaviour.); 快餐文化源自美国,有些人将此作为财富的象征(symbols of wealth),从而喜欢快餐;另外, 本地的饮食文化会改变,以适应外国人的口味(suit the tastes of visitors); ? 影响生活方式:进口商品的增多,对外国产品的喜好(preference for imports);人们更加熟悉 他国的文化,而忘 记自身的特点(sense of identity),社会的团结也有所损害(an erosion of social solidarity);服装、饮食、娱乐等等 都被两化了 (westernized),比如说,西装现在是流行 的男性服装(the suit is the most popular outfit for men); ? 欠发达国家在技术革新中起到的作用甚微(play a small role in the technological revolution),所 以需要"出卖"自己 国家的主权或者利益来获得国际的帮助(concede sovereignty and interests to other countries for aid);贫富差距加大 (widening gap between the richest and poorest parts of the world); ? 接 受 西 方 文 化 的 人 们 成 为 一 个 国 家 新 的 统 治 阶 级 ( new ruling class); 人 们 摒 弃 传 统 的 观 念 (renounce traditionally-held beliefs),觉得传统观念是过时的和低人一等的(outdated and inferior);主流文化会取代老式的和各 种各样的文化(A dominant culture takes over diverse cultures.),人们不再尊重传统文化(lose respect older cultures), 而传统观念最终成为历史 {consigned to history)。 商业和文化的接触增多会加强一个国家的特征: ? 外来文化让人们意识到自己文化的特点,从而更加注意维持这种文化; ? 一种特殊文化会引起世界的关注, 人们会更加注意保护。 范文 One of the most conspicuous trends in the 21st century is a closer connection between countries, in both economic and cultural aspects. There is a widespread worry that this will lead to the gradual demise of countries’ identities. This issue should be viewed and analyzed from multiple perspectives. When a country tends to develop a closer relationship with the rest of the world, it does not necessarily give up its culture. Culture is not a disgrace to but an asset of a country. An indigenous culture can distinguish one country from others, attracting foreign visitors and yielding high income. As most tourists travel abroad for learning different cultures and sampling different ways of life, such as Beijing opera in China, Japanese tea culture and Thai temples, many countries have responded with protecting and preserving their cultural identities, in an effort to keep themselves in the list of the most popular destinations. Increased tourism instills fresh life force into these countries, aiding the conservation of their features. While tourism provides a driving force for cultural conversation, some components of a culture, such as traditions^ customs or taboos might die out over time. It seems that in some countries, the locals have become more accustomed to exotic cultures. It reflects the combined effects of the invasion of foreign cultures, either through media or through direct business interaction. For example, two decades ago, sex was a taboo subject in China and most Chinese people felt embarrassed to talk openly about it. Over time the Western culture has permeated into the Chinese lifestyle, and the Chinese people have broken many of their time-honoured traditions. It occurs in the rest of the world as well. As outlined above, increased interaction between countries in the domains of business and culture can either strengthen or undermine the identities of countries involved, To date there is no definite answer to this question. 近义词表 1. conspicuous-noticeable=prominent=striking:显箸的,突出的 2. connection=linkage= relation=relationship:关系,联系 3. demise=disappearance=vanishing=fading:消失, 死亡
4

4. multiple=manifold=numerous=various=many:不同的,很多的 5. disgrace=dishonour=shame=humiliation:耻辱 6. life force=soul=essence:生命力 7. conservation=protection=preservation:保存,保护 8. exotic=bizarre=outlandish=from afar=mysteriously unusual: 外来的,奇异的 9. taboo=offensive=embarrassing=unacceptable=disgraceful=dishonourable=humiliating:无礼的,侮辱性的;忌讳的 10. permeate=seep into=pervade=leak into:渗透 11. time-honoured=age-old=long-established :历史悠久的 12. interaction=interplay=communication=relationship:相互作用

Topic 4: Some people believe that culture will be ruined if it is used to earn tourism revenue, but others consider that tourism is the only way of protecting a culture. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
旅游业有益文化保护(cultural preservation)的论点: ? 除了自然景观(landscape)之外,文化和历史是吸引旅游者去一个国家或者一个旅游景点 (tourism site)观光的 最主要原因(motivator);旅游业和文化遗产相结合(integrate tourism and cultural heritage)为文化保护提供了经济 支持(economic incentives); ? 在文化领域提供一些旅游选择(introduce the tourism options available with the cultural sectors), 如博物馆、历史 景点、活动禾卩奠食等(including museums, historical sites, events and cuisine), 游客会深人了解当地传统和习俗 (get an insight into local customs and traditions),感受当地传 统和艺术 (experience local traditions, arts and heritage), 从而更加尊重当地社区和周围的环境 (respect the host community and its environment),促进不同国家之间关于自 然和文化资源保护的交流与对话(the dialogue over conservation of natural and cultural resources )0 一 旅游业导致文化破坏 cultural destruction )的观点: ? 保护的一般是食物、 时尚、 节日等 (preserve food, fashion, festivals and so forth)—些文化的表 面一, (superficial 征 elements of a culture), ;|各文化定格成表演者(freeze culture as performers), 导致了文化、宗教、传统仪式、物质 文化和语言的损失(the loss of culture, religion, rituals, material culture and language);将文化商业化(commercialise the culture),破坏了文化神圣和 独特的本质(erode the sacred and unique nature); 虽然很多活动是娱乐活动 (entertain, rather than educate tourists),但有些是对当地人的一种羞辱(humiliate the local people); ? 垃圾、涂鸦、破坏和噪音不断增加(increasing litter, graffiti, vandalism and noise),游客在没有 被允许的情况下 进人建筑物、 神殿、 神圣的土地 (enter buildings, shrines or sacred lands without permission).这都与当地文化相冲突, 是一种文化侮辱(an insult to the local culture ) 范文 There is little room for doubt that tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. However, its impact on culture remains a source of constant debate. This essay will elaborate on both positive and negative effects of tourism from a cultural perspective. Providing economic incentives for cultural preservation is unarguably one of the main contributions of tourism. To many tourists, culture and history are what they first consider when choosing a destination. Their mindset has been recognised by many tourism sites and money has been subsequently directed toward cultural protection, including the maintenance of key historical sites. Tourism is therefore one of the primary forces contributing to the preservation of a culture. In addition to raising financing, tourism can make an indigenous culture known to the world and rally support worldwide to protect it. When a historic site or a site that shows a country's cultural heritage is made accessible to the public, visitors from all over the world will soon flock there. They will share their experience in the local culture with their friends and families once they return home, assisting this site to gain international fame. Both financial and technological support will flood in for the conservation of natural and cultural resources.

5

On the negative side, tourism develops sometimes at the expense of part of culture. Food, festivals, costumes and other stimulating elements of a culture are highlighted to entertain tourists, constituting an insult to the locals and causing damage to the unique nature of a culture. Moreover, cultural commercialization has made the sacred elements of a culture commonplace and tourists are encouraged to attach little importance to a unique tradition, which cannot be found elsewhere. In the light of these facts, one can conclude that tourism is neither a boon nor a bane to cultural preservation. While its endeavour lo protect an indigenous culture should be recognized, it has put the integrity of a culture at risk. 近义词表 1. unarguably= unquestionably =indisputably=undeniably:无可置提地,无可否认地 2. destination=site=place:地点 3. maintenance=preservation=upholding=protection:保护,保存 4. indigenous=original=aboriginal:本土的,原始的 5. fame=reputation=recognition=eminence:名气,名声 6. at the expense of=at the cost of:以牺牲…为前提 7. entertain=amuse=keep somebody amused:使愉快 8. insult=offence:侮辱 9. commonplace=ordinary: 平凡的 10. in the light of=in view of=considering=taking into account:考虑到 11. endeavour=effort=attempt:努力,尝试 12. integrity=entirety=unity:完整性 13. put at risk=endanger=jeopardise:危及,使…危险

政府投资
政府的投资主要有以下用途: ? 国防(defense):保护一个国家免受攻击或者其他威胁(Protect a country against attack or other threats.); ? 保证法律和公共秩序的实施(enforcement of law and public order)以及政府的运作(operation of government); ? 社会保障(social security)和医疗保健(health care systems); ? 福利 (welfare):为那些不能够自给自足的人(people who are unable to support themselves alone)提供经济援助 (financial assistance ),包括退休和残疾人的福利 (retirement and disability benefits)、 失业工人的福利 (unemployment benefits)等;政府援助在这一方面是重要的,可以 减轻社会压力(release the pressure of society),并最终帮助这些 人获得生存能力(gain the ability to survive); ? 公共运输(public transportation)和公共服务(public services)。政府的资金主要来自于税收(taxes),贷款(government borrowing)或者国际援助 3 和政府投 资相关的争执主要集中在关键行业(essential sectors)和非紧要行业 (non-essential sectors)——前者是为了公众的方便, 可以带来直接和明显的好处 (immediate and tangible benefits), 包括教育 和医疗保健; 而后者所带来的好处是间接的 (indirect benefits),可以给人们带来情感上的快乐 (emotional wellbeing),包括娱乐

Topic 5: Millions of dollars are spent on space research every year. Some people argue that the money should be spent on improving living standards on Earth. Do you agree or disagree?
支持太空探索的观点: ? 地球上的资源是有限的,迟早会被消耗完(finite and exhaustible),因此需要开拓太空上的能源 (open energy and material resources of space for human benefit);促进经济±曾长(support economic growth),使商业更力口繁荣 (an increase in business activity); ? 人口增长导致地球承载压力加大 (cause the usable space to shrink), 因此太空探索有利于为人类找到一个新的居 住地(find a sanctuary); ? 有利于环境考察(environmental monitoring),有利于收集人类生存环境(living environment)的数据,比如天气预 报(weather forecasting).,环境保护和可持续发展(sustainable development)等相关数据;
6

? 提高一些产业的科学竞争力(technological competitiveness),特别在国际商业领域(in international business ;), 创造人力资源和高级别的专业技术(human capital and high-level expertise);可以增加年轻人对自然科学的兴趣 (the interest of young people in natural sciences) 反对太空探索的观点: ? 需要长期的努力和大量资金(long-term commitments and funding),大部分国家支付不起 (unaffordable to most countries),这些资金应该用于解决些更实际的问题,比如饥荒 (famine)等 5 ? 很多项目收效甚微(make little progress),甚至被证明是徒劳无益的(taxing and unrewarding )。 范文 In recent years, there have been more and more countries involved and interested in long-term space projects. Because of the enormous research expenditures incurred, the value of space projects has been disputed. Some people suggest that government funding should be diverted toward improving the living standard of ordinary people. In evaluating the merits of space ambition, one should adopt a broader perspective. The investment in space research can be paid off someday in the future. The first reason to support it is that our planet is now facing an unprecedented resource problem, which can be tackled only by discovering and mining new resources on other planets. The overuse or scarcity of some resources on the Earth is a severe problem. Rare metals, such as gold or silver, will eventually be depleted, as industrial production expands. These metals and other natural resources, although rare on Earth, might abound on other planets. In that case, conducting space research is a promising adventure. Meanwhile, the world's population is now growing to a stage where there are too many people for the planet to support, highlighting the need to seek land suitable for people's resettlement off the planet. Even if new urban developments are able to accommodate the increasing population, water and electricity supply, waste treatment, sewage disposal and sanitation will become unmanageable for the capacity of our planet. As there are countless planets orbiting stars throughout the universe, one can be confident that at least one of them is suitable for our second home planet Mars, for example, bearing a close resemblance to the Earth, is considered a potential backup. In addition to searching for a shelter for future generations, space programmes contribute considerably to the well-being of the Earth in some other aspects. For example, by monitoring the ozone hole, global warming, the loss of rain forests and other environmental threats to human survival, remote sensing satellites help people trace the recovery from the worst environmental threats and thereby improve the quality of life. Meanwhile, space research provides a new platform on which scientists can carry out experiments and make new discoveries in a variety of fields, such as agriculture. As suggested above, in locating new resources, positioning new settlements, addressing environmental concerns and facilitating scientific discovery, space research will prove to be not only worthwhile, but also crucial to the survival and sustainability of human civilization. 近义词表 1. value =merit= worthiness =worth:价值 2. divert=redirect=reroute=switch:蜂令向,转用于 3. overuse=overexploitation:过分使用 4. abound=be plentiful=thrive=flourish=:proliferate=grow in great numbers:大量存在 5. adventure=voyage=journey:征途,旅行,旅程 6. re-settlement=relocation=immigration:迀居,搬迁 7. sewage= sullage=waste water:废水,排泄物 8. unmanageable=uncontrollable=untruly;不可控制的 9. backup=candidate=replacement:替代品,后备 10. recovery=healing=recuperation:恢复 11. platform=stage:舞台
7

Topic 6: Space travel to the Moon is often cited as one giant leap for mankind. Yet some people argue that this achievement made little difference to our daily lives. What is your opinion?
登月的重要性体现在三方面,科学(science )、开发思维(inspiration }和能源(resources ): ? 科学调查:提供一个平台去观察宇宙(observe the universe) 如何结合人和机器探索行星表面 (combine efforts of both humans and machines in exploring a planetary surface); ? 开发思维: 激发人们的想像力 (trigger imagination),敢于面对新领域的未知因素和挑战(confronting unknowns and challenges on new frontiers);用于探索月球的科技可以转为民用 (converted for civil use),促进科技发展; ? 能源开发: 月球上有水存在 (Water exists in the dark and cold regions near the poles of the Moon.),可以开发能源。 反对登月的可能意见: ?消耗资源和时间(consume resources and take time),而没太大的效果(benefits are limited); ?分散政府和公众在一些更重要事情上的注意力(distract the government and the public from some more significant issues) 范文 The idea of travelling through space, even living and working on other planets, has fascinated people for centuries. Despite numerous setbacks and daunting expenditures, travelling in the outer space has never failed to attract people's attention and provoke controversy. Sixty years after the first Moon landing, people question whether the feat, previously thought of as a giant leap for mankind, has substantially benefited people's lives. In my opinion, landing on the Moon has enormous relevance for the quality of life, albeit not always explicit. The first implication of Moon landing is reflected in the likelihood of travelling on other planets. Moon, as the object in the outer space closet to the Earth, can serve as a launch site for the journeys to other planets. Having no atmosphere, the Moon is a permanent base for people to observe the universe easily and provide them with sufficient evidence they require for decision making on a great many significant issues, which are likely to have direct impact on them. For example, one can learn more about the treat of potentially hazardous objects that are Likely to hit the Earth and destroy our civilization. Another remarkable breakthrough made by the Moon landing is that it reignites people's enthusiasm in the natural sciences. When today's youths become increasingly interested in such subjects as commerce, finance and business, space exploration successfully attracts and retains talents in space-related technologies. These young minds are convinced that travelling the unknown of the universe is feasible , despite many challenges. They are inspired to think for the future, instead of being preoccupied with contemporary issues only. It should also be noted that the Moon has water, the basic resource for people's survival, and it abounds in solar energy, a clean and readily obtainable resource. It is also believed that minerals are plentiful there to be exploited. Some day, if people are forced to move off the Earth, the Moon might be the best shelter. Although people have not yet fully explored this possibility at this stage, preliminary investigation is imperative. Based on the above-mentioned facts, one can conclude that the Moon landing greatly impacts on distant future, although its effect is not apparent for the time being. The Moon is the eventual gateway to other planets and potentially the place of residence for the future generations. The scientific knowledge and economic benefits to be gained by building a sustainable Moon base are huge. 近义词表
8

