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第1课 I 1. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s parents used to suffer from hardship. 艰难; 辛酸, 2. The author’s first job was to clean and brighten cars. 3. It may be inferred fr

om the passage that Detroit was where the author got help from. 4. All the following can be used to describe the author’s grandmother except rewarding. 报酬; 酬金; 奖赏 5. The word they (last sentence) refers to customers. III、A 1. They made regular visits to the park on the suburbs during the weekends. 2. She was promoted to division manager last year. 3. We tried to walk to the park but ended up taking a taxi there. 4. His handling of these important issues was highly praised. 5. Thomas bought a new hat to replace the one he had lost. 6. The movie received generally favorable reviews. 7. Thank you for all the time and effort you have put in. 8. Make sure you are home by midnight. 9. He was hit by a falling tree and killed on the spot. 当场, 在现场, 立刻 10. The earthquake survivors are in desperate need of help. 不顾一切的, 拚死的, 令人绝望的 B Open n. opening Persist n. persistence, 持续 Succeed n. success Succeed adj. successful Important n. importance Promote n. promotion 促进, 发扬, 提升, 提拔, 晋升 Depress n. depression 压下, 降低 Value adj. invaluable 无法估价的, 无价可估的; 非常贵重的 an invaluable treasure 无价之宝 Loyal n. loyalty 忠诚, 忠心 忠诚的, 忠实的, 忠贞的 Favor adj. favorable / favorite C 1. We can obtain=acquire knowledge by reading books, newspapers, and by watching TV. obtain 获得, 得到; 买到 acquire 得, 得到, 获得; 招致 2. When all her other friends deserted her, steve remained constant=loyal. deserted 放弃, 遗弃, 逃跑,荒芜的, 荒废的, 为人所弃的 constant 稳定的, 不变的 loyal 忠诚的, 忠实的, 忠贞的 3. New York is a city famous=noted for its shopping and nightlife. 4. You frightened=startled me – I thought you were in the garden. Frightened 受惊的, 受恐吓的 Startled 震惊 5. He accepted the blame=responsibility for the mistake in the government report. Blame 责备, 谴责; 找...的差错 6. Teaching is not very worth=rewarding doing financially. Rewarding 报答的, 有益的, 值得的 7. She showed sincere=genuine sorrow at the news. sincere 真挚的; 真诚的 genuine 真实的, 诚恳的; 非伪装的 8. Guess whom I encountered=bumped into today. Encountered 遭遇, 遇到 bumped into 意外碰到; 偶然遇到 9. Tickets must be bought=purchased two weeks in advance. 10. We all hope that an agreement can be reached at the end=eventually. Eventually 最后, 终于


IV A、英译汉 1 Two noted Americans explain why it’s not what you earn – it’s what you learn. Earn 赚钱, 挣得 两个美国名人解释为什么不是你所挣的而是你学的更重要。 2 I have never thought I was better than anyone else, but I have always believed I couldn’t be outworked. 我从不认为我那时比其他任何人强,但我一直相信我当时干的活儿别人都赶不上。 Outworked 在所属单位外的工作者, 户外工作者; 外包工 在工作上胜过, 比...做得快[努力] 圆满地完成(任务) 3 Watching my money grow was more rewarding than anything I could have bought. 报答的, 有益的, 值得 看着存款数增加比我当时原本可以买到的任何东西都更让我满足。 4 I took a genuine interest in their questions and was able to translate what they wanted into makeup ideas. 我发自内心地关心她们的问题,并能理解她们的愿望,给她们出些该如何化妆的点子。 Genuine 真实的, 诚恳的; 非伪装的 5 I ended up selling a record amount of cosmetics. 化妆品[kCz5metik] 结果我创下了化妆品销售量的最好成绩。 B、汉译英 1 她计划自己创业。Set up She plans to set up her own business. 2 态度也很重要, matter Attitude also matters. 3 她在客人们到达之前把所有的家具都擦亮了。Polish furniture 不加 s She had polished all furniture before the guests arrived. 4 有些经理不知道如何与人打交道。Handle Some managers have no idea how to handle people. 5 我们完成那项工作的时间打破了纪录。Record We finished the work in record time. 6 她喜欢东西都摆好以后再开始工作。In place She likes everything to be in place before she starts working. 7 她常常一天工作 12 小时。 Put in She often puts in 12 hours’ work a day. 8 他是从报纸上得到这一信息的。accquire He acquired the information from the newspapers. 9 我们部门有一个助理的职位空缺。Opening There is an opening for an assistant in our department. 10该组织旨在促进各国之间的友谊。Promote The organization works to promote friendship between nations. Part B 1、一般现在时 He works in a factory. Does he study very hard? It seldom rains there. Light travels faster than sound. The train leaves at seven every Sunday. We’ll go to see her as soon as she comes back from the hospital. I am a graduate. She is an engineer. They are scientists. I have two books. She has a book. They have pens. 2、现在进行时


She is learning English now. Are they building a big bridge over there? He’s leaving for London tomorrow. Who’s speaking first at the meeting? 3、现在完成时 He has been sick for four days. 一段时间内状态 We have always worked until eight o’clock in the evening. 习惯性动作 The train has left. 动作完成 Up till now we have finished five lessons. 到现在为止时间内发生的情况。 4、一般过去时 When did they start the research project? They often came to help us. He was a teacher in 1980. 某一特定时间 They did not come last night. 5、一般将来时 The agreement will come into force next week. When shall we have supper this evening? Who will look after the sick? He will be a manager next year. We are going to do this experiment tomorrow. Be going to do 表示将来动作 When is the school to be built? Be to do 将来动作 We’re having a lecture tonight. 进行时,按计划将要发生的事情。 He will write to you if he has time. 从句中用一般时,表示将来动作。 An accident is about to happen if one is careless. Be about=will 表示将来。 6、将来进行时,正发生,持续动作 They will be cleaning the room this time tomorrow. Will be doing 7、过去进行时 What were the students doing at eight last night? I was reading a newspaper when she came in. At that time he was talking to his client in the office. The concert had already started when we got there. 过去完成 They had completed the work before 5 yesterday. 8、将来完成时 They will have learnt about 4000 words by the end of next month. 9、现在完成进行时 It has been snowing for two hours. 练习 1. I think I have seen your teacher twice this week. 2. The fire started at seven last night. 3. When the old lady entered the apartment, the thief had escaped already. 4. We did not catch what the stranger said. 5. When they finally got to the hotel, night had fallen already. 6. The visitors have just arrived from America. 7. By the time he gets home, his father will have left for shanghai. 8. We will not start the project before he has come back from the United States. 9. He lost his new knife shortly after he had bought it. 10. The fire has been burning up for three hours before the firemen arrived. 11. I told him that he could go there after school.


12. 13. 14. 15.

Irene has taught English at our school for two years, she will renew her contract tomorrow. He is ill. He has not eaten any food since last night. This time tomorrow we will be planting trees in the park. From 3 to 5 yesterday, they were repairing the car on the way to the park.

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According to the time table, the train for London leaves at seven o’clock in the evening. You needn’t hurry her. She will have finished it by the time you are ready. Darwin proved that natural selection is the chief factor in the development of species. 种, 类; 【生】(物)种, 人种 While Peggy is reading, her brother is playing records. It’s been a long time since I saw you last. How are you? We have been working on it for several hours, but we have not yet reached any conclusion. He said that he would leave for Shanghai the next day. This is the first time I have seen this kind of re’frigerator. He had found this job before he moved into this city. I think this time yesterday he was leaving an English class in No. 3 classroom building. By 2008, the university will have trained 2000 postgraduates. Since 1970, he has been working in this bank and he loves the job very much. I don’t like to be disturbed if I am working. Before long, she will forget all about the matter. 不久以后 You can see the house hasn’t been pained for years.

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We shall need to evaluate how the new material stands up to wear and tear. The full extent of the damage only became evident the following morning. 明白的, 明显的 Extent 广度, 宽度, 长度, 大小 3. Just name the time and I’ll be there on the dot. 提出, 提到; 选定, 指定 4. Brownell’s comments echoed the opinion of the majority of the commission members. 5. I’d like to start off by thanking you all for coming today. 出发, 开始 6. You’ve been an enormous help. Enormous [i5nC:mEs] adj. 巨大的, 极大的, 庞大的 7. Spending her junior year abroad has broadened her horizons. 地平(线; 圈), 水平(线) 8. He still feels insecure about his ability to do the job. 不安全的, 有危险的 9. She recalled seeing him outside the shop on the night of the robbery. 10. Without someone to turn to for advice, making the most appropriate choice can be difficult. 11. I’ve finally found a job in which I can fulfill myself. 12. I hope this will convince you to change your mind.


第2课 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Internet shopping belongs to the networking between businesses and their customers. Simultaneous consultation on the internet is the more important aspect as to the net economy. Electronic currency does not include paper currency transfer on the internet. The world’s first internet bank is a small and insignificant one. According to the author’s opinion, most companies which invest in the internet market are making losses.


Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities. Foster [5fCstE] vt. 养育, 抚育, 培养, 鼓励, 抱(希望) 2. The competition among these companies at the printing market has become very intense in this city.Intense [in5tens] adj. 强烈的, 剧烈的, 热切的, 热情的, 激烈的 3. To date, we have not received any replies from them. 到此为止 4. In this competition world, it is better for any firm to gain technology superiority. superiority 优越, 高傲优越(性), 优秀, 超[卓]越, 优势(to, over), 傲慢(to, over) 5. The organization works to promote friendship between nations. 6. It is reported that the far area is now on the verge of war again. 接近于, 濒临于 7. There is an obvious trend that young people like less formal clothing. 8. We should look at these events which happened two hundred years ago from their historical perspective. 历史的角度来看 9. The outstanding businessman agreed that the last decade was favorable for the emergence. emergence [i5mE:dVEns] n. 浮现, 露出, (植物)突出体, 出现 10. The witness provide that the killer of the student was a man of medium height. Significance adj. significant 有意义的; 意味深长的 Connect n. connection Transform n. transformation Withdrawal v. withdraw 移开; 拉开; 拿; 取消; 撤消; 撤退 Rationalize adj. rational 合理的; 明事理的; 讲道理的 Efficiency adj. efficient Superior n. superiority Emerge n. emergence Promotion vt. Promote Cooperative n. cooperation 1. It is estimated that the new interation between computers and net technology will have significant influence on the industry of the future. 2. In more specific terms, the application of information to the economy is best used in the networking of communication. 3. This net refers to the computer network of satellites, optic fibers, and telephone lines that connect the whole world. 4. According to the author’s opinion, internet shopping belongs to the first aspect. 5. Some people argued that most commodities were unsuitable for internet shopping. 不适宜的; 不 相称的 commodities 日用品; 商品; 6. As a result, puma was transformed from a common company into a magnificent one. 高尚的, 高贵的 宏伟的, 堂皇的, 庄严的 7. The development of e-commerce may well bring the world into a brand new era of “electronic currency”. 8. At the moment, developed areas in Europe, the USA and asia have already started studying the possibility of an electronic currency. 9. As the net pushes the economy ahead rapidly, the economy is also bringing the net market forward. 10. Net is best suited for small and medium enterprises to band/bind together and break the monopolies of the ”giants”.


英译汉 1. With the click of a mouse, information from the other end of the globe will be transported to your computer screen at the extremely fast speed of seven–and–a-half times around the earth per second. 只要用鼠标点一下,在地球另一端的信息马上就会以每秒钟绕地球 7 周半的惊人速度传输到你 的电脑屏幕上。 2. Besides, if every shops on the net, what will happen to the hundreds and thousands of shopping malls. 此外,如果大家都在网上购物,那么成千上万的购物中心该怎么办。 3. The huge power of electronic commerce (e-commerce) will change the face of trade dramatically. Commerce 商业, 贸易 电子商务的惊人威力会使贸易的局面发生激动人心的巨变。 4. The development of e-commerce may well bring the world into a brand new era of “electronic currency”. 电子商务的发展很可能会把世界带进一个“电子货币”的崭新时代。 5. As the net pushes the economy ahead rapidly, the economy is also bringing the net market forward, resulting in the internet itself becoming the world’s largest emerging market. 在网络化高速地推动经济发展的同时,经济也反过来促进网络市场的发展,其结果是国际互联 网本身将成为全球最大的新兴市场。 emerging 新兴的:新形成或刚刚成为杰出的;新出现的: 汉译英 1. 今晚她很可能给我打电话。Likely She is very likely to ring me tonight. 2. 我看不懂这篇文章。Beyond Understanding this article is beyond my capability. 3. 新刷的一层油漆可使房间焕然一新。Transform A fresh coat of paint can transform a room. 4. 做事不先考虑总会导致失败。Result in Acting before thinking always results in failure. 真理单数 5. 他估计那项工作需要三个月。Estimate He estimated that the work would take three months. 6. 我们相信这个协议将会积极地促进两国之间的贸易。Promote. We believe that this agreement will positively promote the trade between our two countries. 7. 新机场必将推动这个地区的旅游业。Push ahead The new airport will certainly push ahead the tourism in this region. 8. 网络经济将对人们的生活产生重要的影响。 Have significant influence on Net economy will have significant influence on the people’s life. 9. 在昨天的会议上,他提出了一个新的经济发展计划。 Bring forward At the yesterday’s meeting, he brought forward a new plan for the economic development. 10. 到目前为之,他们还没有找到遇难的渔船。To date, wrecked To date, they haven’t found the wrecked fishing boat. 被动语态 A table is made. 一般现在 A table has been made. 完成 A table will be made. 将来 A table is being made. 现在进行 A table was made. 过去 A table will have been made. 将来完成 A table would be made. 过去将来 A table was being made. 过去进行 特殊被动 This instrument must be handled with great care. 带情态动词,工具, 手段, 方法, 傀儡 The program has to be changed as soon as possible. 不定式 The sick were looked after in the hospital. 动词短语


He was asked several questions in English. 带双宾语 主动语态变成被动语态 1 Many people speak English. English is spoken by many people. 2 He is watching TV now in the room. TV is being watched now in the room. 3 The criminal murdered the lady. The lady was murdered by the criminal. 4 The teacher will punish henry for coming late. Henry will be punished by the teacher for coming late. 5 Susan has eaten three apples. Three apples have been eaten by Susan. 6 Citizens should obey the law. The law should be obeyed by citizens. 7 Where did the farmer first see the wolf? Where was the wolf first seen by the watchman. 8 The watchman must have heard the noise. The noise must have been heard by the watchman. 9 Parents ought to teach children good behavior. Children ought to be taught good behavior by parents. 10 We shall make use of every minute and second. Every minute and second shuold be made use of. 11 I never heard Nabey speak Japaness. Nabey was never heard to speak Japaness. 12 Who will look after the children? By Whom will the children be look after? 13 We are to put off the sports meet. The sports meet is to be put off. 14 Mary realized they were making fun of her. Mary realized that she was being made fun of. 15 The customs officer requested us to show our passports. We were requested to show our passports by the customes officer. 1. 2. 3. 4. That man has never known to tell a lie. The children have been told many times not to go near the street. The new type of computer is going to be turned out the month after next. After the synthetic had been developed, engineers had a better choice for materials for construction. 5. After being tested in many ways, this newly-designed machine will be put into use in the near future. 6. His parents died when he was young, so he was brought up by his grandma. 7. Lead has been used as a material for sculpture since the time of the early Greeks. 8. We heard that Mary had been given a raise by her employer. 9. He ordered the work to be started at once. 10. He was thought to be clever but dishonest. After careful discussion doctors excluded the food poisoning as the cause of the illness in this area. The breakfast and dinner are included in the fee you have paid for the accommodation. He is the author of great prestige for the romantic fiction. 威信, 威[声]望, 声誉; (财势的)显赫 fiction 小说; 虚构的文学作品 The advanced technology in machine manufacturing will be adopted to this plant. This kind of plane can fly at a maximum altitude of 25000 meters. He said that all the seats in the theater for this play had been booked. The rent for the furnished apartment is usually 150 per week in this region. If you want to terminate the agreement on your own, you must let him know at least two weeks in advance. According to the law in this country, parents are responsible for the welfare of their children. The likeness between the two models of the cars is just perfect in every detail.


第3课 II.Getting information: Environmental problems humans should be responsible for :Global warming, ozone depletion, species extinction 消灭[除], (生物等的)灭绝; (火等的)熄灭; 毁灭; (法律等的)废除 Number of extinct species every year: about 50,000 Animal protected in Zimbabwe: elephant The latest idea of protecting species from extinction: sustainable management The phenomenon occurring in many developing countries: corruption 腐败, 堕落, 贪污, 贿 赂 The area of great bio-diversity: tropical forests 热带(地区)的 The annual rise-rates of most commercial tree species in tropical forest: at most 4% or 5% The general annual interest rates in most developing countries: 15% or more III.Vocabulary and structure A 1 Sustainable management, able to keep up 2 Despite the terrible flood, in spite of 3 During the past decade, ten years 4 A pure and healthy enviroment, surroundings 环境 5 Extinction of a disease, dying out 6 Survive in the desert, continue to live 7 Effective measures, having an effect 8 Sensible advice, reasonable 9 A suspicious glance, [sEs5piFEs] adj. 可疑的, 令人怀疑的 doubtful Glance [^lB:ns] n. 匆匆一看, 一瞥, 眼色匆匆一看, 一瞥, 眼色 10 A tremendous scientific achievement, enormous Tremendous [tri5mendEs] adj. 可怕的 惊人的; [口]极大的; 非常的 Enormous [i5nC:mEs] adj. 巨大的, 极大的, 庞大的 凶暴的, 罪大恶极的 B. Find the opposites of the following words in the text: 1 Damage,preserve 保护; 防护; 维护 2 Manageable, intractable 难驾御[管理、指挥]的 倔强的, 难处理的, 难加工的 3 Increase, depletion 损耗; 贫化 4 Extinction, survival 5 Shallow, profound 6 Rare, popular 7 Trusting, suspicious [sEs5piFEs] adj. 可疑的, 令人怀疑的 8 Limited, unrestricted 不受限制的; 不受约束的; 自由的 9 Producer, consumer 10 Safety, danger C. Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. 1 The man became rich enough making a wise investment. 2 That strange animal belongs to a species that I haven’t seen before. 3 Bananas grow best in tropical climates. 4 He is getting suspicious of my staying away so long. 可疑的, 令人怀疑的 5 A child’s character is greatly influenced by his home enviroment. 6 If you are in doubt about his ability to do the task, don’t entrust him with it. 7 The Mexican minority in the south western part of the United States numbers up to 3 million. minority 少数; 少数党; 较少票数; 少数民族 8 There was a tremendous explosion, and the building fell down. 9 The company went out of business because it couldn’t sell its products. 10 A political dispute involving six nations may be settled by an agreement between them. Dispute 争论, 辩论; 争执 11 All this occurred in an already desperately poor country. 令人绝望的; 危急的, 穷途末路的 12 Why don’t you do something sensible in your spare time? 13 She dieted constantly in order to preserve her youthful figure. 14 The government plans seem good in theory but I doubt if they will work in practice. D.Complete the following sentences, using the words given in brackets.