1. feat=achievement=accomplishment :成就 2. relevance=significance=importance=weight:重要性 3. explicit=overt:明显的 4. observe=watch=monitor:观察 5. unravel=find an answer to=work out:揭开,解开 6. unknown=mysterious=unfamiliar; 神秘的,未知的 7. feasible=practicable=viable=practical=realistic:可行的,实际的 8. obtainable=available=accessible:可以获寻的,可以得到的 9. preliminary=initial= preceding:最初的; 初步的 10. imperative=necessary=essential=critical=vital:必要的,关键的 11. for the time being=for now=for the moment:现在,暂时 12. gateway=entry=doorway=access: 入口 ,通道

Topic 7: Some people argue that the government should spend money on public services and facilities, but not on the arts. Do you agree or disagree?
政府投资公共设施的原因: ? 符合公众的利益(general interest),给人们带来方便; ? 一般来说,私人企业(private sector)不会对公共设施感兴趣,因此公共设施只能依靠政府投 资。而艺术作为人 们的爱好和文化传统(cultural traditions),会代代相传(passed on from one generation to another),因此不需要政府投 资。 政府投资艺术的原因: ? 艺木对现代生活是至关重要的(essential to modern life),对于一个文明社会有着非常重要的 作用(central to a civilized society),艺术品传播的是语言所不能传播的东西 (Works of art convey the ineffable.), 是人们文化生活的主 要部分(an integral part of cultural life); ?艺术给人们提供了排解情绪的渠道(provide positive outlets),比如看电影 和听音乐; ?艺术是一种民族文化,保护艺术有助于保护一种文化(preserve a culture);艺术可以吸引外国 游客观 光(attract foreign tourists for sightseeing),产生旅游收入(produce tourism revenue); ? 一些艺术作品(art objects),譬如说雕塑和建筑(sculpture and architecture),使人们享受城市 或者郊区风景的美 丽(enjoy the beauty of urban or rural landscape),赏心悦目(pleasing to the eye),为生活增添情趣。 范文 The role of arts in modern life is unique, providing people with entertainment and yielding various psychological rewards, such as relief from stress. Despite these benefits, the arts have been taken as luxury goods in many cases. It is suggested that public money of a city should be concentrated in projects like public facilities, which arc more likely to bring immediate benefits to the public, rather than the arts. There are a number of facts indicating that this position is right. Public facilities, widely accepted as one of the main precursors to a city's development, should be one of the highest priorities. Those underdeveloped cities in particular, should direct sufficient funding toward public facilities. While municipal office buildings, courthouses and post offices are essential components of public services, libraries, hospitals, parks, playing fields, gymnasiums and swimming pools are available to the public for social, educational, athletic and cultural activities. By boosting spending on public facilities, cities are more capable to satisfy the needs of citizens and improve their standard of living. In addition to social benefits, there are economic merits that public facilities can offer to communities. An integrated transport network (maritime, land and inland waterways transport and civil aviation), for example, promises the smooth and speedy movement of goods and people in a city. Industrial products, as well as agricultural produce of a city, can be delivered to other cities in exchange for steady income. Of equal importance are public Internet facilities. Providing access to information by improving Internet and other telecommunications facilities has relevance to the ease with which businesses in a city receive, process, utilize and send information. It is no exaggeration to say that entrepreneurs, either from home or abroad, will first examine the infrastructure of a city before deciding whether to pursue business
9

opportunities there. The arts, by comparison, although enabling people to see the world and the human condition differently and to see a truth one might ignore before, do not merit government spending. The first reason is that the arts--- referring to music, film and literature altogether--- are more likely to attract the investment of the private sector than public facilities. Business people continue to invest in the arts in the expectation of earning lump sum income and the arts in return, continue to flourish without the government spending. Meanwhile, the arts are a key component of a culture and naturally passed down from one generation to another. Unlike public facilities, they require no money to survive. It is therefore clear that construction of public facilities should be given the foremost consideration. The concern about the well-being of individual citizens and that of a city is more acute than the apprehension about the survival and prospects of the arts, something that businesses have a stake in. 近义词表 1. precursor=forerunner=foundation:先驱,基础 2. municipal=urban=metropolitan:城市的 3. merit=value=advantage:优点 4. integrate=amalgamate=combine=mix:合成,综合 5. merit =deserve=earn:值得 6. flourish=thrive=burgeon=boom:蓬勃发展 7. apprehension=anxiety=uneasiness=dread=fearfulness:忧虑,担心 8. stake=involvement= concern=interest=share:兴趣,参与

Topic 8: Some people argue that the government should spend money only on medical care and education but not on theatres or sport stadiums. Do you agree or disagree?
政府投资教育和医疗的好处: ? 教育可以帮助人们摆脱贫穷(break the cycle of poverty);如果没有政府资助,穷人的孩子上 不起大学,那么他 们可能代代贫穷(remain poor throughout their lifespan and even across generations.); ? 教育可以提高一个人的工作能力(improve productivity),从而提高一个国家的产出能力,对 国家的繁荣 (prosperity)有着深远的影响(have far-reaching effects); ? 完善的医疗健康服务(high quality and availability of health care)可以赢得人们对国家的忠诚度 (win the loyalty), 使人们愿意在一个国家生活和工作,以此留住有生产能力和技术的工作者 (productive and skilled workers);为残 疾人、退休者及贫穷的人提供帮助(render assistance to the disabled, retired and disadvantaged);提高国民的健康 (improve health); ? 体育设施和歌剧院有私人企业赞助(privately financed),而且大部分时间只符合少数人的兴趣。政府投资体育设 施或者歌剧院的好处: ? 满足人们的精神需求(spiritual needs),丰富人们的文化生活(enrich one's cultural life),是一个城市文明的标志(a sign of a civilized city), 范文 Where public money goes is an issue of broad interest to the general public. Some people advocate that the government should fund the sectors that bring tangible and immediate benefits to the public, such as medical care and educational systems, while opponents suggest that those large urban developments, such as stadiums and theatres, are worth government funding. In my opinion, the possibility remains that the two opinions can be reconciled and the government can coordinate budgeting to meet the needs of both. Medical care is essential to the economic and social well-being of a country, particularly of an underdeveloped country. Both empirical knowledge and academic research suggest that making education available throughout a country and
10

eliminating illiteracy can pave the way for economic development. By receiving education, children from impoverished families can shake off poverty, climb high in the social ladder and live better off. Education also allows citizens to secure employment and earn regular income, thereby maintaining or improving their standard of living. For a country as a whole, education is linked to skilled workforce and to high productivity, affecting both resource use and national output. Government interference in healthcare and medical services is also highly recommended. Availability of affordable medical service is a mark of the social and economic development of a country. By providing the needy people with medical service, a country can inspire the loyalty of citizens. People feel assured living and working in a country where they can be given medical service when unemployed, sick, injured or retired. By comparison, if they cannot afford the high cost of visiting the clinic, hospitalisation, or buying drugs, they are less likely to enjoy their living. Social solidarity will eventually suffer. Although education and medical services are fundamental to the stability and development of a country, it is not to say that theatres or sport stadiums have no redeeming feature. In the hierarchy of human needs, those needs for food, shelter and health are among the basic. After these targets are attained, people turn to higher aspirations, entertainment and recreation. Leisure facilities like stadiums and cinemas satisfy people's needs in these fields. A game between one's motherland and a visiting country can raise people's sense of national pride and ethnical unity. The cinema brings artistic pleasure to everyone. To draw a conclusion, the decision to finance theatres or sport stadiums depends on the financial situation of a country. When an economy comes to maturity, the launch of recreational and entertainment projects of this kind is reasonable. 近义词表 1. tangible=concrete=solid=material=touchable:切实的,实质的 2. reconcile=tailor=modify=alter=adapt:修改,调整(以符合某种需要) 3. shake off=get rid of=get away with:摆脱 4. assured=confident=self-confident=poised=self-assured:自信的,确信的 5. drug=medicine=prescription drug:药物 6. redeeming feature=desirable quality;可取之处,好的特点 7. hierarchy=pyramid=pecking order=chain of command: 层次;等级 8. shelter=safe haven=housing=accommodation=lodging :住房,安身之所 9. motherland=fatherland=nation state:祖国

Topic 9: People should keep all the money they earn and should not pay taxes to the state. Do you agree or disagree?
税收的作用: ? 有利于保证政府的正常运转(the operation of government), 比如国防(military defense)、执行法律和维持公共 秩序(enforcement of law and public order); ? 有利于支持公共投资和建设(provide public services and investment),比如桥梁、公路、能源、水和垃圾管理系 统(bridges, roads, energy, water and waste management systems)以及公共交通(public transportation); ? 有 利 于 保 证 社 会 稳 定: 即 缩 小 贫 富 差 距 (close the gap between rich and poor), 进 行 收 人 再 分配 (income redistribution, redistribution of wealth),减小社会矛盾; ? 有刺于提高社会福利(fund welfare and public services); ? 有利于进行宏观经济调控(influence macroeconomic performance):国家通过税收来调控经济,对消费和雇佣有 直接影响(have a direct effect on consumption and employment); ? 社会方面:有时候通过征税可以影响人的行为,比如对酒和烟草的税收(collect a tax on alcohol and tobacco)以
11

及对髙速公路的税收(highway tolls)税收的弊端: ? 税率过高会打击商业的投资热情(dampen enthusiasm for investment); ? 需要一个很大的机构去处理税收(require the creation of a large bureaucracy to administer and enforce the system), 耗资(expenses incurred ) 很大 范文 The role of taxation is providing funds necessary for carrying out a variety of functions in a country. However, to many taxpayers, especially employers, paying tax remains the biggest headache. In my opinion, tax revenue is essential to a country. Below are some of its main functions. Although many taxpayers see income tax as an appropriation of their earnings, tax is in fact a relief to taxpayers and their families, for example, by providing a safeguard against unemployment and a solution to other problems that they may confront in life. For example, those who lose their earning capabilities because of injuries, diseases and disabilities are entitled to the government's financial support, derived mainly from tax revenue. There is no point in denying thai lax is the principal source of finance that sustains many of the benefits offered by the welfare system of a country. Although most workers are not the beneficiaries currently, they will count on these benefits in their later years (as pensioners). So will their dependents (children and parents). Taxation is meanwhile an effective tool by which a society can achieve the redistribution of income and close the gap between haves and have-nots. In most countries, as a general rule, the higher the personal income, the higher the income tax. By imposing different tax rates, the government is able to distribute the tax burden across social classes, reducing income disparity between the rich and the poor. Corporate tax is deemed by business as a regular cost, which must be kept to a minimum, but it is not necessarily a bane. By levying different types of tax, the government can exert an influence on macroeconomic performance, which in turn influences the income of the business world. When the economy is on the verge of a recession, the government can reduce the tax and present tax incentives, which proves to be an effective policy in reviving the economy. By contrast, during the periods of growth, the government can raise the tax rate so as to prevent an overheated economy and combat inflation. It is fair to say that tax is one of the main tools in establishing a healthy environment conducive to business's sustained growth. What have been discussed above are the benefits brought by taxation, all being essential to a country, its businesses and individual taxpayers. Although many taxpayers feel pressured by taxes, they will eventually benefit from the taxes they have paid and should therefore bear tax liabilities. 近义词表 1. headache=problem=annoyance:问题,令人头疼的事 2. appropriation=acquisition=seizure=requisition:占有,获取 3. earning=remuneration=wage=income=take-home pay=salary:收入 4. safeguard=protection=precaution:保护措施,保障 5. later years=last few years of one's life: 晚年 6. haves and have-nots=rich and poor:富人和究人 7. recession=downturn=depression=slump:萧奈,衰退 8. incentive-encouragement:刺激物

Topic 10: It is widely accepted that people who have post-school qualifications earn a higher salary than those less educated do. University students should, therefore, pay all the full cost incurred over the course of obtaining a college education. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
12