1 A devastating earthquake left thousands homeless. Devastate [5devEsteit] vt. 使荒芜; 毁灭, 蹂 躏; 破坏 2 Efforts have been made to prevent the extinction of the buffalo. 消灭[除], (生物等的)灭绝水 牛, [美]野牛 3 His survival is still uncertain; he has been very badly hurt and may die. 4 The new interest rate becomes effective next month. 5 The rocket emitted long streams of flame and smoke. 发[放, 幅, 散]射, 发[放, 喷, 冒]出 IV A.英译汉 1 So, if you lose a key species, you might cause a whole flood of other extinctions. 所以,如果失去一个重要的物种,那也许会引起大量其他物种的绝迹。 2 Instead of depending on largely ineffective laws against illegal hunting, it gives local people a good economic reason to preserve plants and animals. 这种办法使当地人们可以为了经济上的原因而去保护动物、植物,而不是依靠在很大程度上难 以奏效的那些反非法偷猎的规章制度。 3 With corrupting popular in many developing countries, some observers are suspicious that the money will actually reach the people it is intended for. 由于许多发展中国家普遍存在腐败,一些观察家对这些钱财实际上能否到达应该接受这笔财务 的人们手中表示怀疑。 4 Sustainable management of forests requires controls on the number of trees which are cut down, as well as investment in replacing them. 森林的可持续管理既需要投资种植新树以取代被砍伐的树木,也需要对被砍伐树木的数量进行 控制。 5 In theory, consumers would buy only this wood and so force logging companies to go ―green‖ or go out of business. 理论上讲,消费者只能购买这些获得认可的木材,这将迫使伐木公司开始保护“绿色”,否则 将无生意可做。 B.汉译英 1 这场特大洪水给长江中下游地区造成了严重的灾害。Do damage to The extremely heavy flood did great damage to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. reaches 延伸, 区域, 河段, 范围, (车子前后轴的)联接杆, 横风行驶 2 这本畅销书对读者产生了深刻的影响。Impact on The bestseller had a great impact on its readers. 3 这辆旧自行车,我最多能付你 5 美元。At most I can give you $5, at most, for the used bicycle. 4 他们的经济利益及政治权力都应当受到保护。As well as Their political rights, as well as their economic benefits should be safeguarded. 5 这场突发疾病把我的假期计划搞得一团糟。Make a mess of The unexpected illness made a mess of my holiday plans. 6 如果你明智的话,你就再学习一年。Sensible If you are sensible you will study for another year. 7 倘若这本书没有其他人想借的话,你可以再续接一个礼拜。Provided You may keep the book a further week provided (that) no one else requires it. 8 报界纷纷指责专题电视节目中使用的粗鄙语言。A flood of There was a flood of complaints from the press about the bad language used in the special TV show. 9 她的任务是把货物整齐地排列在商店橱窗里。Range Her task is to range the goods neatly in the shop window. 10 校长鼓励参加全国数学竞赛的选手们争取取得最好的成绩。Encourage The headmaster encouraged the candidates for the national math competition to strive for the best results. Part B 1 1 Peter’s record was not so good as all the players on the team. 2 The team is good, but not as good as ours. 3 This tool is almost as useful as that one. 4 He will not be old enough to vote in this year’s election. 5 Bob’s work proved not much better than that of others. 6 They are more friendly than my other neighbors. 7 I think he is three years older than I.


8 Can we do our work better with less money and fewer people? 9 She is the younger and more beautiful of the two sisters. 10 He can run as fast as I do. 11 The more medicine I take, the worse I seem to feel. 12 Why is there less traffic on the streets in February than in May? 13 Prices for cars in the US can run as high as $20000. 14 This room is three times as big as that one. 15 This year, the grain production was three times as much as last year. 2、汉译英 1 这座城市的人口要比那座城市的人口多。 The population in this city is larger than in that city. 2 你读到英文文章越多,就能够读得越快。 The more English articles you have read, the faster you can read. 3 在这 3 条铁路中,这条是最长的。 Of the three railroads this one is the longest. 4 这个工厂比那座工厂大二倍。 This factory is three times as large as that one. 5 这项工作与去年我们完成的那项工作一样难。 This work is as difficult as the one we finished last year. 6 他在研究中取得的成就比我们的多。 He has made more achievements in research than we have. 7 这两个公园中,这个更整洁,更干净。 This park is the tidier and cleaner of the two. 8 他讲英语是我们班上讲得最好的。 He speaks English the best in our class. 9 这座工厂的产量比 1990 年增长了百分之十。 The production of this factory has increased the percent more than that of 1990. 10 我们完成这项工作需要的人比他们少。 We need fewer people to finish this work than they do.


第4课 A.Vocabulary and structure 1 Expression of regret=apology 道歉, 认错, 谢罪 2 Likely= liable 有(法律)责任的, 有义务的 3 Power=authority 权威, 权力, 权势 4 Very serious lack of food=famine 饥荒 5 Former holder of position=predecessor 前任[辈]; [古]祖先 6 Rub out = erase 7 Age group = generation 8 Pain = suffering 痛苦; 苦难[恼], 疾苦; [常用复] 灾害; 损害 9 Payment = compensation 补偿(物); 赔偿(金) 10 Inquiry = Investigation 调查(报告) 11 An observable event = phenomenon 12 Terrible accident = disaster B.Choose the word which is closest in meaning to the italicized words. 1 To meet the needs of the war a general call for troops was given. Issued 2 The next day was to be the great mass-meeting to show the importance of the Russian revolution. Celebrate Mass-meeting 群众大[集]会 3 John was saying sorry to Susan for having kept her waiting. Was apologizing 4 Plain, simple clothes are suitable for school wear. Appropriate 5 I can’t work this complex new equipment. Sophisticated 复杂的; 精致的 6 She refused to talk about her family’s pains and sorrows during the war. Suffering 7 The freedom of speech under a dictatorship is not very practical. Academic Dictatorship 专政权力, 独裁政治 8 Jean’s got no moral sense; she’d steal anything from anybody. Conscience 良心, 道德心, 良知 9 She showed understanding when I failed my exam. Was sympathetic 同情的, 有同情心的 10 Japan and China signed a famous peace and friendship treaty in history. Historic 历史上著名的; 有 历史意义的; 有历史性的 Treaty 条约, 协议, 协定 C.Complete each sentence with one phrase from the given list. 1 His failure resulted from not working hard enough. 起于, 由于 2 All the buildings had been turned into hospitals. 进入, (使)变成 3 Though it looked like rain this morning it has turned out to be a fine day. 结果;结果 4 Sandy and Mary began to discuss old times in earnest. 诚挚的;认真的 5 Over nine-tenths of the inhabitants there belong to the main nationality. 居民, 住户, 常住居民 6 A kind person will turn a blind eye to trivial faults in others. trivial 琐细的; 不重要的; 轻微的, 无价值的 7 These children look on their teachers as their friends. 8 The killing were said to have been carried out by members of the people’s temple. 9 I find to my cost that a broken leg can be very painful. 10 We were afraid he would be nervous on stage, but in the event he performed beautifully. o 英译汉 1 The trend began in earnest in 1995, when the Queen of England admitted that the Maori people of the New Zealand had been shamefully treated, when the country was a British colony. Colony 殖民地 Earnest 认真的, 热心的, 重要的 这个潮流是从 1995 年才真正开始的。当时英国女王承认当新西兰还是英国的殖民地时,新西兰 的土著毛利人曾遭到英国认的羞辱。 2 Many political leaders, like most of their citizens, belong to post-war generations, who now look on the conflict as more than simply the victory of good over evil. 许多政治领袖,和他们的国民一样,属于战后的一代,他们现在任务那次战争并不是简单的正 义战胜邪恶的战争。