在很多国家,高等教育的学费是一个很有争议性的话题。一方面,教育是保证一个国家经济 长盛不衰的原因; 另一方面,如果学费完全由国家来负担,国家未必负担得起。因此,在许多国 家,目前釆取的策略是收取正常 的教育费用,然后发放奖学金和贷款,从而鼓励学生接受高等反对学生自己支付学费的理由: ? 政 府 对 高 校 的 投 资 ( tertiary education investments) 有 助 于 促 进 以 知 识 为 动 力 的 经 济 和 社 会 发 展 (knowledge-driven economic and social development),获得基础研究和科学发展的长期回报 (long-term returns from research and technology development),技术革新使劳动力增强(greater productivity is achieved through technological innovation); ? 有更多人有机会接受高等教育(well-educated),这些人在毕业后会从事高薪职业(well-paid jobs),从而比一般人 交更多的税(pay higher income tax),这社会来说是一种贡献; ? 接受高等教育的学生会减少, 特别是经济困难的学生 (reduce the participation of disadvantaged groups);学生接受 教育,可以摆脱贫穷,社会有贡献(breakout of poverty)。 支持学生自己支付学费的理由: ? 学生有了经济压力(experience financial pressure),会更加勤奋学习; ? 政府支付不起巨大的费用,收取学费是应该的。 范文 With the labour intensive economy gradually giving way to knowledge-focused economy, the access to higher education has become an issue of broad interest. The proposal to charge all university students with tuition fees and allow no exemption arises mainly from the concern that tertiary education has to compete with many other urgent demands for public funds and struggle with underfunding. I believe that: this policy, if implemented, will have an accumulative effect on the well-being of either individual students or the society as a whole. When laying the hope of future development over students, the government cannot shirk from the responsibility to finance them. The sustained growth of a country rests on young talents. In this sense, the government is investing, not spending money. A standard example is America, a country investing multimillion dollars in higher education on an annual basis and sponsoring students' study by different forms of aid, such as scholarships, subsidies, allowances and student loans. It can be expected that these well-educated aspiring people, after finishing their education, will constitute a main drive of a state's growth. Moreover, the government should plough a reasonable proportion of tax revenue, most being sourced from parents, back to their children. Meanwhile, it is worth mentioning that some schools tend to force a complex of charges over students, with the aim to extend, their profit margin. Ignorant of their not-for-profit nature, many universities might deviate from their most important tasks, such as improving teaching quality. The persistence of this problem will make their academic service much less credible and quality of teaching and faculty staff uneven. A university can cover its expense by various means, such as the receipt of donation, or the government's funding, instead of levying a high fee over students. The reasons cited above have justified why university students need not pay more than a lower payment. While depending on young generations, the society should be more considerate of their situation. The effort to encourage tertiary education participation will pay back sooner, rather than later. 近义词表 1. give way to=succumb to=yield to:向…让步 2. exemption=exception:例外,免费 3. accumulative=gi-owing=increasing=incremental=spiralling:累加的,逐步增加的 4. shirk=evade=avoid=dodge=shun :躲避 5- sustained=everlasting=eternal=:endless=unending=perpetual:持续的,永远的
13

6. rest on=hinge on=depend on:依靠,信赖于 8. deviate=diverge=stray:偏离 10. uneven=unbalanced=unequal:不平衡的,不均衡的

7. aspiring=hopeful=aspirant:有志向的,有希望的 9. persistence = continuance :持续

Topic 11: Only government action can solve housing shortages in big cities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
支持政府调控房地产的原因: ? 房屋商业化(commercialization of housing)最大的受害人是低收人家庭(unaffordable to low-income families), 对 此, 政府可以多建经济适用房 (economical housing),并采取措施对房地 产行业进行干预(government intervention); ? 住房购买力的缺口加大(the housing affordability gap widens),而且租金(rental rates)也在不断增加低收人家庭 (low-income families)没有能力买房(unable to buy houses); ? 人口过多和过分拥挤造成住房紧缺(the direct result of overcrowding and overpopulation),因此 政府应通过划地政 策(zoning policies)、城市发展(urban development)规划、住房补贴(housing allowance)等措施,对房地产进行 调控。 反对政府调控房地产的原因: ? 住房分配体系(house allocation system)会严重降低私人投资的热情(dampen the enthusiasm of individuals in housing investment),房屋建设的投资少(a grave shortage in the investment in house construction) , 很难减轻住房压 力(ease the housing pressure);房地产是一个大的产业, 对经济发展有着重要的意义,提高家庭收人才是解决房 屋问题的关键; ? 当市场占据主导地位(the fundamental role)时,建筑工程质量(construction quality)、房屋的功能(functionalily)、 房 屋的 质量 (housing quality) 都 会 有 所提 高。 此时, 政府 对房 屋市场 的完全 控制会 导致 单调 的城市 景观 (monotonous cityscape, uniformity of house design),不能够满足城 市居民对生活条件的高要求(comprehensive requirements on living conditions )。 范文 Housing shortage has become a serious urban social issue in many parts of the world. It has been argued that only when the government has taken actions, can demand for homes be fulfilled. Yet to the best of my knowledge, the government alone cannot cope well with housing shortages. One of the main objections to government intervention is that it would hamper the private sector and simultaneously pose a huge burden upon the state. In countries where the government is on a tight budget and the homeless population is large, the involvement of private property developers is required and recommended. Not only does it release the government from the burden of funding large-sized construction programmes but it also fosters the housing industry. Given its role in attracting public consumption and accelerating economic development, the housing industry should be at the mercy of the market, rather than the government. Another drawback of state control over the housing market is that it could result in the stagnancy of construction quality, functionality, facilities and other aspects of housing. Apartment blocks or other residential constructions would be built in a similar pattern and the cityscape would be monotonous. Excessive uniformity, especially in the size and number of rooms, will fail to meet comprehensive requirements raised by citizens on properties. Despite these objections, government intervention is essential in some segments of the market and can render more resistance to citizens. Single parents, the people with disabilities and other disadvantaged people are among those who are not ready to afford commercial housing. The government can provide them either with housing allowance to purchase their private properties or directly with economical houses.
14

As indicated above, in addressing homelessness and inadequate housing, the joint effort of both government and private sector is required. While government intervention would impede the property market and negatively influence the supply and demand relationship, government assistance is essential for low-income families and vulnerable individuals in need of housing, 近义词表 1. objection=opposition=argument against:反对的观点 3. monotonous=repetitive:单调的,单一的 5. comprehensive=wide-ranging=ample:广泛的 7. segment=sector=section : 部分 8. allowance=subsidy=payment: 补助,津贴 9. joint=combined=shared=united:联合的

2. at the mercy of=reliant on:由...控制 4. uniformity=sameness: 一致性,相同性,单一性 6. intervention=interference=involvement: 干涉, 参与

科技发展对生活的影响
概述:雅思作文有关科技发展的题目主要考查现代科技对人们生活习惯和生活方式产生的 影响。现代科技主要 包括因特网、电脑、手机以及各种小电器。当然,汽车和飞机的广泛使用也 经常被认为是近代主要的科技发展 成果。主要的考点包括: ? 科技发展的影响是正面还是负面的? ? 科技发展让我们的空闲时间变多还是变少? ? 科技发展对我们的文化、思想、观念和社区有什么影响? 科技发展的正负面影响都有,没有必然的结论。科技发展使人们的生活质量极大提高的同 时,也可能导致人们 养成不好的生活方式和习惯,对健康有不利的影响。考生在考试当中要注重 论述的质量,至于倾向哪个方面未 必一定重要。 科技发展的正面影响有: ? 生产效率更高,人们可以在更短时间内完成工作,因此可以有更多的体闲时间; ? 给人们生活带来极大便利,提高了人们的生活水平; ? 人们通过网络可以做很多事情,比如购物和处理个人财务,不用花太多时间在通勤 (commute ); ? 人们联系更加方便,即便行动不方便的人也可以通过网络联系家人和扩大朋友圈; ? 人们获得信息的渠道增多(譬如说网络、手机、电子图书馆、电视) ,知识更加丰富。 科技发展的负面影响有: ? 因为竞争激烈,人们需要接受在职培训和教育,工作节奏加快,压力更大,和家人交流的机会更少; ? 因为通讯发达,人们在下班之后也被同事和上司联系,在家里査阅工作上的电子邮件;通讯 的发达同时推动 全球化,工作的性质也趋向于全球化,人们的工作吋间在某种程度上被延长了; ? 人们享受着网络娱乐和其他媒体所提供的娱乐,因此忽视和家人的交流; ? 人们喜欢上网,不愿意外出,性格变得孤僻,和外界的联系减少。

Topic 12: There are social, medical and technical problems associated with the use of mobile phones. What form do these problems take? Do problems of using mobile phones outweigh the benefits?
手机所带来的问题和负面影响: ? 社会问题:在公共场所讲话声音大(speak at an increased volume),让人感觉不舒服(feel uncomfortable); ? 技术问题:信息可能会被第三方截取(intercept)或者偷听(eavesdrop in); ? 医疗问题:有可能增加患癌症的几率(increase the risk of suffering cancers);
15

? 安全问题:开车时打电话(talk on the phone while driving),导致交通事故的发生(correlation with road traffic accidents) 手机所带来的好处和正面影响: ? 丰富生活:除了发信息(send text messages)和语音留言(make voice calls)之外,手机还可以用 来浏览网页 (Internet browsing)、听音乐(music playback),管理个人信息(personal organisers)、收发电子邮件(e-mail)、拍 照(built-in cameras)、下载铃声(ringtones)、玩游戏 (games)和听广播(radio)等,由此丰富了人们的生活; ? 方便沟通:手机使人们可以随时随地进行联系;在有突发事件的时候(in the event of an emergency),手机可以 通过信来确定人的位置 (locate trapped or injured people using the signals from their mobile phones)。 范文 Across the world, especially the wealthier parts, the mobile phone has taken the place of telephone as an electronic telecommunication device, with the majority of the adult, teenager and even child owning one. As this technology has become rife, its drawbacks, which can be seen from social, medical and technical perspectives, deserve people's greatest attention. Similar to many other hi-tech products, such as computers, mobile phones have detrimental effects on users' health. For example, long-time heavy phone users seem to be more prone to certain types of cancers, although evidence to date is inconclusive. Another lethal health concern is the link between mobile phones and road accidents. It is argued that motorists have a much higher risk of collisions and losing control of the vehicle when driving and talking on the phone simultaneously, despite sometimes using bands-free systems. When the mobile phone has brought considerable convenience, people's obsession with convenience has meanwhile caused enormous disturbance. That's why the use of mobile phones has been prohibited in many public places, such as libraries, theatres, hospitals and even transports, such as trains, buses and aircrafts. Speaking at increased volume is considered impolite or even offensive, In schools, students are required to switch off cell phones before the class begins because mobile phones are responsible for a high amount of class disruptions. When its downside persists, the mobile phone has proven indispensable in modern life. It is handheld, lightweight, portable and multi-functioned, allowing users to send text messages, exchange music files, make voice calls, browse Internet, and so forth. Meanwhile, within twenty years, mobile phones are expected to be more pervasive as technical advances and mass manufacture will make them low-cost personal items. Given those factors, the mobile phone will continue to perform its role as a key social tool, by which one keeps in touch with others much more easily than did the generations before. As suggested above, the contribution of the mobile phone to the society is prominent and people's dependence on it for communication is an irreversible trend, although it has a number of problems that should be well handled. 近义词表 1. device=equipment=appliance=instrument:设备,设置 2. rife=widespread=prevalent=ubiquitous=predominant=rampant:普遍的 3. prone to=susceptible to=vulnerable to:容易患上…的 4. lethal=fatal=deadly=life-damaging:致命的,有伤身体的 5. motorist=driver=car user. 使用汽车的人 6. collision=crash=accident:碰撞,车祸 7. disturbance=annoyance=interruption:干扰,打扰 8. disruption=interference=:distraction:干扰 9. pervasive=prevalent=omnipresent:普遍的,流行的 10. irreversible=permanent=irrevocable=unalterable:不可逆转的,永远的

16

Topic 13: Do you agree that modern technology has given us more leisure time than before?
现代科技让人更轻松、休闲时间更多的观点: ? 汽车、 飞机和铁路的普及(the popularity of automobile^ air travel and rail)减少了人们在路途上奔 波的时间 (spend less time commuting);电脑和自动化等设备(computerisation and automation) 让人们可以更快更有效地完成工作, 休闲时间更多; ? 效率的提高和收人的增加(rising wages),人们不需要加班也能够获得足够的收人。此时,人们对生活质量的要 求更高(higher demand on standards of living),可以支付得起更多的娱乐活动 (able to afford recreational activities), 在休闲的时间里放松自己(relax themselves in their spare time) 现代科技让人更繁忙、休闲时间更少的观点: ? 新科技的产生加快了工作节奏,人们需要不断地接受教育和培训(continue education and receive on-the-job training)以适应新科技带来的变化(keep pace with the fast development of technology), 人们因此更加繁忙; ? 科技发展使社会的产品变得丰富(diversified),人们需要刻苦工作才买得起琳琅满目的商品; ? 电脑和因特网的产生让人们在正常工作时间之外也可以工作 (work beyond normal working hours),科技的发展促 进全球化,人们需要加班工作以消除时差的影响(have to work overtime due to time difference ) 范文 In the history of mankind, possibly no century witnessed more progress in technology than the 20th century did. People have become increasingly interested in assessing the correlation between technological development and leisure time. As far as I am concerned, people's leisure time has been shrinking as a result of the tremendous advance in modern technology. Admittedly, thanks to modern technology, people can thus spend less time on compulsory activities (e.g. ,working), but it should also be noted that other non-compulsory activities have come to consume a larger proportion of people's after-work life, such as education. If leisure refers to the time spent in non-compulsory activities, people's leisure time has in fact contracted. The growing concern on education has increased the likelihood that people are willing to give up their leisure lives for educational opportunities. This trend is attributed mainly to competition and fears of job loss, causing people to turn to on-the-job training and education for secured employment. Another incentive is the increasing flexibility of educational institutions. Worthwhile knowledge can be passed on from one generation of workers to another in different forms of education, such as televised teaching and online courses. It comes at the cost of their leisure time. People's leisure lives are continuously eroded also because of ubiquity of modern technological tools (e.g. , computers with Internet access and telecommunications equipment). It is noteworthy that people now take fewer and shorter vacations following the increase in the number of technology-based activities. For example, cell phones and laptops make people accessible to their superiors wherever they go and wherever they are. People are more stressed than any generation before. Meanwhile, people now have to engage in more everyday processes than ever before, such as shopping, food ordering, and so on. It seems that the time budget is burdened because more time should be invested in activities that were previously ignored or unnoticed. While posing a threat on people's leisure lives, technologies might on other occasions, give workers more flexibility in controlling their work and more quality time after work. A traditional workweek has been cut, as the amount of manual work continues to decline because of automation. The availability of various means of transport has released working people from lengthy commutes. The line between work *and private life is much more blurred, with many workers shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online even when working. From what has been discussed, one understands that the development of technology has tremendous impacts on people's daily lives, although the exact impacts are not conclusive. When the proliferation of new technologies, such as computers,
17

allows people to manage their own working time and accommodate family needs and lifestyle choices, it has locked them in a struggle to cope with more tasks in daily lives. 近义词表 1. shrink=decline=diminish=contract:减少,缩'小 2. compulsory=required:必需的 3. after-work life=personal life:工作之外的生活,个人生活 4. pass on to=hand on=transfer:传递 5. ubiquity prevalence:四处存在,无处不在 6. commute=the journey between home and place of work:上下班的路程 7. proliferation=increase=mushrooming:增加 8. accommodate=give room for:容纳

Topic 14: It is said that the fast pace of our everyday life, as a direct result of the rapid development of telecommunications technology and travel industry, has negative effects on individuals, nations and the globe. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
移动电话、因特网和现代交通工具使人们的生活节奏加快,其主要原因是人们交流更加方 便,而且旅行也变得 更加便利、频繁。值得注意的是,很多考生可能会去考虑电讯科技和交通行 业的发展对人类产生的影响,而事 实上,本题考查的是生活快节奏对人们产生的影响。 负面影响: ?快节奏的生活使人与人之间的相互交流减少 (personal interaction reduces),人们很难保持和 改善与朋友亲人的关 系 (hard to maintain and improve relations with friends and family members),这对社会和家庭都是有害的 (detrimental to family life or social relations within or outside of work); ? 快节奏的生活会引起疾病(lifestyle diseases , such as obesity, stroke, diabetes, heart diseases ) 正面影响: ? 提高了效率和生产力,促进了信息交流和贸易往来(promote trade activity across the border); ? 效率的提高使人们有更多的娱乐时间,生活更加丰富(leisure lives have been enriched) 。 范文 Not surprisingly, many aspects of people's daily lives have undergone considerable changes because of the recent development in technology. It is a particular concern that the pace of everyday life is becoming faster, resulting from the development in cars, air travel, telecommunications technology and the Internet 。 As well as benefits, this trend is to bring problems. On the positive side, the fast rhythm of life requires people to enhance efficiency when working and then allows them to enjoy longer leisure time. With the advance in telecommuncations people can make inquires by phone, instead of travelling long distances, Internet access makes it possible (for one to perform various tasks without leaving their offices. Even though people have to travel every now and then, for meeting business partners, visiting clients in other cities or other purposes, modem transport networks reduce the amount of time they spend on commutes. The acceleration of the pace of life also implies the expansion of people's social circle. In the past, social relationships were limited by physical factors such as geographical distance and low mobility, but nowadays, one can travel further and get acquainted with more people with those technological advances, such as the railroad, the automobile and the telephone. For instance, the rapid penetration of telecommunications technology has made the mobile phone a key social tool and people rely on their mobile phone address book to keep in touch with their friends. On the negative side, the fast-paced lifestyle is responsible for the upsurge in lifestyle-related problems. Jobs become demanding and require workers' full commitment, resulting in their depression and pressure. Underneath the facade of
18

continued contraction of official working hours, employees are actually working longer, primarily because fax, e-mail or other communication devices have made them accessible to their supervisors, colleagues and customers after work. They have to respond instantly to voice and email messages from others. Private life has to be sacrificed. According to the facts outlined above, the doubts about the negative effects of the acceleration of pace of life are not well-grounded. People now enjoy greater well-being, which is reflected in more quality family time, less travel-related stress and close contact with friends and family members. However, they might have to accept frequent intrusions as a by-product of convenient communication. 近义词表 1. penetration=invasion=permeating:渗透,入侵 2. facade=disguise=cover-up :伪装 3. contraction=reduction:减少 4. intrusion=interruption:侵扰,扰 5. by-product=unwanted product=anything produced in the course of making another thing:副产品

Topic 15: Nowadays people can carry out tasks such as shopping and banking even business transactions without meeting each other face to face. What are the effects on individuals and the society?
本题不是讨论网络的优缺点,而是讨论其正面和负面的影响。因此,仅仅讨论网络购物和网 络商务的优点和缺 点是不足够和不确切的,需要针对这些特点讨论所产生的社会影响。 正面的影晌: ? 提高效率; ? 网络绐人们提供大量信息,增加人们的知识; ? 喊少交通工具的使用(rely less on private or public transport),从而减少汽车废气的排放(lead to a drop in the carbon footprint) 负面的影响: ? 人与人之间的交流减少,人们只关心自己的生活方式(concerned about one's own way of life),导致形成以个体为 中心的社会(an insular society develops and forms); ? 人们习惯于不运动的生活方式(inactive lifestyle),甚至过起隐居的生活(live a reclusive life),过分依赖因特网做 其他事情(rely excessively on the Internet for running errands)。 范文 With the wide use of the Internet, the way people conduct business and live their lives has vastly changed. Many businesses have websites that allow people to conduct business, execute deals and finish transactions online, as an alternative to a lengthy commute. Although people are thus free from the constraints of geography and time, there are some consequences of this trend that demand attention. Supposedly, with Internet access, people are able to perform transactions and to do shopping without leaving home, but meanwhile they have to pay a heavy price for it. One of the most negative aspects is, for instance, that it alters their social behaviours and habits. For many people, to spend part of the day on the Internet is quite normal. It can be expected that being addicted to Internet use, most of home telecommuters or Internet users will become socially isolated. Poor social life and feelings of loneliness are those problems that are very often found among heavy users. It is also likely that people have become increasingly accustomed to living in a world that appreciates convenience and inactivity and they do not want to evade those maxims. It gives explanation of why the sedentary lifestyle is now prevailing and why people spend little time on leisure or recreational activities. Time has been spent in front of the
19

computer or Internet. The net result is that they suffer serious loss of vision, back pain and obesity. It is true that many people finally end up with struggling with deteriorating health. Despite the negative effects, the Internet has its positive implications to the well-being of society. Online shoppers are able to seek out the lowest prices for items or services. Manufacturers, therefore, have to improve product quality and lower price levels in an effort to win the favour of consumers and secure a stable market share. Telecommuting-working at home using a computer is a solution to traffic congestion, the urban air pollution and petrol use. As outlined above, people's growing obsession with Internet use, such as online shopping or banking, has both immediate and long-term impacts on health, social involvement, lifestyles and emotional well-being. Although it is of great value from a net surfer's perspective, people should step up efforts to minimize the negative effects. 近义词表 1. alternative=replacement= substitute:另一种选择,替代品 2. supposedly=theoretically=purportedly:理论上地,假想地 3. price=penalty:代价,付出 . 4. telecommuter=teleworker:在家通过使用电脑、传真和因特网工作的人 5. social life=spending time with friends and other people;社会生活 6. inactivity=idleness=immobility=indolence=sluggishness;懒惰,很少运动的生活方式 7. maxim=rule=principle=tenet=guideline=motto=dictum=axiom=truism:格言,定律

Topic 16: Many employees may work at home with modern technology. Some people claim that it benefits only workers, but not employers. Do you agree or disagree?
在家工作(home working)的优点: ? 增加工作的灵活性(introduce flexibility),方便雇用临时工(occasional workers)和兼职工(part-time workers) ? 减少上下班时间(reduce interruptions and commuting time),从而减少给社会交通带来的压力; ? 增加员工工作的动力(increase staff motivation),减少在办公室需要面对的各种压力(reduce stress); ? 节省办公室空间和设备(save office space and other facilities),从而减少费用支出(reduce costs) 在家工作的缺点: ? 不利管理员工(manage home workers)和监督其工作(monitor performance); ? 很难集中培训(maintain staff development),有可能导致员工技术和工作质量的下降(lead to possible deteriorating of employees' skills and work quality); ? 很难保持团队精神(maintain team spirit),缺乏交流(lack communication),同事之间有疏远感 (a sense of isolation among homeworkers) 范文 The spread of telecommunication technology---using the Internet, telephone, fax, scanners or text messaging---has opened up a new range of possibilities for working at home, Discussion has centred on whether it represents a benefit to workers alone, but not employers. In my opinion, employers can take full advantage of home working as well. By allowing employees to work at home, employers can widen the base from which they recruit and boost the chances of capitalising on rich human capital. For instance, parents with childcare responsibilities and those with disabilities prefer to work at home. Distance between their work place and their place of residence has never ceased to be a problem. Homeworking enables working people to perform their jobs at ease, and thus gives employers more options in human resource use. Another benefit obtained from home-working is the boost for staff motivation. By working at home, employees can
20

manage their time on their own and strike a balance between work and rest Similarly important is that, without the presence of their immediate supervisors, they feel less stressful and more comfortable. Those two factors both play a part in boosting their productivity and job satisfaction. Apart from those benefits, homeworking might have its drawbacks. A challenge that employers have to face is the difficulty in managing and monitoring employees' performance. Whether employees are as likely to meet a deadline when working at home as they are in the workplace remains unclear. Similarly difficult is to maintain team spirit because employees have limited interaction between each other. Furthermore, stall training, an integral part of increasing human capital, is not practical in a business where homeworking predominates. Therefore, it is clear that although employers can benefit a lot from integrating homeworking into his or her business, e.g. , introducing more flexibility and increasing employees' job satisfaction, they should work out methods to prevent the problems that are likely to arise from this move. 近义词表 1. represent=stand for=signify:代表 2. capitalize on= take (full) advantage of=make the most of=benefit from:利用,得益于 3. work place=place of work:工作地点 4. at ease=comfortably=free from anxiety;轻松地 5. productivity=output=efficiency=yield:生产力 6. team spirit=cohesion=unity;团队精一命,凝聚力 7. interaction=communication=contact:联系和相互作用 Topic 17: It seems that with the increase in use of mobile phones and computers, fewer people prefer to

write letters. Will the skill of writing disappear completely?
写作技能不会消失的理由: ? 电子邮件、手机信息、信件都是文字交流的方式(different forms of communications);不管用 什么方式,都需 要关注其交流的目的、读者、语气和场合(purpose, audience, tone and context); ? 即便使用电子邮件和手机来传递信息,一些书面写作的特点还是要注意的,包括:对事情提 供充分的解释, (provide adequate explanation), 逻辑地组织并表达自己的想法 (arrange and express thoughts logically),使自己的意 向更加清楚(make the purpose clear),给出正确的信息 和完整的细节(give correct and complete details),语气不温不 火(neutral or warm in tone),减 少误会的可能性(lessen the possibility of misunderstanding),通过改变词汇和句子长 度吸引读 者等(maintain interest by varying vocabulary and sentence length),这些实际上仍是写作技能。 写作技能消失的理由: ? 当今, 时间就是金钱 (Time is money.),人们不再注重传统的写作技巧 (conventions of language),便捷快速更重要; ? 手机等现代通讯工具增加了 口头交流的比重(the proportion of oral communications),写作技能已经不重要。 范文 Text messages, emails and letters are everyday communication tools, although nowadays, text messages and emails appear to gain popularity while letters are used less frequently. The fears that writing skills will be attached with less importance are rooted mainly in the concern that the growing popularity of mobile phones and computers is about to make emails and text messaging much more popular. Such worries are unsupported. A majority of daily communications involve written correspondence, whether it takes the form of emails or letters. As different from communicating in speech, communicating in writing requires a large number of techniques. The prevalence of emails and text messages will not change the purposes, contents and conventions of communication, but merely medium, font or sentence length. For example, successful written communications are normally measured, by
21

clarity and accuracy, two elements that remain unchanged despite the upsurge in the use of text messages and emails. An email or text message sender should pay the same attention to such elements as vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, wording and tone as a letter writer does in order to make sure that the reader understands and interprets the message as intended. Any misunderstanding or misinterpretation will cause dire consequences. Another fact to note is that all communication is interpersonal and interactive, thereby requiring information senders to use language properly and convey messages clearly and precisely. In order to become a successful communicator, one should plan, tailor, and devise his or her writing according to the characteristics of the reader. Writing a message without considering the intended reader will increase the possibility of poor understanding or even misunderstanding. For example, choosing the right tone in communication is of great importance. Readers make assumptions about people's mood and intentions and speculate on the implied meaning of the messages, according to the tone suggested by words. Getting the right tone is therefore an important writing skill that is likely to influence the success of communication. It is particularly true in cases where the messages people send contain emotional components. Failure to manipulate these components properly will cause discomfort or hard feelings of the reader. The examples that are outlined above have apparently overturned the prevailing notion that writing skills will vanish sooner or later as a result of the increased use of text messaging and emails. Written communication requires a good understanding of the rules of language, such as grammar, vocabulary and tone. Without a good command of those writing skills, a communicator will encounter many awkward situations in daily communication. 近义词表 1. tailor=adapt=modify=alter:调整,调节 2. assumption=supposition=hypothesis=notion=belief:假设,观点 3. hard feeling=anger:不愉快,生气 4. overturn=reverse=invalidate: 扭舞,扭转

文化的组成因素和保护
概述:简单地说,文化是指社会或者社会人群的生活方式和生活习惯。文化虽然是很抽象的 概念,但它的影响 却无处不在,包括以下一些方面: ? 服饰:每一种文化都有自己特殊的服装。中国是一个典型的例子:中国作为一个多民族国 家,每个民族都有 自己的特色服装,其中服装的样式、颜色和其他特点都反映了民族的文化、习俗、生活习惯以及审美观点。然而, 由于西方文化的盛行,西装已在世界各国普遍流行 并为人们广泛接受; ? 饮食习惯:每一种文化都有自己特殊的饮食习惯。中国、日本、韩国、泰国以及墨西哥等地的 民族食物风靡 世界,美国快餐文化影响了很多国家的饮食习惯,这都是雅思作文考试中经常 出现的话题。饮食习惯的不同也 体现在饮食的工具(筷子和刀叉的区别) 饮食的场合 、 (中国 人更喜欢聚餐, 而西方人喜欢自助) 饮食的环境 、 (中 国的餐桌一般是圆的,而且比较大,而 外国的餐桌一般是方的,两人桌居多)等; ? 语言:每一种文化都有自己特殊的语言,而每一种语言又有它特殊的文化背景。全球化影响 了文化的多样性, 同时也影响了语言的多样性。语言学习经常要和文化结合在一起; ? 礼仪:每一种文化都有自己特殊的礼仪。礼仪主要体现在社交、节日和庆祝方式方面。比如, 中国有中秋节, 而西方国家则没有这个节日。此外,生日聚会、婚礼、葬礼等等,也都体现了 文化的差异; ? 宗教信仰、思维方式、价值观:中同人家庭观念和集体观念较强,而外国人个人意识较强;中国人喜欢储蓄、 讲究孝道,而外国人则没有这种习惯和意识; ? 行为习惯:西方人同性之间比较忌讳勾肩搭背,交流中忌讳打听对方衣服的价格和工资;中国人喜欢比较商品 价格和家庭收人,交谈时喜欢靠近对方,以表示对对方的信任和对话题的重视。 文化的重要性:
22