Conflict 冲突, 斗争 3 But it is not just a sense of conscience, nor demands from pressure groups, which lies behind these apologies. 支撑这些道歉的并不仅仅是良心的发现,也不仅仅是压力群体的要求。 lies behind 躺, 平放, 展现, 展开, 位于 4 The Swiss government is still trying to put right the public-relations disaster that resulted from their partial apology for Switzerland’s dealings with the Nazis in the 1930s and the 1940s. 瑞士政府仍然还在试图摆平一场公共关系的彻底失败,其发生的原因在于他们对他们国家在 20 世纪 30 和 40 年代与纳粹分子的交往所做的道歉是有失公允的。 5 So academic, in fact, that there is a concert that ―sorry‖ might turn out to be the easiest word after all. 事实上,这些风险是如此的空泛,以至于有一种担心,认为“对不起”这个词居然会成为一个脱 口而出的说辞。 o Chines to English 对战争带来的灾难视而不见 To turn a blind eye to the sufferings of the war 50 周年庆典 The 50th anniversary celebration 向??做出公开道歉 To make public apologies to 适时的道歉 A well-timed apology 提升国家首脑的公众形象 To promote a head of state’s public image 解决公共关系危机 To put right the public-relations disaster 为过去的过错道歉 To say sorry for past wrongs 新近解密的文件 Recently declassified documents 承认自己过去的错误 To admit one’s own past wrongs 支付战争赔偿费 To pay compensation for war damage o 汉译英 1 我们希望日本政府能对他们在二战中对中国人民实行的暴行进行正式道歉。Make an apology for We hope that the Japanese government would make a formal apology to the Chinese people for their cruelties committed during the World War II. 2 后来证实有两名旅客丧生。 Turn out It turned out that two travelers had been killed. 3 现在人们把电视机当作必备的生活用品之一。Look on ??as People now look on a television set as an essential facility for life. 4 对人民的疾苦视而不见的政治领袖是不会受到人民的拥护的。Turn a blind eye to The head of state who turns a blind eye to the people’s sufferings will not gain support from them. 5 那位勇敢的年轻人冒着生命危险把这个小孩从湖里救上来。Take risk The brave young man take risked his life in trying to save the child from the lake. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o Select appropriate words It seems very difficult to stop the child crying. We are glad to have helped you when you needed our help. The teacher made the students do their exercises. The doctor found it difficult to treat this infection. He couldn’t help but cry when his toy car fell into the river. What to be done next will be discussed at today’s meeting. He sent his son to the doctor to be given an x-ray check. The story was said to have been based on the information from a reliable source. Mother warmed him not to touch the electric lamp.


10 He finds it difficult to adapt himself to the climate here. 汉译英 1 完成这项工作至少需要 10 人。 To finish this work needs at least ten people. 2 我们的目的是通过英语考试。 Our aim is to pass the English test. 3 她还有许多作业要做,所以她不能同你去舞会。 She has a lot of homework to do, so she can’t go to the dance with you. 4 为了实现这一目标,我们必须努力工作。 In order to achieve the goal, we must work hard. 5 我叫他打扫房间。 I had him clean the room. (I asked him to clean the room) 6 对他们来说扩大词汇量是非常必要的。 It is very necessary for them to enlarge their vocabulary. 7 他们自愿到工厂去工作。 They volunteered to go to work in the factory. 8 他的任务是照看病人。 His task is to look after the sick. 9 我们必须现在马上动身,以便在 5 点钟之前到达那里。 We must set off right now so as to get there before 5. 10 我们需要 2 人录入这篇文章。 We need two people to type this article. Vocabulary and structure John took his habitual morning walk around the park. Habit 日常的, 平常的; 惯常的, 习惯的 You can’t put the expired stuff in the fridge. Expire 满[到]期, 届满 fridge 电冰箱, 冷冻机 Though defeated, his political talent received confirmation in news. Defeat Farmers say they are being hurt by foreign competition. Compete Bill has done everything to avoid talking to me. Talk They want an income that is agreeable to both countries. Agree City leaders hope the amusement park will stimulate tourism. Stimulus 刺激, 鼓励; 刺激物, 促进因素 Tourism 观光事业, 游览 Stimulate 刺激; 激发, 促进 The suspect crossed the bridge, with four police cars in pursuit. Pursue 追赶[踪, 捕, 击] v Pursuit n. 追赶, 追逐, 追踪, 追捕, 追击 There has been a dramatic increase in temperature since yesterday. Drama Mr. King says he welcomes constructive criticism. Construct


第5课 A type of question in which the words used suggest the answer, leading question 主要的问题。 一种使用的关键字可以让人联想到答案的问题 Suggest [sE5dVest] vt. 建议, 提出(意见、计划等) 暗示, 启发, 间接表明 使想起, 使联想到 leading 主要[导]的; 扮演主角的; 第一位的, 最主要的 A great number of questions suddenly directed at someone, a barrage of questions. 一大堆问题 direct at 把...对准 Special words or phrases used in a particular profession or subject (often difficult for ordinary people to understand), jargon 行话 A piece of curved glass which makes objects look larger than they really are, magnifying glass 放大镜 扩[放, 增]大 A wrong idea based on failure to understand a situation, misconception 误解, 错觉, 看法错误 The reason why something happens and the result it has - Cause and effect Describing something that someone has done or used personally rather than read or learned about – hands-on Keep doing something that you want lots of others to do – keep the balls rolling Hard, boring work – drudgery 苦工, 单调辛苦的工作 Soft green or grey growth that develops on old food – mould 发霉, 肥土, 壤土, [亦作 mold] 霉, 模具 v. 用土覆盖, 铸造 o 英译汉 1 The irony is that children start out as natural scientists, instinctively eager to investigate the world around them. Irony [5aiErEni] n. 反话, 讽刺, 讽刺之事 有讽刺意义的是,孩子就是天生的自然科学家,本能地渴望搜索周围的世界。 2 This began a barrage of questions that lasted nearly two hours. 一下子一大堆这样的问题就提了出来,时间持续了将近两个小时。 3 Science is not just facts but the meaning that people give to them – by weaving information into a story about how nature probably operates. 科学不仅仅是事实,而是人民赋予它的内涵 – 即各项信息汇总成为大自然的有根据的运行实况。 4 Studies over the past three decades have shown that, after asking a question, adults typically wait only one second or less for a response – no time for a child to think. 过去 30 年的研究也表明了这一点,当问了一个问题后,成年人一般等待回答的时间也就是 1 秒 钟甚至更少,没有留出时间让孩子进行思考。 5 Instead, keep the ball rolling by saying, “that’s interesting” or “I’d never thought of it that way before”, or coming up with more questions or ideas. 反过来,要鼓励他们继续讨论,可以这样说“这个想法很有意思!”或者“我以前从来就没有这 样想过。”或者,提出更多的问题和观点。 6 Real-life impressions of nature are far more memorable than any lesson children can extract from a book or TV program. 对孩子们来说,从书本和电视节目上学到的课程一点也没有他们对自然的亲身体会那么记忆深 刻。 7 By sharing your children’s curiosity, you can give them a valuable lesson that extends far beyond the realm to experiment, in the face of difficulties. 通过分享孩子的好奇心,你还能给他们提供超出科学实验领域之外的如何面对困难的有价值的教 诲。 汉译英 一大堆问题 A barrage of questions 别冲动,不要急于回答问题 To resist the impulse to respond quickly to a question 不要给孩子规定去思考什么 Rather than tell children what to think 鼓励他们说下去(使??不中断)


Keep the ball rolling 安排活动方案 To manage the itinerary 面临困难 In the face of difficulties o 汉译英 1 解说员的讲解非常有吸引力。Make ??appealing The guide made her introduction very appealing. 2 简单点儿讲吧,别用那些专业术语了。Rather than Please use simple words rather than a lot of jargon. 3 不要急于回答,留出一些讨论的余地。Opening for discussion Please resist the impulse to repond quickly and leave some opening for discussion. 4 一些启发性的问题可以鼓励孩子思考。 Leading question Some leading questions can help the children to think for themselves. 5 面临困难的时候坚持下去就会取得回报。In fact of, it pays. It pays to persist in the face of difficulties. o Select appropriate words. 1 Many things considered impossible in the past are common today. 2 The machine being produced in our factory these days is a new type of electronic computer. 3 The noise of desk being opened and closed could be heard out in the street. 4 Having heard that Barton had been promoted, his friends came to congratulate him. 5 Surrounded by the police, the kidnappers had no choice but to surrender. 6 Never losing faith in himself, James Watt went on with his experiment. 7 There are four factories in our institute, each having over 100 workers. 8 The driver seeing a bomb on the road, the car was stopped. 9 The weather being fine, they decided to go out for a stroll. 10 Found in all parts of the country, pines are the most common trees in the part. 11 Commercial banks make the most of their income from interest earned on the loans and investments in stocks. 12 Returning to my apartment, I found my watch missing. 13 Having been served lunch, the committee members discussed the problem. 14 The police pursued the criminal continuously, finally catching him. 15 She finished her work, tired and worn out. Wear o Select appropriate words. 1 The baby was waked by the deafening sound. Deafen 2 The wounded man was taken to hospital. Wound 3 This is a mistake often made through negligence. Make 4 A bus coming from the opposite direction knocked down the cyclist. Come 5 He sent away the barking dog at once. Bark 6 Standing on the top of the hill, we came in sight of the whole waterfall. Stand 7 Driven by despair, many unemployed school-leavers have degenerated into criminals. Drive 8 All the planes departing for London are carefully searched and checked before taking off. Depart. 9 A boy believed to have killed a roommate has escaped from the city. Believe 10 Most cars imported from Japan are used as taxis. Import Multiple choices. Benchmarking deserves credit for inspiring some legendary corporate turnaround. Praise To be effective, benchmarking needs solid support from top management. Unanimous 一致同意的,无 异议的 Xerox CEO David Kearns initially launched the successful ―leadership through Quality‖ program to boost product quality. Improve One individual was assigned to oversee improvements in each of 10 areas encompassing the 67 identified processes. Supervise Xerox has been able to reclaim the market leadership position that had once been threatened. Demand back.


第6课 Vocabulary and structure Noun verb Challenge, challenge Specialization, specialist, specialty, specialize, Existence, exist, Curiousness, curiosity, Emergency, emerge, Quality, qualification, qualify, Practice, practice, Adjective challenging special existing curious emergent qualified practical, practicing

o Identify one of the four choices which would keep the meaning of the underlined word or phrase. 1 She had supposed human ingenuity would find ways to overcome food shortages and overpopulation. Ingenuity 善发明的天才, 智巧, 独创性 独出心裁, 设计新颖; 精巧; 精巧的装置[机器] Cleverness 聪明 2 Delicate Japanese trees were replaced by sturdier North American trees. Sturdier, 强健的, 坚定的, 毫不含糊的 Stronger, 更强壮的 3 The powers of the atom are about to be harnessed for ever-greater production. Harnessed, 上马具, 披上甲胄, 利用(河流、瀑布等)产生动力(尤指电力),统治,管理, Utilized, 利用 4 Her poverty was a handicap in her career. Poverty 贫穷[困] Handicap, 障碍不利条件 Disadvantage, 不便; 不利; 不利的情况 5 He had a distinct feeling that something was wrong. Distinct, 清晰的; 明显的; 确定无疑的 Clear, 清楚的, 明确的, 显明的, 清晰的 6 Those physicians and specialists’ finding was a great breakthrough in their fight against heart disease. Physicians, 医, (内科)医生; [美](一般)医师; [口]医学博士 Breakthrough, 突破(防线) 完成, 成就, 成功(尤指技术革新), (重要科学)发明[现], 重要 Achievement, 成就, 成绩 o Fill in the blank with the proper word. 1 The advice is used to measure the range of the gun. 2 The artist spent many years on his monumental painting, which covered all the walls of the exhibition hall. Monumental 纪念碑的; 雄伟的; 巨大的; 不朽的 3 This truck was carrying a load of bananas. 4 The design is worthless for all practical purposes. 实际的, 实践的; 有用的, 应用的 5 This experienced editor is said to be able to reduce the misprints to almost nil. Nil 无, 零 Misprints 印错, 误印 6 The company has expanded its operations in Stanford by opening a new branch office there. 7 There is a distinct improvement in your study; you must have put in more effort. 8 The firm is now in the process of moving the main equipment to a new place. 9 My grandfather was a career teacher; it’s the only job he’d ever done. 10 In system development, the specification refers to a description of how the design of a system, device, or program is to be implemented. o 英译汉 1 Engineers have had a direct role in the creation of most of modern technology – the tools, materials, techniques, and power sources that make our lives easier 工程师在绝大部分现代科技的创新中发挥着直接的作用,例如,为使生活更轻松自如,我们靠他 们才有了工具、材料、技术和能源等。 2 They develop complex scientific equipment to explore the reaches of outer space and the depths of the oceans.


他们开发复杂的科学设备来勘探外层空间和海洋深处。 3 They may work to reduce environmental pollution, increase the world’s food supply, and make transportation faster and safer. 他们致力于减少环境污染,增加世界粮食的供应,以及使运输更加便捷和安全。 4 The construction of the gigantic Egyptian pyramids at Giza during the 2500s B. C. was one of the greatest engineering feats of ancient times. 公元前 26 世纪,在吉萨建造的巨大的埃及金字塔是古代最伟大的工程奇迹之一。 5 The growing interest in new types of machines and new sources of power of drive them helped bring about the industrial revolution of the 1700s and 1800s, during which, their role expanded rapidly. 对新型机械和驱动这些机械的动力源不断增长的兴趣引发了 18 和 19 世纪的工业革命。在工业革 命时期,工程师的作用得到迅速扩展。 汉译英 一个健壮结实的孩子 A sturdy child 利用河流发电 To harness the river 给...上轭具; 使...做固定工作, 利用(风等)作动力, (河流等)开发, 治理; 控制 to harness a river to make electricity 利用河流发电 在史前时期 In prehistoric times 使他成为合格的工程师 To qualify him for an engineer 对知识充满好奇心 To be curious about knowledge 按时完成工作 To meet the deadline o 汉译英 1 很明显,与他争论无济于事。It is no use It’s obvious that it is no use arguing with him. 2 他在我们学校演的剧中扮演老国王的角色。Play a role of He played the role of the old king in our school play. 3 她在这张照片中显得很年轻。Make sb look young This photograph makes her look very young. 4 他帮助那位教授编了那本词典。Assist, compile He assisted the professor in compiling the dictonary. 5 请你务必查清房间上锁后再离开。Make sure Please make sure that the house is locked up before you leave. o Sentence completion 1 Many people favor building more nuclear power plants. 2 Professor Smith heard the students talking about him and he pretended not to mind. 3 Driving to the office was very slow this morning because of the traffic. 4 I would appreciate your keeping it a secret between us. 5 The doctor has difficulty in treating this infection. 6 This house needs painting; I will call the repair company tomorrow. 7 I am in the habit of brushing my teeth twice a day. 8 Would you mind turning off the recorder? I am working on my paper now. 9 With my helping her do this, she will have no difficulty persuading them to accept her plan. 10 You need to know that resisting arrest is a crime. 11 I have to tell you that it is no use talking to him about this. 12 Doing work means moving a body through a distance by a force. 13 She regretted her having made a big mistake in the examination. 14 Besides mastering the technology of designed ships, he also learned how to build them. 15 It is a waste of time arguing about it with them. o 汉译英 1 翻译这本书是很难的。主语 Translating this book is very difficult.


2 现在往火车站赶没有用了,火车一定是开走了。主语 It is no use hurrying to the railway station. The train must have left. 3 我们都知道他非常喜欢集邮。Be fond of 宾语,(与 of 连用)特别喜爱的 We know that he is very fond of collecting stamps. 4 教室里禁止吸烟。Prohibit, forbid 宾语 Smoking in the classroom is prohibited. 5 我们的任务是增加产量。表语 Our task is increasing the production. 6 他们反对把会议推迟到下周。介词宾语 They objected to delaying the meeting until next week. 7 我把窗户关上你介意吗?宾语 Do you mind my closing the window? 8 他避免给我们一个明确的答复。宾语 He avoided giving us a clear answer. 9 你有兴趣去看英语剧吗?介词宾语 Are you interested in going to an English Play? 10 他组织这项工作的方法是非常有效的。介词宾语 His method of organizing the work is effective.