? 使人们了解自己的特点、文化背景,具有较强的身份感(sense of identify); ? 对于整个人类社会而言,文化的多元性可以保证人们用不同的方式看待问题; ? 和生物多样性类似,文化多样性对人类的长期存在有深远影响(the long-term survival of humanity )。

Topic 18: People think that old buildings should be knocked down and give way to the new buildings. Do you agree or disagree? How important are old buildings to us?
保护老建筑的必要性: ? 建筑是一个地区社会习俗和历史的标志(symbol of the social customs and history of a place), 也是一种文化资 源(cultural resource)。保护老建筑(old architectural works)实际上是保护文化 (preserve cultural values),让一个地 区拥有芈富的建筑遗产(a rich variety of architectural heritages),有助于突出或者塑造一个地区的形象(create its identify)。老建筑是连接现在和过 去的桥梁(bridge the present and the past history),拆毁老建筑会造成不可弥补的 损失; ? 从美学角度讲,老建筑可以保持建筑的多样性(establish some variations among the buildings), 独特性(rarity) 和历史地位(historical roles)。虽然,建造宏伟的高层建筑(grand high-rising structures)是必须的,但是保持多样 性(variety }也很重要; ? 一些历史建筑(historic buildings)或古建筑(archeological sites)应该修复成原来的状态 (restored to its original/ authentic state of existence),这些建筑物具有观光价值; ? 建筑费用的增加使老建筑具备一定的经济价值(of economic values)。 保护老建筑的不利之处: ? 老建筑(aged buildings)的维护与经济的发展有冲突(an antithesis of development),缺乏经济 价值(lack of economic values); ?老建筑的维护需要特别的技艺(craftsmanship),也需要大量的金钱和时间(commitment of time and money); ? 一些老建筑已经破烂不堪(worn out),不具备应用价值(not in a usable state),甚至可能危及生命。 范文 Every item of property has its own lifespan. So does every building. City planners are very often confronted with a debate concealing whether an old building should be deconstructed or maintained. In my opinion, it depends on whether the targeted building can satisfy the needs of the city. There is no denying that some old buildings are of aesthetic, archaeological or architectural values. They might be either integral to a culture as a symbol of a city or country or unique in the domain of architecture. Demolition of such buildings will inflict damage to cultural heritage and prevent architects from drawing their inspiration from their predecessors. Because of their uniqueness, old buildings are very likely to provide a source of tourism income, if maintained well. It is fair to say that old buildings of this kind are much more important than any new building and performing more functions than any new building does. With regard to other old buildings, possessing no specific value while becoming dilapidated, entire destruction is an acceptable and understandable decision. Low in quality and poor in conditions, some old buildings are actually posing a danger on users and pedestrians. They might stand in the way of a new road line or impede other forms of urban development. Whether they have been renovated or not, these buildings blemish the landscape and provide no justification for continued maintenance. Replacing old buildings with new ones meets the renewed needs of the city. In summary, whether to conserve or pull down old buildings is a question that can only be answered on a case-by-case basis. People involved should carefully weigh up the pros and cons of new developments before reaching a conclusion.

23

近义词表 1. lifespan=lifetime=natural life:寿命,生命周期 2. deconstruct=demolish-=bulldoze=knock down=pull down: 推翻,拆除(建筑物等) 3. aesthetic=artistic:艺术的,审美的 4. domain=area=field :领域 5. demolition=destruction=pulling down=knocking down:破坏,毁坏 6. inflict=cause=impose:引起,导致 7. predecessor=forerunner=precursor:前辈,先驱 8. dilapidate=wrecked=decaying:破烂的,荒废的 9. pedestrian=walker=person on foot:路人 10. renovate=refnrbish=:revamp:重新装修,修补 11. blemish=damage=tainish=spoil=ruin:破坏,损坏 12. renewed=changed=improved:更新的,提高的 13. weigh up=assess=evaluate=compare=estimate:,衡量,估量,对比

Topic 19: Do you think a museum is to educate or entertain people?
支持博物馆只有教育目的的观点: ? 博物馆收藏的大量物品 (house a large collection of selected objects)只用于展览, 人们不能够触 碰 (forbid physical contact);博物馆只提供收藏品的历史讲解(provide interpretations),不提供 娱乐(provide entertainment); ? 博物馆关注当地文化(concentrate on the host region's culture),教育后人,对保护文化和历史有着重要的意义; ? 博物馆一般注重特定的主题(concentrate on a particular subject),比如历史学、人种学 (ethnology )、人类学 (anthropology)等,这些对于很多人都是陌生和枯燥的(unfamiliar , abstract and uninteresting),不可能有娱乐 的作用。 支持博物馆还有娱乐目的的观点: ? 现在很多博物馆都已经开设不同的服务,如歌舞表演(operas and concerts).电影和录像 (movies, videos and videotapes)等来增加收人(increase income by increasing attendance), 在这 一方面, 博物馆和娱乐行业差不多(similar to entertainment businesses); ? 博物馆有些展品 (items on exhibition)对某些人来说具有一定的娱乐性 (entertainment value), 因此会吸引一些抱 着纯娱乐目的来参观的人。 范文 Museums have long been known as centres of research and education. By acquiring, conserving, researching and exhibiting a great variety of tangible items (such as artifacts and specimens ), museums are of great educational value. However, this notion has been refuted by some people in recent years, who tend to think that museums are intended for entertainment as well In my opinion, a museum can serve dual purposes, although education tends to play a larger part. Museums impart knowledge to visitors through different means. One is collecting and displaying objects of scientific, artistic or historical importance at a specific site. Staff members working for museums are trained to provide interpretations of the collected objects to the general public. Viewing these items enables visitors to acquire knowledge of a given subject, such as history, art, environment and technology. History museums are for example concerned with specialized aspects of history at the local or national level. Another approach taken by a museum Is to invite specialists to lecture regularly in different Fields, which is instructive as well. An entertainment business, by comparison, hardly serves an educational purpose. In addition to the way it operates, a museum is distinct from any operator in the entertainment industry in some other aspects. First of all, museums are entirely not-for-profit. Although sometimes charging an admission fee, a museum very often has free entrance, and does not engage in any profit-making activity. It does not target any specific audience like an entertainment business does. Instead, it is open to the general public. Museums, meanwhile, choose items on display not according to their commercial values but according to the line of items they mainly focus on. For instance, a history
24

museum would focus only on those items that are of historical value, although those items might not have sufficient market value. However, a noteworthy development of museums in recent years is related to entertainment to some extent. Similar to other educational institutions, museums have to balance their budget. Many museums have therefore sought to operate more activities to attract more visitors, in order for an additional entry fee to cover costs. In addition to the traditional services, such as making collected objects available for public viewing, and organising lectures, a museum is interested in such entertainments as films, musical or dance performances, most of which are linked to the culture of its host region. Art museums, for example, bear a close resemblance to art galleries, in exhibiting a wide range of artworks. Museums falling in this category give visitors pleasure, and can be taken as a provider of both knowledge and entertainment. As suggested above, there are many benchmarks against which a museum can be made distinct from an entertainment provider. Some museums are now providing services in overtly entertainment nature, although educational for the most part, 近义词表 1. artifact=ornament=manufactured article=work of art=object:人工制品,艺术品,装饰品(一般都 是具备文化或者 历史价值的物品,比如图腾) 2. specimen=example=sample;范例,样品,样本 3. refute=contest=rebut=disprove:驳倒,反驳 4. lecture=make a speech=give an address:发表演讲 5. instructive=informative=educational:教育性质的,教育意义的 6. resemblance=similarly=likeness=semblance :相似性 7. benchmark=standard :标准 8. overtly=openly=clearly=obviously=explicitly :明显地

生活方式和社会观念
人们生活方式的改变: ? 衣:人们现在对服饰的要求不仅是遮体、保暖,而是更注重社会因素,比如时尚; ? 食:快餐的流行是一大变化;同时,伴随着全球化,各国特色的食物(ethnic food)也随处可 见,比如韩国菜、泰国菜、日本菜; ? 住:人们现在不满足于住普通的房子,而对房子的外观、舒适程度和空间都有要求; ? 行:汽车和飞机等快速便捷的出行方式逐渐取代火车、步行、自行车等; ? 购物:必需品(necessities)在人们的消费中所占的比重越来越小,而奢侈品变多; ? 休闲和娱乐:人们越来越注重旅游,认为这是有益于健康的活动。 人们杜会观念的改变: ? 独立性:人们越来越独立,以往集体的生活方式(communalism)已经很少见; ? 挑战性:人们不再满足于稳定的工作和生活,乐于接受不同的挑战; ? 快捷性:人们现在越来越有时间观念(time conscious),追求高效。 —般来说,这一类题目可以从三大角度考虑,即: ? 外部环境:自然环境,生活环境,设备设施 ? 社会因素:家人的利益,朋友的选择,和朋友家人的相处,社会地位 ? 个人因素:收人情况,个人爱好,年龄结构,受教育水平

Topic 20: People tend to work longer hours nowadays. Working long hours has a negative effect on themselves, their families and the society, so working hours should be restricted. Do you agree or disagree?
25

长时间工作的负面影晌: ? 容易产生压力和疲倦(easily induce fatigue and stress),对健康是一种威胁(a threat to health); ? 减少了休闲的时间(a drop in leisure time),导致工作和家庭之间的冲突(lead to work-family conflicts); ? 长时间的工作未必都有效率和效益(long hours are not necessarily productive hours);加班的收人 (extra pay)不能 补偿时间所产生的压力(high pay can't compensate for unrelenting time pressure); ? 长时间工作导致士气低(low morale),旷工和辞职率髙(high absenteeism and turnover)。 长时间工作的正面影晌: ? 对工作热情(commitment toward their work)的一种体现; ? 提高收人(improve take-home pay)的一种途径; ? 争取工作和晋升的机会(increase job security and promotion opportunities) 范文 In recent years, working hours have become a controversial issue, at a time when employees' benefits have been given serious thought. Although the extension of working hours is believed to have an impact on general well-being and result in work-family conflict and job stress, this practice is remarkably popular in many countries, I am supportive of the argument that long working hours have a negative impact upon individuals, the organisations they work for, and ultimately upon the national economy and society as a whole. To job holders, working long hours triggers at least two problems. It is not only to damage personal relationships (with families particularly), disrupt social lives and impede community activities but also to cause a feeling of stress, a psychological disturbance that is experienced by many working people. It also tends to exert pressure on the employment market and make fewer employment opportunities available. Those with caring responsibilities for example, would be disadvantaged, because they are either unable or unwilling to work long hours, A high unemployment rate is always regarded as a threat to a country's economy. To employers, long working hours, although promising maximum benefit from limited resources every now and then, have destructive effects in the long term. The primary reason is that employees tend to be less productive, and meanwhile, at greater risks of sickness. It would lead not only to the lower quality of work outputs but also to high turnover and absenteeism. As a result, employers have to spend much more on recruiting and training new workers. To a country as a whole, it has chronic effects, disabling the optimisation of resource use, human capital and natural resources. Some might argue that it is reasonable for an employer to expect some degree of flexibility during a particularly busy period, but to those employers, reliance on the jobs with extended hours has the tendency to become a regular event. Tolerance of this practice would allow employers to exploit labour and disregard the benefits that employees are entitled for, thereby posing a challenge to the legal system. It is time that employers assessed alternatives like rescheduling, flexible working arrangements and job redesign to explore the full potential of each employee. As shown from the above discussion one can see no reason why working long hours is acceptable. It would lead to low productivity and frequent sick leaves, thereby doing more harm than good to employers and the society alike.