第7课 o A Choose the correct word to fit into each sentence, using the proper form. 1 Transformation in the color of sea water from blue to green seems to be caused by high and low concentration of salt. 2 Students must have access to good books. 3 Poor health and lack of money may both be barriers to educational progress. 4 It was so kind of you to send that message via Jim. 5 It has been necessary to devise a system of universal schooling. 设计, 想出, 创造, 发明 6 7 8 9 The report alleged that the motive was financial. 宣称, 断言, 声称的, 所谓的 These characteristics of British industry are a legacy of pre-war unemployment. 传代物; 传统, 遗教, These planes are among the most sophisticated aircraft now being manufactured. 复杂的; 精致的 It is a striking indictment of our educational system that so many children can’t read or write. 控告, 起诉 10 Lack of employment tends to make women vulnerable to depression. 脆弱的;敏感的 Buy = purchase Accusation 控告 谴责= indictment 控告, 起诉, 告发 Complex = complicated Safe = secure Social environment = atmosphere Watch = surveillance 监视, 看守 Change = transformation Barrier 栅栏; 屏障; 隔板, 挡板= barricade 路障, 街垒, 路栏 1 If other means fail, we shall resort to force. 求助; 依赖; 诉诸, 采取(某种手段等) 2 Ray went out, leaving the door on the latch. 3 Police are keeping the area under constant surveillance. 监视, 看守 4 Cruel experiments on animals are carried out in the name of science. 5 They’ve had technical problems at any rate that’s what they told me. 6 The web was only attached to the leaf by one thread. 7 Is the video hooked up to the TV? 8 ―My name is Dean E. Beller.‖ ―What does the E stand for?‖ 9 Will you take over the driving when we reach Madison. 把...从一地带到另一地, 接收, 接管 10 The growling of dogs held the strangers at bay.

o 汉译英
1 如果你卷入别人的问题,你很可能会以陷入不愉快地境况而告终。Chances are that If you get involved in other peoples’ problems, the chances are that you will end up in an unpleasant situation. 2 他认为保卫祖国抵御敌人是自己的职责。Defend against He thinks it a duty to defend his country against enemies. 3 不要太重视他的话。Attach to Don’t attach too much importance to what he said. 4 住宅逐渐消失,慢慢变成了办公室。Take over The home is vanishing and the business office is taking over. 消失, 消没, 等于零 5 他应该已经在工作,但是他却在忙别的事情。Otherwise He should have been working but he was otherwise engaged. 6 他从来没有想过她也许是在撒谎。 Occur to It never occurs to him that she might be telling lies. 7 他还没想好将来要干什么。Figure out He has not yet figured out what he is going to do. 8 他们以五个座席的微弱优势获胜。Margin They won by the small margin of five seats. 9 回想起我们在那里度过的一个月,我们心中充满了感激之情。Look back on As we look back on the month we spent there, our hearts are filled with gratitude. 10 这辆汽车很旧,但不管怎样,花费的钱不多。At any rate


It is a very old car, but at any rate, it was not expensive. 11 他们不能使用煤气炉,因为还没安装好。Hook up They could not use the gas stove because it had not been hooked up. 12 他忘记自己应该维持秩序了。Be supposed to He forgot he was supposed to be keeping order.

o 英译汉
1 In this essay, Greene regrets that people can no longer trust each other and have to resort to elaborate security systems to protect themselves and their valuables. 在本文中,格林遗憾地指出人们已经不再彼此信任,不得不求助于各种复杂的安全设备来保护自 身及其财产。 2 Statistics show the crime rate is rising more dramatically in those allegedly tranquil areas than in cities. 统计数字表明在那些据称是平静的地区,犯罪率的上升较之城市还要显著。 3 The ad pointed out that, yes, it is the insurance companies that pay for stolen goods, but who is going to pay for what the new atmosphere of distrust and fear is doing to our way of life? 诚然,广告显示的是保险公司会为你失窃的东西负责,但是又有谁会补偿这种不信任和恐惧的气 氛给我们生活方式带来的改变呢。 4 It simply didn’t occur to managers that the proper thing to do was to distrust people. 经理们从没想过怀疑别人是正常行为。 5 It was such a relief to solve this problem that we did not think much about what such a state of affairs says about the quality of our lives. 解决这样的问题使我们松了一口气,以至于我们不去考虑这种情况对我们的生活质量意味着着什 么。

o 汉译英
1 你去过九寨沟吗?那可是个好地方。 Have you ever been to Jiuzhaigou, which is a wonderful place? 2 汤姆向老师解释了他迟到的原因。 Tom explained to his teacher the reason why he was late. 3 这是小王最爱去的餐馆之一。 This is one of the restaurants where xiao wang likes to visit most. 4 她就是昨天给我们做报告的教授。 She is teh professor who gave us a lecture yesterday. 5 北京是全国人民向往的首都。 Beijing is the capital city which all the people in China long for. 6 我们班有 33 名同学,其中 10 人来自上海。 There are 33 students in our class, ten of whom come from Shanghai. 7 图书馆是学生自习的好地方。 The library is a good place where students like to have self-study. 8 这就是多年前毛主席用过的书桌。 This is the desk which Chairman Mao used many years ago. 9 他向我们详细介绍了研究的过程,这对我们来说非常重要。 He gave us a detailed introduction about the process of the research, which is very important to us. 10 他们还没有决定他们去上海的时间。 They haven’t decided the time when they will go to Shanghai.

o 词语填空
1 2 3 4 5 He often visited the grain mile of Peter, who liked to experiment with new things. She found a place in the building which she used as her first laboratory. Do you know the exact time when the meeting will begin? She wanted to join the group of men whose work was to explore the mysteries of the mountains. This is the reason why an airplane can’t fly in space.

6 More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming popular here. 7 The factory in which I worked last year was equipped with the latest machinery. 8 This is the house about which I wrote to you last year when I was in this city.


9 He is the very man whom we have been looking for. 10 It’s the best film that I’ve ever seen. 11 This is Peter whose sister you met last week. 12 These were the graduate assistants whose responsibility it was to do the research work in the lab. 13 He will never forget the days when he spent with his grandma. 14 The tree, the branches of which are almost bare, is a very old one. 15 An old friend from abroad, whom I was expecting to stay with me, telephoned from the airport. 以定语的方式转换成一个复合句。 This is my classmate whom I share a room with. He has signed the contract, under which he has to work here for three years. The teacher advised me to read this book which may help me to pass the test. This is one of those things which we have to put up with. The fire started on the first floor of the building, many of those rooms are offices and meeting rooms. Vocabulary This meeting is protracted unexpectedly. 拖长, 延长, 伸出, 突出 We want to codify the procedures. 把(法律)编成法典; 编纂, 整理 The police are empowered to arrest suspected criminals. It’s beyond me why she stole the money. The lung cancer he suffered debilitated him. 疲惫不堪的, 操劳过度的 She is capable of making a close rapport between herself and her students. 关系;友好关系;和睦 The housing price in this city is getting higher and higher at a soaring speed. 崇高的, 远大的 He promised full endorsement of the plan. 背签(提单); 背书; 认可 The lawyer found a precedent from a court case in the 19th century. 在前[先]的, 优先的 He made an announcement that he had won the election prematurely. 早熟的; 不成熟的



1 2 3 4

The shop assistant wrapped it up for her as quickly as possible. 有包装的,预先包装的 I behaved badly yesterday and I am ashamed of myself now. 羞耻, 惭愧, 害臊 Hugs have a long tradition here, just to show friendliness to each other. 拥[搂, 紧]抱 Don’t forget to mark your calendar for the 50th annual CSI show & convention in Las Vegas, March 29 – April 1. 5 I am stifling in this close room. 令人窒息的; 气闷的; 沉闷的 6 We reserve all rights to allow or terminate a membership without any prior notification. 7 Nothing in history assures the success of our civilization. 8 The passengers withdrew against the wall as the car passed by. 取回; 收回; 领回; 撤回; 缩回 9 The wheels of the car stuck in the mud and we could not go on. 粘贴, 张贴 10 If you wish to review a book that you already own or have access to for social thought and research, feel free to submit it. Withdraw, adj, withdrawn Hug, n, hug Reserve, n, reservation 保留[存], 备用, 储备 Assure, n, assurance, 确信, 把握, 信心, 自信 Clumsily, adj, clumsy, 笨拙的; 姿势不雅观的 Realize, n, realization Ashamed, n, ashamedness Wed, n, wedding Terminate, n, terminal Encourage, n, encouragement 1 As she stood in front of her 5th grade class on the very first day of school, she told the children an untruth. 2 Mrs. Thompson had watched Teddy the year before and noticed that he didn’t play well with the other children, that his clothes were messy and that he constantly needed a bath. 3 However, when she reviewed his file, she was in for a surprise. 4 His mother’s death has been hard on him. 5 By now, Mrs. Thompson realized the problem and she was ashamed of herself. 6 Some of the children started to laugh when she found a rhinestone 假金钢石,假钻石 bracelet with some of the stones missing, and a bottle that was one-quarter full of perfume. 香水; 香料; 香精 7 Teddy Stoddard stayed after school that day just long to say, ―Mrs. Thompson today you smelled just like my Mom used to.‖ 8 Six years went by before she got another note from Teddy. 9 This time he explained that after he got his bachelor’s degree, he decided to go a little further. 10 He explained that his father had died a couple of years ago and he was wondering if Mrs. Thompson might agree to sit at the wedding in the place that was usually reserved for the mother of the groom. 男仆; 男人; 家伙

o 英译汉
1 As she stood in front of her 5th grade class on the very first day of school, she told the children an untruth. 开学第一天,当她站在五年级班级的面前,她对孩子们说了一句不实在的话。 2 Mrs. Thompson had watched Teddy the year before and noticed that he didn’t play well with the other children, that his clothes were messy and that he constantly needed a bath. 汤普森女士一年前就见到泰蒂了,还注意到他无法和其他孩子融洽地在一起玩,他衣服很脏,总 是一副没洗澡的样子。 3 Teddy is an excellent student, well liked by his classmates, but he is troubled because his mother has a terminal illness and life at home must be a struggle. 泰蒂是很优秀的学生,很受同学们喜爱。但他母亲得了绝症,他为此而困扰,家里的生活一定很 辛苦。