近义词表 1. impede=hold back=hinder=hamper:阻碍,阻止 2. productive=fertile = yielding:多产的,具备工作能力的 3. chronic=persistent=never-ending:长期的,不会停止的 4. optimisation=best use:最大程度上的利用 5. tolerance=forbearance:容忍 6. disregard=pay no attention to=ignore=take no notice of:忽视,忽略
26

Topic 21: As most people spend a major part of adult Life at the place of work, job satisfaction is an important part of individual well-being. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? Are all the expectations for job satisfaction realistic?
工作满意度的决定因素有: ? 工作稳定(job security),基本收人(basic pay), 和工作相关的回报(job-related benefits); ? 好的工作环境和条件(working conditions),工作节奏比较适当(able to cope with work pace); ? 好的同事、同伴还有上司(good rapport with coworkers, peers and superiors) ; ? 职业发展的机会(career development),比如接受训练和指引(receive training and counselling), 提高能力的机会(development of capabilities),还有能够发挥全部潜能的机会(attainment of full potential); ? 获得别人的认同(receive recognition),进行革新和创造的机会(given the opportunities for innovation and creativity),成功的感觉(experience a feeling of success)。—般来说,一个人对工作的期待随着自己的经历改变而改 变(Expectations varied as their experience changed.),除此之外,还有年龄、家庭、学识(educational background)和 社会环境 (social settings)等其他因素。 范文 Job satisfaction refers to the degree of pleasure employees can feel when working. It is of broad interest to employers because of its potential impact on productivity and morale of employees. Of those factors that contribute to job satisfaction, some are intrinsic while others are extrinsic. Both will be introduced below. In the latter part of the essay is a discussion concerning whether one's expectations for job satisfaction are always appropriate. Most of the factors that have influence on job satisfaction are extrinsic. One is employees, material needs. It is understandable that income, housing, paid holiday, bonus and other job benefits are the main elements an employee will normally look into when evaluating whether a job is desirable or not. Another source of satisfaction is job satisfaction, An employee is delighted if continued employment is accessible, that is, staying on a job for some considerable lime. Besides these basic needs, people crave for a positive self-image and to have their contribution valued and appreciated. That's why promotion is very often manipulated to improve employees' job satisfaction, sending a message to employees that their commitment has been recognized. Along with extrinsic factors, intrinsic factors are important. Individual personality plays a large part in many cases. It is believed that the employees with a positive outlook on life and full of optimism are more likely to achieve higher job satisfaction irrespective of the job or workplace they are in. When optimism allows individuals to function well in the fact of adversity and prevents them from becoming depressed, pessimism makes them less likely to complete tasks and meet objectives successfully, thereby undermining job satisfaction. Given the constantly changing nature of today's business environment, a job can hardly live up to the expectations of job holders. Weak economies, rapidly changing technology and likelihood of downsizing are combining to account for why the length of tenure is shortened nowadays and few people now expect to stay on the same job throughout their working lives. Rewards are able to raise motivation and increase satisfaction of employees, but not available for every individual that wants them. There is no guarantee that every good performer will be awarded all the time. Law of the jungle applies here: only the strongest competitors will win access to the majority of the resource. As suggested above, job satisfaction is attributed to different factors, both extrinsic and intrinsic. The complexity of today's work environment has made it less likely for people to get whatever they desire from a job.
27

近义词表 1. morale=drive=spirits=positive fee1ings=confidence:信心,士气,自尊(常指企业的员工) 2. intrinsic=inherent=basic=natural=native :内在的,自然产生的 3. extrinsic=extraneous:外来 4. outlook=what is expected to happen in the future=prospect:前景 5. irrespective of=regardIess of:不管 6. adversity=hardship=difficulty=harsh conditions=hard times:逆境,恶劣的环境 7. tenure=terra:任期 8. law of the jungle:弱肉强食,森林原则

Topic 22: Some people think that changing jobs periodically is good. What is your opinion?
换工作/跳槽(job-hopping )的好处: ? 目前的工作不能够充分发挥自己的能力(make the best use of one's abilities),也不能够提高技 能和增加经验 (improve skills and gain new experience) 换工作(switching jobs)可以发展多种 技能(acquire a wide array of technical skills),丰富个人简历(enhance the resume),提高个人的 市场价值和工作稳定性(improve marketability and job security),有助于收人增加 (pay raise); ? 竞争激烈,如果不主动增加技术和经验(improve skills and experience levels),稳定的工作机 会就会很少 (continued employment will be meagre),很容易在竞争中失利(vulnerable to the competition);就职业生存而言(in terms of career survival),没有高枕无忧的空间(there is no room for complacency);人应该懂得接受挑战,把握机 会(take on new challenges and seize opportunities),这才是理智的职业选择(a sound career move); ? 离开目前的雇主 (leave the current employer)会绐自己一种新的期待 sense of anticipation), —种新的学习热情 (a (generate an enthusiasm to learn)。 换工作/跳槽(job-hopping)的坏处: ? 对自己的职业发展弊大于利 (do more harm than good to one's career); 需要付出努力去适应新 环境 (adjust to the new environment),不能够与新同事和上司处好关系(get along well with new colleagues and supervisors),有可能被 他们视为威胁(seen as a threat),工作表现不能被轻易认 同(readily being recognised); ? 频繁转换工作反一个人的低承受能力和对雇主的低忠诚度(reflect badly on the job candidate's resilience and loyalty),缺乏工作动力(lack of self-motivation),没有目标(directionless/aimless), 没有足够时间获得经验和技能 (gain experiences and on-the-job skills),因此雇主不愿意聘用 经常换工作的人,担心很快又要重新招聘(restart a new recruiting process)。 范文 In this fast-changing world, job-hopping (leaving the current employer for another employment opportunity) is not a rare scene. Much has been discussed about the gains and losses of such a career move. In my opinion, job-changing is an inevitable step in today's labour market, reflecting the nature of a modem society. A new job implies opportunities for career development, an objective many working people intend to achieve. In general, there are two reasons behind a job holder's motive for a new job. The first is that the current job cannot make the best use of his or her abilities. The second is that he or she cannot improve skills and gain new experience. Both can lessen the possibility of a brighter job prospect. Job-hopping, meanwhile, assists one to survive the keen competition. People are living in a fast-changing world and a. once stable job is now vulnerable. Willingness to stay on the same job is no longer valued as much as before. Any employee, if complacent about the current employment, would be faced with threats posed by others. By comparison,
28

taking the initiative to obtain a better job can at least drive people to increase skills and thereby improving the chance of continued employment. When job-hoppers are craving for new chances, some issues are particularly worthy of concern. The first is adjusting to a new environment, such as working with new colleagues and supervisors. Besides, while valuing a job hopper's resume, employers too often tend to suspect his or her loyalty and resilience. It is therefore imperative for every potential jobseeker to learn the new employer better and evaluate the potential risk. The above-mentioned facts give one a glimpse of the potential results of changing jobs. When the willingness to change a job and seize an opportunity represents a sound career move and provides the thrust for self-development, it might require a job applicant's extra efforts. 近义词表 1. inevitable = inescapable= unavoidable:不可避免的 2. keen=intense=strong=stiff:激烈的 3. vulnerable=in a weak position=defenseless:不稳定的,容易遭受袭击的 4. complacent=satisfied=unworried=contented: 对。。满意的,放心的 。 5. chance=possibility=likelihood=prospect: 机会,几率 6. crave for=long for=desire=yearn for: 渴望 7. resilience=flexibility=resistance: 柔韧性,抵抗力 8. glimpse=glance=quick look:看 9. thrust=driving force=impetus: 动力

Topic 23: What are the factors that cause stress and how to cope with stress?
压力产生的原因: ? 休息的时间不够充足(inadequate leisure time),高压力和快节奏的生活方式(live a high-pressured, fast-paced lifestyle);时间和金钱管理不当(poor time and money management),不能 够同时兼顾家庭和工作(juggle work and family commitments) ; 对—些东西的专注性过高 (addictions),比如赌博(gambling)和股票(stocks); ? 环境的因素(the environmental factors)、工作(career concerns)、社会关系(social relationships) 和家庭问题(family problems)等; ? 想法或者对一些事情的态度(比如经济困难、学业困难、慢性病,甚至是小的事情) (thoughts / attitudes toward financial difficulties, academic difficulties, chronic illnesses, minor matters), 性格 (personality),可能有不切实际的期 待(unrealistic expectations),对事情的处理方法(interpret events and situations)等 解决方法: ?养成好的习惯,比如合理的饮食有助于改善自身健康(proper eating contributes to feelings of well-being)、定期运 动(exercise regularly);平衡好自己的责任和确立首要的事情(balance obligations and set priorities); ?习惯自己每天的生活,忽略一些问题的潜在影响(become accustomed to your daily activities and overlook their cumulative effect),养成良好的心态(nurture a good state of mind),争取减少 忧虑(block out worries);要有决断力 (be assertive),将生活中的突变看作是正面的挑战,而 不是威胁(positive challenge, not a threat.); ?平衡家庭生活和工作生活(balance work and family);有闲难要及时寻求别人的帮助(turn to others for support),要 处理好和其他人的矛盾(resolve conflicts with other people); 通过体育、 社交活动或者业余爱好来摆脱压力 (release yourself from daily stresses with group sports, social events and hobbies): 范文 Life today is filled with sources of stress, much of which cannot be avoided, When stress appears to be a lifelong problem to many people, how it actually forms remains a subject of controversy to many scientists. The objective of this essay is to outline both the sources of stress and appropriate ways of dealing with it.

29

Many stressors arise from people's circumstances. For example, the high-pressured and fast-paced lifestyle has made it unlikely for people to gain adequate leisure time. Failure to balance work and leisure causes them either to struggle with deteriorating health or to cope with psychological distress, e.g., anxiety and depression. Together with some other problems, such as disharmony with others, unpleasant work or living environment, it would increase stress to an unmanageable level. Another group of stressors is intertwined with personality, People interpret events or situations differently. A problem taken as a threat by many people might be accepted as a positive challenge to others, Evidence is inconclusive about the reasons behind this distinction, but it is widely believed that a person of a cheerful disposition is less likely to be heavily affected by adversity. Of equal importance is the ability to handle with some issues, such as time and money. Considering the role of personality in deciding the attitudes toward an issue and responses to an event, the effect of stress management skills actually varies from person to person. Methods to cope with stress are many, but the most effective ones are in fact not remote or complicated but accessible and practicable. People under stress are advised to participate more in recreational activities, adopt a sound dieting habit, and exercise regularly. They should learn to block out worries and try to keep the effect of a challenge in life to a minimum. Finally, it is important to nurture a good state of mind and to perceive things positively. As suggested above, environment factors can be taken as the sources of stress and people's personality determines the extent to which they are influenced by those factors. Adopting a healthy lifestyle and proper attitudes toward life can promote people's physical and psychological well-being and help them relieve stress. 近义词表 1. lifelong=lasting=enduring=all-time:永远的,终生的 3. lifestyle=way of life=daily life=everyday life :生活方式 4. unpleasant=disagreeable: 使人不愉'快的,让人厌恶的 6. interpret=understand=construe:理解,解释 8. disposition=character=temperament: 性格,品性 10. block out 二 erase=forget=wipe out:抹去,忘记,消除

2. form=develop=take shape:发展,形成 5. unmanageable=uncontrollable:不可控制的 7. cheerful=positive:乐观的,开朗的 . 9. practicable=workable:可以实施的

Topic 24: Fashion is difficult to follow, and some people argue that we should not follow it. They think that we should dress what we like and feel comfortable. Do you agree or disagree?
支持追随潮流 (following fashion)的观点: ? 时装是自我表达 ( a means of self-expression)的一种休现,表现人的性格和喜好(reflect one's personality or likes), 让人们在生活巾体验不同角色(allow people to try on many roles in life), 同时便世界更加丰富多彩(diversity and variety of the world in which we live); ? 新时代的时尚(fashion in the new era)并不一定意味着高消费,也并非一定穿某种款式的衣服 才算时尚; ? 时装源于生活 (root in daily life),反映生活趋势 (reflect that life), 充分考虑了消费者的需求 C consider consumer demand),不像人们想的那样肤浅(not as superficial as some people think) 反对追随潮流(following fashion )的观点: ? 潮流变化太快,盲目追求潮流(follow fashion blindly)是浪费时间和金钱; ? 失去了自己的喜好和判断(dwell too much on what others think); ? 鼓励人们将衣服和地位、社会阶层还有财富联系在一起(associate clothing with status, social class and wealth), 这是一种歧视。

30

范文 Fashion refers to a style of clothing worn by most people of a country. The growing concern about fashion in recent years comes as no surprise, considering the fact that fashion is very often at odds with the traditional function of clothing, protecting wearers from the extremes of weather. In my opinion, fashion is not a betrayal but an indicative of a principle that wearing clothing is for both functional and social reasons. Fashions are linked to personal style. Fashions allow wearers to express emotion and solidarity with other people. People dress to their mood and according to circumstances. Buying fashionable clothes is a process in which the buyer translates his or her self-esteem into a personal style. A fashion indicates one's taste, social class, likes and dislikes. It gives wearers a sense of identity and makes it possible for them to feel connected to society. Fashions are designed and tailored to please buyers. Selecting, discussing and buying fashions can induce immense happiness. It has become a way of life and can be taken as a leisure activity, increasing interaction between people. With all types of images and colours, clothing is capable of giving buyers a desired look, boosting their moods and increasing their self-confidence. Fashion is about change which is necessary to keep life interesting. Despite the enjoyment brought by fashions, people should beware of their ever-changing nature and the expenditure of time and money on this commitment. A fashion usually remains popular for about one or two years at most and then is replaced by another. Many people have been obsessed with following the current fashions slavishly and pursuing the clothing with promised quality and limited availability ceaselessly. Many of them are motivated to buy outlandish clothing in a belief that they can thus keep up with fashion and their social positions are displayed. As shown above, there is no point in spurning fashion. Fashion is desired in a modern society as a means of expression and a source of enjoyment, although one should reduce unnecessary spending on Fashions. 近义词表 1. at odds with=in opposition to=contrary to=against: 和....反 2. induce=stimulate=generate=bring:带来,促成 3. beware of=be careful of=be cautious about=wary of:对…小心,谨慎 4. at most=to the maximum:最多,最大 5. slavishly=sequaciously;盲从地 6. outlandish=bizarre=peculiar=eccentric;古怪的,奇异的 7. spurn=reject=snub=rebuff=scum-disdain=despise=repulse: 反对;拒绝,蔑视

媒体信息
概述:雅思写作的媒体类题目主要考查媒体对人们生活的影响。 媒体的正面影响主要有: ? 媒体提供各种各样的信息,包括重要新闻(hard news)、娱乐新闻(soft news),体育新闻(sporting news)、健康快讯 (health express)、园艺(gardening tips)、名人轶事(celebrity anecdote)等; ?媒体关注贫穷(poverty)和道德(morality) 等社会问题,号召相关部门对此采取措施。 媒体的负面影响主要有: ? 媒体对事件的倾向性报道会让人们对社会产生错误的理解 (misunderstanding),误解其发展 趋势(growing trends); ? 媒体可能会改变我们的社会观念、生活方式和文化意识。比如,西方媒体改变了我们的一些 社会观念,导致
31

一些传统意识被逐步淡化;生活方式也在慢慢改变,例如人们开始习惯快餐 (dependence on convenient food);文 化逐渐被西化,有些人变得崇洋(admire western traditions); ? 有时由于政治或者商业的原因,媒体会报道不真实的信息(false information),误导观众; ? 媒体暴力影响人们的行为,是引起暴力犯罪的部分原因。