4 But she stifled the children’s laugher when she exclaimed how pretty the bracelet was, putting it on, and dabbing some of the perfume on her wrist. 但他惊喜地称赞手镯的漂亮,把它戴到手上,并把香水轻拍在她手腕上。这些动作止住了孩子们 的笑声。 5 Four years after that, she got another letter, saying that while things had been tough at times, he’d stayed in school, had stuck with it, and would soon graduate from college with the highest of honors. 四年以后,她收到另一封信,说他尽管时常遇到困难,他仍留在学校学习,坚持了下来,他即将 以最优秀的成绩大学毕业。

o 汉译英
1 最近,我有一个朋友辞去了他公司里的那份工资高但要求也高的工作。Quit One friend of mine has decided to quit his highly-paid but demanding position in his company recently. 2 她以烹饪美食为乐。Take delight in doing sth She takes delight in cooking lovely meals. 3 她要查询是否给她预定了房间。Reserve for She wanted to check if there was a room reserved for her. 4 当你打开立体图书,你肯定会大吃一惊。Be in for When you open the pop-up book, you’re in for a big surprise. 5 他一生中的两大爱好是音乐和绘画。Interest His two great interests in life are music and painting. 6 婚礼以后,我们就回到中国去,因为我们在那里工作,并且打算在那里生活。Wedding After the wedding we’ll be returning to China, where we work and plan to live. 7 他们都饿了,因而感到饭菜喷香。Smell They were all hungry and the food smelt good. 8 树越高,风越大。The ??the ?? The higher the tree the stronger the wind 9 他的妻子开玩笑说跟他结婚的是他的工作。Marry His wife joked that he was married to his work. 10 这本书还到图书馆时,缺了 12 页。Missing When the book was returned to the library, it had 12 pages missing.

o 填空
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 He walked into the restaurant as if it had belonged to him. 好象...似的; 仿佛...一样 Don’t eat that fruit unless it is ripe. I don’t think it’ll rain, but I’ll take an umbrella in case it does. She felt very silly when everyone laughed at her question. He insured his car in case he had an accident. Put your luggage in the van quickly now that the train will be off in a minute. That’s a good suggestion! Let’s finish our work now so that we can be free this evening. Even if we can make laws to protect certain animals, we are frequently incapable of controlling the environment. 9 Rare animals are still hunted, even though we can now imitate their skins with other materials. 10 Unless you understand this rule, you will have difficulty. 11 The doctor urges that he should have an operation on his back so that his health will improve quickly. 12 They went wherever they could find a good job. 13 No matter who inspected this radio, he should have put his identification number on the box. 14 Although what happened in that developed country sounds like science fiction, it could occur elsewhere in the world. 15 What woke me up last night was a big noise.

o 汉译英
1 由于我离开得太匆忙,忘记带课本了。Leave in a big hurry As I left in a big hurry, I forgot to bring the textbook with me. 2 如果你能保持整洁的话,我们可以让你使用这个房间。Keep ?? clean and tidy If you can keep the room clean and tidy, we will let you use it. 3 虽然不想参加宴会,她还是接受了邀请。 She accepted the invitation even though she didn’t really want to attend the party. 4 只要我们不灰心,我们一定能够找到解决问题的办法。Lose heart So long as we don’t lose heart, we will be able to find the way to solve the problem.


5 这项工程完成得比我们预计的要早。 This project was completed earlier than we expected. 6 我不知道在会议上采取了什么决定,因为我们的代表还没有向我汇报。 I don’t know what decisions were made at the conference because our representative hasn’t reported to me yet. 7 今天早上他起床晚了,所以没有赶上汽车。 He got up late this morning, so he missed the bus. 8 加入我们弄不到设备的话,我们将怎么办? Supposing we can’t get the necessary equipment what should we do then? 9 他感到失望,因为工作没有达到预期的水平。Come up to what was expected He felt disappointed, for his work didn’t come up to what was expected. 10 当他到家的时候,他发现房子已经起火了。 When he got home he found that the house had been on fire. The Allied (使)结盟; (使)联姻 troops are advancing on the camp of the enemy. The secretary has booked the manager in at the Hilton Hotel. It is provided in the contract that the work should be accomplished within a year. The wording of the note permits of several interpretations. It’s not reliable to judge a man only by his looks. The monthly rent is $20 inclusive of everything. He was my only Chinese companion during my stay in Australia. We hope that many commuters will continue to utilize mass transit after the bridge has reopened. That seaside hotel charges exorbitant prices during the summer holidays. Many film critics rated the latest movie of Harry Portter excellent.



o Vocabulary and structure
1 His wife left him when the children were small, so he effectively brought up the family himself. 有效 的, 有作用的 2 More likely than not, she’ll end up in court over this problem. 3 We’re looking for someone who will be able to motivate the staff to work hard. 促动; 激发, 促成 4 She is right, in a sense, because we did agree to wait, but only until June. 在某种意义上来说 5 Listen to both sides and you will be enlightened. 6 He tends to view most issues from a philosophical perspective. 哲学上的 7 They work as a group – no one person is allowed to dominate. 支配, 统治, 管辖, 8 The plan for a new office tower went ahead regardless of local opposition. 9 The average people are a lot better off than they were forty years ago. 10 Harlem has been advanced to a higher position. 11 As the organizer of the team, he took the lead in setting the pace of the project. 12 Scientists successfully found that some kinds of bacteria grow very fast because he can replicate by themselves. 13 Managers of this generation are more likely to exercise participatory management in their own companies. 14 Without strong background of education and skills, it is very hard for anyone to operate a business successfully. 15 Rapid mounting of daily expenses is a threat to social stability.

o Complete the following sentences.
1 2 3 4 5 The developing countries have to compete with the developed for world market. It is always very difficult to have this group of people to be of the same mind. At that time, the United States had a huge technological lead over all of the rest in the world. Finally, at the graduate level, James recognized his own value. It is not right to shift the blame to anyone else.

6 The girls bet the boys a big fancy cake on their winning the game. 7 Health is above wealth in that / because the latter can’t give so much happiness as the former. 8 Some sparrows are six inches long, but on average they are still smaller than magpies. 鹊 9 They’ve finally got on top of the situation. 10 Such things as silver and gold are incomparable with love.

o Guess the meaning of the following words.
Participatory = 参加的,参与的 Competitiveness = 有竞争性 Superiority = 优越性 Statistical = 统计学的 Globalization = 全球一体化 Telecommunication = 电信 Productive = 有生产能力的 Demography = 人口学

o 英译汉
1 The globalization of the world’s capital markets that has occurred in the past 10 years will be replicated right across the economy in the next decade. 过去 10 年世界资本市场出现的全球化在未来 10 年中,也将在整个经济中重现。 2 Demography and changing social mores mean that white males will become a smaller fraction of the work force as women and minorities grow in importance. 人口统计和不断变化中的社会习俗意味着,随着妇女和少数民族重要性的增加,白人男人在劳动 力群体中所占比例将会减少。


3 In addition, the need to produce goods and services at quality levels previously thought impossible to obtain in mass production and the spreading use of participatory management techniques will require a work force with much higher levels of education and skills. 此外,提供有质量的产品和服务的需要(而过去则认为大批量生产是不可能做到这一点的),以 及参与型管理技术的推广使用,都将要求劳动力具有更高的教育和技术程度。 4 In a very real sense the world was not technologically competitive. 完全可以说,当时世界上不存在技术竞争。 5 Today we live in a world where American firms no longer have automatic technological superiority. 今天,在我们所生活的世界中,美国公司已不再是自然而然地具有技术上的优势。

o 汉译英
1 很可能她把这事全忘了。More likely than not More likely than not, she’s forgotten all about it. 2 这意味着我们实际上没有可能按时完成。Effectively This means that effectively we have no chance of finishing it on time. 3 他的第一部小说不算太好也不算太糟,就是一般水平。Average His first novel was not particularly good or bad, just average. 4 谈到现代爵士乐,没几个人比汤姆知道得更多。When it When it comes to modern jazz, very few people know more than Tom. 5 这项研究的重要性在于它证实了 A 与 B 之间存在联系。In that The research is important in that it confirms the existence of a relationship between A and B. 6 尽管以前我们失败过,但仍要坚持下去。Regardless of We will persevere regardless of past failures. 坚持, 坚忍, 不屈不挠(at, in, with) 7 考试不能促使学生去追求更多的知识。Motivate Examinations do not motivate a student to seek more knowledge. 8 成功的领导者是事先控制事件而不是事后才做出反应。Dominate Successful leader dominate events rather than react to them. 9 他必须将重担从一肩移到另一肩上。Shift He had to shift the vast burden from one shoulder to the other. 10 科技力量上的优势帮助这家公司战胜所有对手。Superiority The superiority in science and technology helps this company defeat all its rivals.

o 选择适当的名词从句填空
1 2 3 4 5 Last week he promised that he would come today, but he hasn’t arrived yet. He is trying all kinds of materials to learn which of them can be used. His family had almost forgotten what his face was like. It is obvious that we should spend the money on more important things. We were greatly amused by what you told us.