Topic 25: People think that the news media has influenced people's lives nowadays and it is a negative development. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
新闻媒体的优点: ? 新闻媒体引起人们对灾难性问题的关注,并敦促相关部门对此釆取具体措施(take measures to tackle the problem); ? 将有用的信息及时传送给市民(communicate helpful information to concerned citizens); ? 新闻媒体让人们知道世界上每时每刻发生的事情(keep us informed of what is happening in the world ) 新闻媒体的缺点: ? 夸大其词(give an exaggerated account of an issue),报道一个并不存在的烕胁(a false threat), 导致惊慌(cause panic); ? 有牟利的动机(profit motive),希望投资得到最大的回报(maximise return),以市场为中心 (market-driven, obedient to market demands),娱乐消费者(entertain consumers.),强调冲突 {emphasise conflict, dissension and battle); ? 对别人的隐私不够尊重(not enough respect for the privacy of people ) 范文 For many people, news is a regular part of life. An issue in dispute is whether the massive influence of the news media on people's daily lives denotes a negative development. It is my view that news media does more good than harm to the society. The news media provides people with much of the information they need on a timely basis, although there are claims that it reports on issues and events purposely (only selecting those events that interest the audience). Anecdotal evidence shows that people from all walks of life have the habit of collecting information regularly from the news media, including print, broadcast and Internet-based media. Information assists people in decision making. For example, the Free Trade Agreement reached by the Chinese government and its New Zealand counterpart might open up many opportunities to both countries. For any business person, either in New Zealand or in China, failing to recognize and capitalize on this impending change would cause a costly loss. Meanwhile it should be recognized that the news media can sometimes save lives and reduce casualties. There is a lot of uncertainty about the surroundings, and people are susceptible to the damage caused by accidents, crimes and natural calamity. The news media conveys the firsthand information to concerned audiences and enable them to take corresponding actions right away. The authority can declare a state of emergency when it is necessary, organize evacuation and distribute aid to the needy areas. All these efforts count on the news media as the messenger. Despite their significant and ongoing contribution to the society, the news media might sometimes be harmful to society. It is a convention that the news media exaggerates the magnitude of the real threat (for example, the potential of a terrorism attack), in order to draw the attention of the desired audiences and in pursuit of high audience ratings. It ends up with causing panic among the population. Meanwhile, the news media tends to emphasize some issues or events, which virtually have little relevance to people's daily lives, such as an occasional multiple vehicle accident, an affair that a celebrity is involved with, and the like. It distracts the audience from something that is much more noteworthy, for instance, poverty, environmental problems, to name but a few.
32

In summary, the role of news media as an information provider should be acknowledged. In case of emergency, it acts as a lifesaver. However, it is not to say that the news media can give people an overall view of the problems in society all the time, 近义词表 1. denote=indicate=symbolize-represent=signify: 代表,预示,显示 2. capitalize on=take advantage of=make the best of; 很好地利用 3. impending=imminent=forthcoming=coming=approaching: 即将到来的 4. casualty=fatality=victim:死亡人数 5. surroundings=environs:周围的环境 6. calamity=misfortune=catastrophe=disaster:灾难 7. firsthand=immediate:第一手的,及时的 8. corresponding=relevant:相应的,有针对性的 9. messenger=courier:传播信息的人 10. magnitude=scale=enormity=level:(影响)程度

广告
概述:广告对社会的影响是非常巨大的,不仅影响我们的购买决定,也影响我们的生活方 式和文化。虽然对于 广告的作用一直是跃胜过于褒,但可以肯定的是,广告在社会中的地位是非 常重要的。 广告的功能: ?广告刺激消费,对经济发展有一定的推动作用; ?广告是消费者和生产商之间的桥梁(bridge the gap between consumers and manufacturers),给 消费者提供产品信息,生产商因此洞察消费者的喜好; ?广告让消费者更好地了解产品,选择适合自己的产品; ?广告让消费者更好地了解市场,从而间接地促使生产商提高自己的竞争力,例如降低产品价 格、提高产品质量和完善售后服务等。 广告的负面影响主要有以下一些方面: ?广告夸大产品的功能,掩饰产品的缺点,同时让观众更加看重品牌,从而误导观众作出不正 确的购买决定; ?广告给观众一种错觉——购买某种产品就可以成为社会群体的一员, 或者变得时尚, 这种趋 势被称为消费主义 (consumerism):这可能导致人们过度消费,成为购物狂(shopaholic)。

Topic 26: Do the positive effects outweigh negative effects, when advertising gains in popularity?
广告的优点: ? 传播市场信息(disseminate market information),介绍新产品(inform consumers of new products),让消费者作出正 确的选择 (enable a more qualitative choice between products to consumers); ? 不仅鼓励生产商在质量上竞争 (encourage competition in quality)、 鼓励产品革新 (encourage product innovation), 而且丰富消费者的生活(enrich their lives)、提高生活质量(improve living standards); ? 促进产品的销售量(enable greater volumes to be sold),促进经济发展(promote economic development) 广告的缺点: ? 广告的言语或者图像误导观众(claims or visual images that directly or indirectly mislead the consumer); ? 广告很少提供产品的所有信息 (hardly provide full disclosure of product characteristics),滥用消 费者的信任 (abuse the consumers' trust),利用他们缺少经验或者知识的特点 (exploit their lack of experience or knowledge)去诱导他们购 买对自己无用的产品(manipulate them); ? 广告是一种不受欢迎的强加信息(unwelcome intrusion); ? 由于广告费的原因,广告会增加商品的价格(add to the cost of every product)

33

范文 It has always been difficult to assess the contribution of advertising. This issue is fraught with controversy, with concern being expressed over the harmful effects of advertising. Below are some arguments against this concern. It is important to recognize that one of the key functions of advertising is to supply consumers with adequate and accurate information about all of the alternatives available to them. Every now and then, advertising is criticized on the ground that it can manipulate consumers to follow the will of the advertiser; however, evidence supports an opposing view that advertising merely promotes products that are most likely to satisfy consumers' wants. In simple terms, it is consumers rather than advertisers who decide what are advertised. Advertising also plays a significant role in fostering full employment and facilitating economic well-being. By conveying marketing information constantly to the target audience, advertising speeds the consumers' acceptance of new goods and technologies. It guarantees the high turnover rate of the manufactured goods and therefore, sustainability of a business. It is also agreed that advertising is one of the main sponsors of a large number of other industries, for example, the entertainment industry― particularly sports, music, and theatrical events. Unarguably, advertising is criticized every now and then for misleading the public. However, the rapid development of advertising itself has provided a solution to this problem, as the information delivered to the audiences has made them knowledgeable consumers. Under this circumstance, they can easily distinguish inferior products from quality products with their knowledge. The misleading effect of advertising will be counteracted over time. To summarize, advertising suggests what consumers need and contributes partly to economic development. In this sense, advertising is of great value to people and the society. The general perception of advertising as a source of misleading information is in fact a bias. 近义词表 1. fraught with=full of=filled with=burdened with:充满着 2. manipulate=manoeuvre=operate=influence=harness: 操控,影响 3. will=want=wish=desire:愿望 4. foster=promote=further=advance=encourage:鼓励,促进 5. inferior=substandard=low-grade:低质量的

环境问题
概述:环境问题是目前世界的一个热门话题,人们越来越关注环境恶化(environmental degradation.:)对地球产 生的影响。 一般来说,环境问题有: ? 全球变暖,冰川融化,海平面上升(sea level rise),淡水减少; ? 污染物增加——放射物质的废物处理(radioactive waste disposal),垃圾增多,废水增多,汽车 尾气排放,导致生 活环境恶化(deteriorating environment); ? 自然灾害横行-干旱、水灾、沙尘暴、酸雨等(droughts, floods, sand storms and acid rain); ? 能源供应不足,可替代资源(alternative energy)匮乏; ? 食品供应不足(food supply problem),饥荒(famine); ? 森林减少(deforestation),过度放牧(overgrazing)。 解决环境问题需要采取以下步骤: ? 全球合作,制定环境保护的标准和具体措施; ? 提高公众的意识(awareness);
34

?政府投资,采用对环境有利的科技(environmentally friendly technology )。

Topic 27: Many people believe that the human society has developed into a throw-away society, which is filled with plastic bags and rubbish. What are the causes and solutions?
垃圾增多的原因: ? 人口增长 (population growth)导致人们对物质需求的加大, 这必定会导致垃圾的增多 (the increment of rubbish); ?人们对垃圾可能导致的问题意识不强(awareness of waste issues); ? 消费者消费过多(over-consume)—次性产品(short-lived or disposable items)。 垃圾处理的方法: ? 颁布法律严厉控制垃圾任意排放(discharge of refuse); ? 改良工业生产(modify industrial production),减少资源的使用(reduce raw material inputs); ? 采取相关垃圾循环再利用措施(disposal and recycling schemes),大力宣传对垃圾的回收和利用,提高人们的环保 意识。 范文 Although waste disposal does not grab a headline as frequently as many other environmental issues do, it does not mean that it is less serious. As a matter of fact, the treatment of garbage continues to be a problem worldwide. Despite its sizable influence, many citizens have not yet realized the seriousness of this issue. It is the goal of this article to outline the potential causes of this problem and suggest possible solutions. People should first recognize that the increment in garbage is a natural result of the social and economic development. Unethical businesses are the main creators of industrial waste, including heavy metal, chemicals, plastic, and other durable and non-recyclable materials. People's quest for a better standard of living gives them incentives to manufacture a rich variety of consumer goods and disregard the potential impact on environment. This practice can date back to the earliest days of industrial revolution, producing enormous waste that are unable to be recycled and causing an environmental disaster. Another potential reason for the slow progress in waste treatment is people's low awareness of the opportunities to reduce, reuse and recycle waste. Many people do not have a firm stand against over-consumption and excessive production of disposable items. Besides, many citizens are not environmentally conscious, disposing of wastes whenever and wherever they consider convenient. Meanwhile, many manufacturers tend to use virgin materials, rather than recyclable materials in the course of production. That's why many communities are facing a, particularly difficult position in waste treatment. The best approach to address waste issues is simply to minimize its generation. It is primarily because the more waste people produce, the more waste they have to cope with. Waste recycling offers another means, although it requires the spontaneous commitment of both businesses and citizens. Additionally, laws should be set out to regulate corporation behaviour and make their operation environmentally friendly. It is clear that the problem of waste disposal exists due to people's ever-growing demand for manufactured goods and slow response to the impact of this problem on the environment. Tackling this problem depends not only on individual's effort to keep the waste to a minimum but also on businesses' attempt to optimise their manufacture and reduce the inputs. 近义词表
35

1. garbage=refuse=waste=rubbish:垃圾 3. creator=maker:创造者 5. earliest days=outset =start=onset:开始 7. awareness=consciousness:意识 9. virgin material=raw material:原材料 11. input=resources used:使用的资源

2. unethical=immoral:不道德的 4. quest=pursuit:对…的追求,渴望 6. recycle=reuse:重新使用 8. stand=stance=position:立场 10. set out=lay out=enforce:实施,制定

动物
概述:动物类题目是雅思写作每年必考的题目,主要针对动物的生存和人类与动物的关系 问题。动物一直被人类用作各种用途(for practical purposes),包括娱乐(马戏团) 、消遣(宠物) 食用(家禽和家 、 畜) 、调查和研究(实验室动物) 、商用(毛皮和药材) ,诸如此类。动物保护是现在 常被讨论的话题。 保护动物主要有以下一些意义: ? 维护生态系统(maintain natural ecosystems),保持生态平衡,确保可持续发展(consistent with the principle of sustainable development); ? 人类可以从动物身上获得灵感(draw on animal-based research for inspiration); ? 人类可以探知物种的起源(the origin of life),进行科学研究(scientific research); ? 动物有生存的权利(animal rights),应该维护动物的权益(animal welfare)

Topic 28: Some people strongly oppose animal experimentation, believing that it causes pain to animals, while some other people consider it necessary. What is your opinion?
支持把动物作为实验对象的观点: ? 动物不能够进行道德的判断, 也不会尊重其他动物的权利 (recognize the rights of other species),没有能力做道德 上的选择(have no capacity to make moral choices),因此动物比人类 低等,不能够等同于人类; ? 人类目前找不到替代动物的实验品(replacements); ? 动物的神经系统不如人类发达,痛楚已经最小化(minimize pain),而如果在人体上做实验是 不人道的 (Vivisection practiced on human beings is inhumane.);动物和人相似 (bear a resemblance to humans),对外部的影响 和人类反应类似(respond similarly to external disturbances),因此最适宜做人类的替代品; ? 人类的利益应该建立在动物利益之上(human interests should be placed above animal welfare), 利用动物做实验 有助于科技的发展。 反对把动物作为实验对象的观点: ? 动物的生存权(the right to life )需要被保护,禁止虐待行为(the prohibition of torture); ? 很多时候,动物实验的目的只是为了一些商业用途(industrial products),这是不道德的; ? 动物实验的结果和信息是不可靠的,具有误导性〔unreliable and misleading),毕竟人类和动物有很大的不同 (many differences between humans and animals) 范文 Perhaps no subject in the moral community is as controversial as animal testing. Animals, many people believe, merit more humane treatment. When animal-based experiments have long been the centre of criticism, I am of the opinion that such experiments are essential to both the well-being of human beings and that of animals. There is little doubt, first of all, that most of the animal-based experiments are conducted for the development of technology and to date, there is little chance of finding satisfying substitutions for animals, Animals are used mainly
36

because they bear a close resemblance to humans, either in behaviour or in cell structure. They respond to external disturbances (such as electrical shock) nearly in the same manner as humans do. There is much evidence that most of what people know about themselves, including pain, stress, reproduction and nutrition, is based on findings of animal-based experiments. Animal testing proves one of the main approaches to predict the risk when drugs or other products are used on humans. Another fact to support animal-based experiment is that animals are not the equivalent of humans, and can be used as resources for human purposes. Animals have no capacity to recognize the rights of other species. Nor will they take in consideration the interests of other species. It is possibly one of the main reasons why animals feed on each other. Humans, by comparison, use animal experimentations not only for their own interests but also for the interests of animals. For example, some medical discoveries can be used by veterinary surgeons to give medical care and treatment to sick animals. Despite the justifications given for vivisection, researchers have the obligation to reduce animal testing and animal suffering. There is a growing recognition that animal tests are mostly done for commercial purposes and most of them are avoidable. For instance, the cosmetic industry has been exploiting animal experimentation simply for diversifying products and maximizing profits. The fewer cosmetic products people use, the fewer animals they have to slaughter. When scientists are empowered to carry out cruel experiments like vivisection, such powers should not be abused. To summarize, one can subscribe to the notion that animals can be taken as resources intended for the benefit of humans, although meanwhile it is certain that suffering should be controlled to the minimum during experimentation. 近义词表 1. merit=deserve:值得 2. substitution=replacement:替代品 3. resemblance=sameness=similarity:相似 4. equivalent=counterpart;匹配的人或者物 5. capacity=ability-capability=competence=aptitude=power: 能力 6. feed on=eat=survive on:以…为食 7. slaughter=kill=massacre=slay=butcher:屠杀,屠宰