6 That is what I’m doing now; I would like you to know I can finish it by myself. 7 At about the same time, doctors began to understand that dirt and disease went together. 8 The problem is which is the cheapest way? 9 These exercises are different from what you expect. 10 What really interested him was to return to school. 11 Whether the flower is black will be known tomorrow. 12 Not one of us has a clear idea about what the others want to do. 13 I will let you know where the meeting will be held. 14 The question is whether it will be safe to land men there. 15 He was afraid of what would happen to his child.

o Vocabulary and structure
1 We wish to establish the cooperation to the advantage of both our firms. 2 Some salesmen in big shops receive a commission of 10% on everything they sell, as well as a salary. 3 The rights protection law for the consumers enables any impaired consumer to claim money from the company. 4 The school has extensive playing fields. 5 The government announced that they would build a new highway to the mountain.


6 I am looking forward to seeing you this summer vacation. 7 The number of staff meetings fell off after a few months. 8 A new office was set up to file the inquiry about the lost shipment. 9 We must carry on till success in spite of the extremely difficult conditions. 10 The manager assistant came here to execute a few small commissions for the manager.

o 汉译英
1 感谢您对本公司的信任, appreciate We appreciate the confidence you have placed in our company. 2 政府执行执政党的决定。Execute A government is to execute the decisions of the ruling party. 3 今后我们将以“永葆青春化妆品公司”之名义,继续营业,特此奉告。Carry on We inform you that, on and after this date, our business will be carried on in the name of Young Young Cosmetics Co. 4 兹定于下月 1 日,于本市开设蓝宝石百货公司。Establish We inform you that on the 1st of the coming month, we establish in this city a department store under the name of Sapphire Dept. store. 5 因公司业务增大,原办公地点已不能满足需要,因而迁址至北京立汤路 15 号。Premises 前提 We inform you that in consequence of the increase of our business, we have been obliged to occupy larger premises, and that we have moved to 15 Litang Road, Beijing.


第 10 课

o Vocabulary and structure o Fill in the blanks.
1 2 3 4 5 Jane used to be slow in class, but now she is getting ahead. Nobody is able to explain the origin of this commonly-used expression. 起源; 起因; 原因; 来龙去脉 Paul reminds me very much of a schoolmate I used to know at university. Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched. 通过孵化使小鸡出壳; 使产生 They hauled the boat up onto the shore. 拖, 拉, 曳

o Choose one of the following words which is closest in meaning to the underlined word.
1 He was wearing a decent suit in the party last week. Suitable 2 Several car manufactures will boot half of their workers because of the economic difficulty. Dimiss o boot 踢[赶]出; 轰走; [俚]解雇(out) 3 A frugal buyer purchases fruit and vegetables in season. Economical 节省的; 俭朴的; 量少的, 花钱 少的 4 They had ample 许多的 funds to cover the cost of the trip. Sufficient 充足的; 丰富的; 5 Eventually, the case proved to have nothing to do with him. Ultimately 最后的, 结果的 6 All living things have certain attributes that are passed on from one generation to the next. Traits 特 性, 特征, 特点 7 Traffic was moving at a crawl. At a slow pace 向前慢慢爬 8 That story rings true. Sounds 9 There has been a modest decrease in house price this year. Little 适度的, 适中的, 朴素的, 朴实的; 普通的 10 The country made social and political gains under the new government. Progress 取[获、博、赢]得

o Close in meaning to those in column
Descent 降, (落)下; 倾斜, 下坡= heir 后嗣; 嗣子; 继承人 Forefather 祖先, 前人= ancestor 祖先, 祖宗 Drag = haul Extend = stretch Frugal 节省的; 俭朴的; 量少的, 花钱少的= tightfisted 吝啬的;小气的 (亦作: tight) Plentiful = ample Finally = eventually 最后的, 结果的

o 英译汉
1 Taxes put a big dent in family fortunes, and unless the heirs are careful and invest wisely, they can lose their millions as fast as their ancestors made them. 祖先, 祖宗 遗产税大大削弱家族的财富,获取遗产的后人如果不小心或不谙投资,他们失去财富的速度就将 像其先辈当年获得它一样快。 2 Today’s Horatio Alger heroes often come from modest backgrounds and rise to the top on pluck, luck and a clear idea of what they want. 今天的具有霍雷肖艾尔格笔下主人公特征的富豪们往往来自平凡的背景,他们攀上巅峰靠的是胆 识、运气以及有清楚的奋斗目标。 3 Bill Gates, the Microsoft whiz, left Harvard to tinker with software and developed the operating brain that is installed in nearly every personal computer. 比尔盖茨,那个微软的大能人,没有上完哈佛大学就去钻研软件,开发出一种几乎每台电脑都安 装的工作大脑。 4 They didn’t drop out to avoid work – they dropped out to start a company or devote themselves to an interest. 他们退学并不是逃避工作—实际上他们都是为了创办一家公司,或去从事自己感兴趣的事业。 5 Eventually, you may reach the point where you can afford to spend the rest of your life at the side of a swimming pool with a drink in your hand, but you probably won’t.


这样,有朝一日你或许可以有资格把余生打发在游泳池边,手里端着饮料,不过你很可能不会如 此。

o 汉译英
排行榜前 10 名 The top ten of the list 一辆破旧的卡车 A beat-up old car 追溯到 19 世纪 Stretch back to the 19th century 转移注意力 Turn one’s attention to 保持节俭的习惯 To keep one’s frugal habit 小本经营 To do business on shoestring budget

o 汉译英
1 文化交往有助于相互理解。Make for Cultural exchanges make for mutual understanding. 2 当 3 家公司都决定要她的时候,她知道自己已经成功了。Make it When three companies wanted to hire her, she knew that she had made it. 3 这个男孩抓住那矮树,直到有人爬下悬崖去救他。Hold on to The boy held on to the bush until someone climbed down the cliff to rescue him. 4 经济学家认为没有进步的原因是合作不好。Attribute to Economists attributed the lack of progress to poor cooperation. 5 在那时,没有受过大学教育就能找到一个体面的工作还是可能的。Decent At that time, it was still possible to land a decent job without a college education. 6 前院布满了保安人员。Crawl with The forecourt was crawling with security men. 7 我已经听说了你们两个正在策划的那个大阴谋。Hatch I’ve heard about the grand plot that you two are hatching. 8 他的回答听起来总是很正确。Ring His answers often ring true. 9 令人吃惊的是他炒股发了财。Pick stock It is surprising that he made a fortune by picking stocks. 10 这些人仍然在做着使他们成功的各种事情。Lead to These people are still doing whatever it was that led to their success.

o Select correct words
1 Was it he who broke the glass yesterday? 2 It is for this reason that he refused to take the job. 3 Do be careful in making such experiments. 4 It was not until 11 last night that the meeting came to an end. 5 It was in 1990 that the economy started to be revived. 6 Who was it that spoke first at yesterday’s meeting? 7 No force on earth can hold back the wheel of history. 8 George did tell me yesterday that he put the dictionary on the table before he left. 9 It wasn’t for personal interests that they did all this. 10 Where in the world did you go yesterday afternoon?

o 英译汉
1 It was not until long afterwards that she wondered if she had made a mistake. 就是直到很久以后,她才怀疑自己是否做错了。 2 It was only by an exercise of self-control that he allowed himself to raise his eyes as they came in. 就是仅仅通过自控练习,他才能做到在他们进来时抬起眼睛。 3 It is what the committee has decided that should be given priority to. 只有对委员会作出的决定才会给予优先考虑。


4 Her uncle told her that it was by a retired old professor that she was brought up after her mother’s death. 她叔叔告诉她,在她妈妈去世后,是一位退休的老教授把她带大的。 5 It is because he is modest and thoughtful that he is respected by his colleagues. 就是由于他为人谦虚、体贴别人,他才赢得同事的尊重。 6 It is earth’s heat that scientists have developed a sensitive instrument to measure. 科学家已经开发出敏感的仪器,就是为了测量地热。 7 It is on April 15 every year that income taxes are due, which all people who receive an income must pay. 正是在每年的 4 月 15 日人们要交所得税,所有有收入的人都应该交。 8 It was Einstein who wrote and published his famous theory of relativity in 1916. 正是爱因斯坦在 1916 年发表了著名的相对论。 9 It was only last year that I made her acquaintance. 只是在去年我才跟她结识。 10 Who was it that called this morning? 今天早上究竟是谁打的电话?

o Fill in the blanks.
Many people have been attracted to the provocative speech. [prE5vCkEtiv] adj. 挑衅[拨]的; 煽动的 (of); 刺激的; 激怒的引起争论[议论, 兴趣等]的 We can ensure that the work shall be done in the right way. The new library will perpetuate its founder’s great love of learning. 使永久存在[继续]; 使不朽[不灭] He is man with a critical eye. I oughtn’t to do that, it’s not ethical. (合乎职业)道德的; (药品)合乎规格的;


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