城乡差距和城市化
概述:城市化是一个越来越受关注的社会问题。城市化(urbanization or urban sprawl)是指农 村地区建立城镇,或 者是城市不断地向农村扩展(expansive growth of a metropolitan area)。 城市化产生的原因: ? 经济:工业的发展使得工厂和商业(包括超级市场)不断在乡村地区建立; ? 社会:人口快速增长,大量农民来到城市以求获得工作机会; ? 技术:交通工具的发达使人们可以更容易到较远的地方,因而有更多人迁居郊区; ? 个人:人们希望获得更大的生活空间(expand living space),更好的生活环境(attractive living conditions),从而选 择在郊区居住。 城市化产生的负面影响: ? 经济:人口增加导致基础设施的费用增加(increased infrastructure costs); ? 社会:大量的流动人口 (high mobility of populations)会导致犯罪率上升,影响社会稳定; ? 环境:影响空气质量(impair air quality),导致污染,影响人们的身体健康。 解决城市化负面影响的措施: ?保护和提升自然和文化资源(preserve and enhance natural and cultural resources);保持当地的城市风貌和文化 (protect the local landscape and culture);确保新的建筑项目不会破坏乡村的风景和生态系统(prevent any damage to rustic scenery and ecosystems);
37

? 发展甚础设施的建设(upgrade infrastructures),使人们具有更强的环保意识(make people environmentally conscious),譬如说,城巿新发展的地区可以鼓励人们步行或便用自行车(make areas of urban sprawl walkable or bicycle-friendly) 另外,城乡差距(widening gap between urban and rural areas)也是一个常考的问题 城乡差距主要体现在: ? 收入差距(the income gap/disparity between urban residents and rural residents),财富分配的不平均; ? 乡村缺乏获得教育的途径(lower access to education),文盲率较高(higher illiteracy); ? 医疗资源主要集中在城市(medical resources concentrated in cities);疾病的爆发导致生产力的损失(national productivity suffers); ? 资源投人的不平衡——乡村缺乏各种基本设施和服务,比如电力、能源供应(electricity and fuel supply)、公路、 电话和网络(access to telephones and the Internet)等; ? 城市人口密度更大(population density);就业机会更多(more job opportunities)。 解决城乡差距的方法: ? 制定优惠政策促进郊区发展(make preferential policies to boost rural development); ? 增加基础设施的投人, 改善郊区的交通、 道路、 电子通讯 (roads, streets, rapid transit system, telecommunications ) 等; ? 全面提高农民的科学文化素质,提高其生产力(productivity);鼓励郊区居民积极主动创业,创造更多就业机会 (more job opportunities),提高收人(raise income), 从根本上改变贫穷落后的状况。

Topic 29: Some findings have revealed that cities around the world are growing large. Could you outline the possible causes and predict consequences?
城市化的原因: ?人口增加和移民 (an unprecedented population growth and migration)造成基础设备不足 (devoid of basic amenities), 导致原有的基础经费不足,城市条件恶化(urban decay),于是城市居民开 始迁居城外,导致城市的扩展; ?随着经济的发展和家庭收人的提高 (strong economy and increasing household incomes),人们 开始喜欢低密度的住 宅区(strong preference for lower-density housing);同时,由于人们可以 支付得起汽车等交通的费用(able to afford the automobile),这也使得人们更易迁居城外; ?城市规划不当(bad city planning)导致道路的建设和基础设施的扩建(construction of roads and the provision of infrastructure)与地区统筹发展不协调(unplanned development),最终使得城市 居民迁居城外。 城市化所造成的影响: ?环境影响(environmental impact):郊区的景观千篇一律(monotonous suburban landscapes);空 气污染,有害健康 (ill-health due to air pollution generated by traffic); ?社会影响(social impact):城市人口流动增大(high mobility)会导致犯罪率的上升(a surge in the crime rate),人们 不会有社区的感觉(sense of community),人与人之间的关系比较短暂 (abbreviated),社区的团结和价值不复存在 (loss of community spirit and values); ?经济影响(economic impact):在郊区建设基础设施导致政府财政压力(adverse fiscal impacts),对基础设施的要求 不能够被满足(unmet demand on infrastructure);交通堵塞(traffic congestion )影响工作效率,延误商品和服务的输 送(delay the delivery of goods and services)。 范文 Of those issues that have concerned the government, academics and the public throughout the world, urban sprawl is one of the most prominent. There are conflicting views toward this growing trend. While it has been taken as a positive development in many newly emerging cities, it is increasingly perceived as a threat to rural environment and considered as a trigger for numerous urban problems. The objective of this essay is to evaluate the forces behind this trend and its consequences.
38

Population growth is widely recognized as the primary reason. The room in the city centre is so limited that it fails to provide enough housing to accommodate an ever-growing population. Another problem that has intensified in the inner city is infrastructure shortage and poor conditions of buildings. Lack amenities, such as water and electricity supply, waste disposal, swage treatment, to name but a few, has left no choice to urban dwellers but to resettle in the suburbs, where they have easier access to new facilities. City dwellers are not always moving outward unwillingly. The continued increase in household incomes gives renewed impetus to urban development. People nowadays have higher expectations for quality of life and a growing appetite for lower-density housing with a larger open space. It is possibly the main reason why the real estate market has its focus now on the outskirts of the city, but not on the centre. In the meantime, the affordability and ubiquity of car ownership has made transport a less serious concern for those living in suburbs. They can commute daily between the place of work and the place of residence with ease. The sustained expansion of cities will make a marked impact on the society in several dimensions. The high traffic volume between suburbs and urban areas would cause severe air pollution and reduce the lands suitable for farming. Urban sprawl requires large developments, causing areas to lose some of their unique qualities and characteristics. From the economic perspective, the relocation of a high population in suburbs will pose adverse fiscal impacts on the local government in infrastructure construction. To those who used to live in suburbs, the inflow of new inhabitants would damage the community spirit and make relations between neighbours fragile. Urban sprawl is, therefore, a trend which has a strong effect on the environment, communities and government budgeting. When urban decay and citizens' desire for higher standard of living make this trend irreversible, the emphasis should be placed on planned and sustainable development. 近义词表 1. amenity=facility=service :设施,设备,服务 2. disposal=clearance:处理 3. treatment=handling=dealing:处理 4. to name but a few=to mention but a few=and so on=and so forth:诸如此类 5. renewed=new:新的 6. impetus=momentum=thrust=drive=force :推动力 7. quality of life =living standard=the level of comfort and wealth:生活标准,生活质量 8. real estate=property=housing:房地产 9. outskirt=suburb=the periphery of a city :郊区 10. in the meantime=meanwhile:同时,与此同时 11. ubiquity=prevalence=popularity:普遍 12. commute=go back and forth:通勤,在两个地方之间来去(常用于上下班) 13. with ease=easily=effortlessly=without much effort=without difficulty: 轻松地 14. marked=noticeable=distinct=manifest: 显著的 15. inflow=influx=arrival:流入,到来 16. inhabitant=dweller=citizen=resident: 居住者 17. damage=injure: 破坏 18. irreversible=unalterable:不可扭转的,不可逆转的

教育方法和教育内容
概述:教育的内容和功能是每年雅思考试的必考题目。不管在中国还是其他国家,教育和其他行业一样,都在不 断更新和发展。教育学家和教一直在研究教育的内容、方式和方法,希望 培养出符合社会需求的学生。总体来 说,教育对学生的影响可以从智力、知识、体育、道德、社交和实践几个方面去讨论。 ? 智力方面:教育方法和途径是否可以提高学生的学习能力(intellectual abilities)和技能; ? 知识方面:学生掌握的知是否全面(full knowledge of a subject);
39

? 体育方面: 教育是否可以帮助学生养成良好的生活习惯 (maintain a healthy lifestyle), 保持身心健康(physical and psychological well-being); ?道德方面:学生言行举止是否符合社会道德标准(adhere to code of conduct); ? 社会方面:学生是否掌握了必要的交流技巧和生存技能,能否适应社会; ? 实践方面:学生是否掌握了必要的工作技能,是否有较强的动手能力。

Topic 30: It is generally believed that education is of vital importance to individual development and the well-being of societies. What should education consist of to fulfill both these functions?
教育所具备的职能有: ? 提高学生思考问题(higher-level thinking skills)、分析问题(analytical skills)和单独处事(act independently)的能 力,提高个人素质; ? 加强理论知识学习(theoretical knowledge),增加实践的经验(practical experience),帮助学习者提高就业前景 (improve career prospects); ? 交流学科可以帮助学生提髙社会技能(improve social skills)、交流技巧(hone communication skills)和适应环境 的能力(adapt to new environments); ? 体育、 营养学等课程可以帮助学生提高身体素质 (develop physical fitness),帮助学生养成良好的生活习惯(educate them to lead or maintain a healthy lifestyle}; ? 法律、伦理学等课程有助于提髙学生的道德标准意识(heighten one's awareness of moral standards),使其遵守社 会规范(conform to rules accepted by the society),履行责任(assume responsibility); ? 艺术、 文学等课程提髙学生对艺术、 诗歌和文学的欣赏水平 (develop an appreciation of art, poetry and literature )。 范文 Education is one of the largest items of government spending. It is regarded as the pathway to economic prosperity, an instrument for combating unemployment and the driving force behind scientific and technological advance. Given the importance of education for individuals and society, its scope, constituents and configuration have long been the subject of research, studies and discussion. Theoretically, a student is expected to acquire knowledge of a specific subject or profession at school, but throughout the learning process, education should focus on the development of their skills. A successful school leaver should show exceptional abilities to acquire, organize, interpret, evaluate and communicate information when graduate. Similarly, a proficient learner should meanwhile be a resource coordinator and user, proficient in identifying useful resources (such as information and capital) with speed and utilizing them to the full advantage. A qualified student should also possess some other skills, such as problem solving and critical thinking, which are essential not only for their further education but also for their careers later in life. When students become knowledgeable and resourceful, they should be equipped with competence that would enhance the transition from school to work. An excellent learner is admittedly important to society, but more important is his or her productivity. Education should absorb new substances and embrace new concepts in order for students to keep in touch with community and have full knowledge of the needs of community. Besides, a school should facilitate the progress of students in every practical field and give them opportunities to try new tasks and take on new roles. By enhancing their hands-on skills and job-related skills, schools can foster students' and society's future development and prosperity. When enhancing learners' academic excellence and professionalism, education cannot overlook learners' physical and psychological well-being. In this fast-changing and competitive society, many people are not in good form in coping with stress and health problems. Encouraging students to reduce stress and develop good health habits is therefore
40

important. Sports, for example, function effectively as a health facilitator and as a good stress reducer. These extracurricular activities can be combined with academic activities to boost students' mental health and learning outcomes. To conclude, today's students are expected to be versatile, productive and healthy individuals when they finish schooling. With society becoming more specialized and economies demanding more skills, students should focus on both theoretical and practical aspects of education. They should lay a stress on physical activities as well. 近义词表 1. pathway=path=access=entrance:入门,途径 2. combat=address=tackle=prevent=fight against:对抗,解决 3. configuration=composition=formation=make-up:组成,构成 4. similarly=likewise:类似地 5. resourceful=ingenious=smart:足智多谋的,聪明的 6. transition=change=changeover:转变 7. in good form=performing well:表现良好 8. versatile=multitalented=all-round: 多才多艺的,全能的

41


相关文章:
雅思考试大作文范文
雅思考试大作文范文_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。今日推荐 180份文档 2014...雅思大作文范文30篇 41页 1下载券 五篇雅思解释类大作文范... 暂无评价 7页...
雅思写作大作文范文
智课网 IELTS 备考资料 雅思写作大作文范文摘要: 雅思写作大作文范文,小马过河又为大家带来福利啦,在备考雅思写作的时候是不是很想多看多读一 些好的大作文范文...
雅思大作文范文解析
雅思大作文范文解析_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。雅思大作文范文解析 ...雅思大作文范文100篇 65页 免费 雅思大作文范文30篇 41页 1下载券 【1-...
!剑桥雅思大作文(A类)题目+范文
!剑桥雅思大作文(A类)题目+范文_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档!剑桥雅思大作文(A类)题目+范文_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。...
2015.5.9雅思大作文解析及范文
2015.5.9雅思大作文解析及范文_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。5.9的雅思大作文终于考到环境类话题,考过试的烤鸭又要窃喜啦。话题不难但是需要注意的是对相应观点的...
雅思大作文范文
雅思大作文范文_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。5.图表作文范例 1. Post-School Qualifications 347,500 Australians aged between 25 and 34 hold a degree. Th5...
雅思大作文范文:移民生活
雅思大作文范文:移民生活_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档 雅思大作文范文:移民生活_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。Some people ...
雅思大作文范文-全球化
雅思大作文范文-全球化_资格考试/认证_教育专区。Some people believe that ...雅思大作文范文30篇 暂无评价 41页 1下载券 雅思写作范文欣赏:全球... 暂无...
2015.12.19雅思大作文解析及范文
2015.12.19雅思大作文解析及范文_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。本次考题依旧是一道很早之前的老题—旅游对于文化的影响。正方认为商业化旅游使文化受到损害,反方则...
雅思大作文范文-社会发展和其他
雅思大作文范文-社会发展和其他_资格考试/认证_教育专区。The government should ...雅思写作范文社会生活篇 暂无评价 4页 免费 2010年10月30日雅思大作... 3...
更多相关标签: