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同位语和主语和名词性从句详解


同位语从句
是名词性从句(主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句,介宾从句)中的主要从句之 一,从句作同位语表示与之同位的名词(短语)的实际内容,它的作用相当于名词,对前面 的名词(短语)加以补充说明或进一步解释,相当于一个表语从句,它们之间的关系是同位 关系,即主表关系。 类型:1、名词作同位语:Mr Wang,my child’s teacher,will be

visiting us on Tuesday. 2、句子作同位语:The girls were surprised at the fact that ocean ships can sail up the Great lakes.巨大的海轮可以开到五大湖,让女孩们感到吃惊。 3、直接引语作同位语: But now the question comes to their minds,“Did she die young because she was a clone?”但是现在他们不得不思考这样的问题:“多莉早死是因为它是一只克隆羊吗?” 用法:1、可以跟同位语从句的名词通常有 news,idea,fact,promise,question,doubt, thought,hope,message,suggestion,words(消息) ,possibility 等(一般的“抽象” 名词都可用) 。 I’ve come from Mr wang with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon. 2、英语中引导同位语从句的词通常有连词 that,whether,连接代词 what,who。连接副词 how,when,where 等。 (注:if,which 不能引导同位语从句。 ) He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 3、有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开叫做间隔同位语从句。 由于 that 从句太长,为避免句子失去平衡, The thought came to him that maybe the enemy had fled the city.他突然想起可能敌人已经逃出城了。 具体分析:1、连词 that 引导(注:引导同位语从句的 that 不能省略) The idea that you can do this work well without thinking is quite wrong. 【注】在某些名词(如 demand,wish,suggestion,resolution 等)后面的同位语从句要用虚 拟语气。There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from(离开) the team. 【注】引导同位语从句的连词 that 通常不省略,但在非正式文体中也可以省去。 He gabbed his suitcase and gave the impression he was boarding the Tokyo plane. 他拿起了手提箱,给人的印象是他要登上飞往东京的飞机了。 2、连词 whether 引导(注:if 不能引导同位语从句) The question whether we should call in a specialist was answered by the family doctor. 我们是否请专家由家庭医 生来定。 3、连接副词引导 连接副词 when,where,how,why We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. 4、其它引导词引导 连接代词 what,who,whom,whose,引导同位语从句 1).I have no idea what size shoes she wears. 2).The question who will take his place is still not clear. 5、先行词 1.定语从句的先行词是名词或代词;而同位语从句的先行词只能是名词(有特殊情况, 见下面),而且仅限于 idea,plan,fact,theory,promise,hope,news,doubt,truth, information,suggestion,question, thought,belief,conclusion 等少数名词。 2.when,where,why 引导的定语从句的先行词一定分别是表示时间、地点和原因的名 词,而三者引导的同位语从句的先行词则肯定不是表示时间、地点和原因的名词。 ①I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.

②I have no idea when she will be back. 引导词: 1.定语从句和同位语从句共同的引导词有四个:that,when,where,why。总 结四个引导词在两种从句中的不同用法。(课下) 2.what,how,whatever 等可引导同位语从句,但不引导定语从句。 代词 it 可用作同位语从句的先行词。 这个 it 常放在某些动词或短语动词后作宾语, 同时兼 作其后 that 同位语从句的先行词。I owe it to you that I am still alive. 幸亏你,我 现在还活着。

主语从句:
在复合句中充当主语成分的句子叫做主语从句。主语从句的时态不受主句的时态影响和限 制。具体如下: (1)引导主语从句连词有 that,whether,who,what,whatever 等 (2)连词位于句首不能省略 (3)主语从句大多数情况下视为第三人称单数,但也有 例外,当 what 引导的名词性分句作主语时,主谓一致问题极为复杂。 1.That he finished writing the composition in such a short time surprised us all. 2. Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown. 去郊游;去远足 3. Who will be our monitor hasn't been decided yet. 4. Whom we must study for is a question of great importance. 5. What we need are good doctors. 6. Whatever you did is right. 为了防止句子头重脚轻,通常把形式主语 it 放在句首位置,真正主语搁置于句末 It is important that we all should attend the meeting. It+形式主语谓语+从句。 另外,还有一些比较多见的结构: It turned out that?; It has been proved that??; It happened/occurred that??; It is well-known that??等等 用 it 作形式主语的结构: It is +名词+that 从句 (1) It is a fact that ? 事实是?(2) it is +形容词+that 从句 It is strange that? 奇怪的是?(3) it +不及物动词+that 从句 It seems that? 似乎?(4) it is+过去分词+that 从句 It is reported that? 据报道? It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较: 1.主语从句常用 it 作形式主语,一般常用句型为:It is+{名词/形容词/过去分词}+主语从 句例: It is still a question whether she will come or not. 2.强调句不同,它的结构是:It+be+被强调部分+that+从句 强调主语:It is the times that produce their heroes.时势造英雄 强调宾语:It is English that Jack teaches us. 强调状语:It was in shanghai that I saw the film. 判断是否是强调句方法:将 that 以后的“句子的其余部分”拿出来单独看,看有没有缺成 分,缺的是什么成分,再把谓语动词后面 that 前面的那部分,带到认为缺成分的地方,如 果放进去是一句完整的句子了,那就说明是强调句。 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况 (1) if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。 (2) It is said , (reported) ?结构中的主语从句不可提前。 (3) It happens?, It occurs? 结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. (4) It doesn’t matter how/whether ?结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:

It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not. (5) 含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如: Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? What 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别: What 引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而 that 则不然。 宾语从句区分主语从句的几个特征:宾语从句必须是用陈述语句。

名词性从句:
1. 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句。在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位 语、介词宾语(介词宾语,就是放在介词后面的名词、名词短语、甚至宾语从句,或者 一些代词。you do not need to worry about this problem.)等,名词性从句又可分 别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 2. 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 3. 连词(5 个):that (宾语从句或表语从句中"that"有时可以省略)whether,if (均 表示“是否”表明从句内容的不确定性)as if ,as though (均表示“好像”,“似 乎”)以上在从句中均不充当任何成分。 4. 连接代词(10 个) :what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose,whosever, which, whicheve 5. 连接副词(7 个) :when, where, how, why, whenever, wherever, however 不可省略的连词: 1. 介词后的连词。 2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。 That she was chosen made us very happy. We heard the news that our team had won. 6. 在从句中做成分的连词. 比较:whether 与 if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,只可用 whether: 1. whether 引导主语从句并在句首。 Whether he can come to the party on time depends on the traffic. 2. 引导表语从句。The question is whether we can get in touch with her. 3. whether 从句作介词宾语。I am thinking about whether I should quit my present job. 4.if 与 whether 都可以与 or not 连用,但后面紧跟 or not 时只能用 whether。特别要注 意:whether or not 不能用在 about 和 wonder 之后 We didn't know whether or not she was ready.(此时只能用 whether) I wonder whether/if the news is true or not.(此时则二者都可以用) 5. 引导主语从句。Whether he will come is not clear. 6.引导同位语从句 句子的类型: 1. 陈述句又分为肯定的陈述句和否定的陈述句,陈述一个事实或者说话人的看法。 There is a great deal of people. Not many students attended the lecture. 全否定 用 not,no,never,neither,none,nothing 等否定。表示“完全不是,完全不”的 意思。 Nothing is wrong with me. 半否定句 在句子里用否定词 hardly,scarcely,little,few,seldom,rarely 等。 I hardly see anything in the room.=I can see little in the room. “all/both/every/each/+谓语+not”表示概念为“有的是,有的不是” All of them are not students.=Some of them are students,some are not. 宾语从句的否定形式 用在 think,believe,suppose 引导的宾语从句里则否定主句。

I don't think he'll come.=He will not come in fact,I think. 2. 疑问主要有四大句型,一般疑问句、选择疑问句、特殊疑问句和反意疑问句。反意疑问 句是高考英语的语法项目之一。 一般疑问句 一、由肯定的陈述句转化的一般疑问句。 Have you been living here? 你一直住在这儿吗? 二、 否定的一般疑问句。Can't he drive? 他不是会开车吗? Can he not drive? 他不会开车吗? 三、回答否定形式的一般疑问句的注意事项: Is he not a student? 他不是学生吗? Yes,he is. 不,他是学生。 选择疑问句 Shall we leave at six or'seven?我们是 6 点动身还是 7 点动身? 特殊疑问句 以疑问词开头,对句中某一成分提问的句子叫特殊疑问句。常用的疑问词有:what who whose which when where how why 等。特殊疑问句有两种语序: 谓语动词+其他成分?如: who is singing in the room? whose bike is broken? 如疑问词作其他成分,即对其他成分提问,其语序是:疑问词+一般疑问句语序?如: what class are you in? 注意:1.回答特殊疑问句时,不能用 yes / no,即问什么答什么,尤其是简略回答。如: Who is from Canada? --Helen (is). 反意疑问句 1)陈述部分的主语是“I”,疑问部分要用 aren't I.I'm as tall as your sister.aren't I? 2)陈述部分的谓语是“wish”,疑问部分要用“may”+主语。 I wish to have a word with you,may I? 3)陈述部分用 no、nothing、nobody、never、few、seldom、hardly、rarely、little 等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。例:TheSwedemade no answer,did he / she? 4) 含有“ought to”的反意疑问句, 陈述部分是肯定的, 疑问部分用 shouldn't / oughtn't + 主语。 He ought to know what to do,oughtn't he? / shouldn't he? 5) 陈述部分有“have to”+v. (had to + v.) 疑问部分常用“don't”+主语 , (didn't +主语) 。 We have to get there at eight tomorrow,don't we? 6)陈述部分的谓语是“used to”时,疑问部分用“didn't”+主语或“usedn't”+主语。 He used to take pictures there,didn't he? / usedn't he? 7)陈述部分有“had better”+ v. 疑问句部分用“hadn't you”。 You'd better read it by yourself,hadn't you? 8)陈述部分有“would rather”+v.,疑问部分多用“wouldn't”+主语。 He would rather read it tentimesthan recite it,wouldn't he? 9)陈述部分有“You'd like to”+v. 疑问部分用“wouldn't”+主语。 You'd like to go with me,wouldn't you? 10) 陈述部分有“must”的疑问句, 疑问部分根据实际情况而定。 must be a doctor,isn't he? He 11)感叹句中,疑问部分用“be”+主语。What colours,aren't they? 12)陈述部分由“neither… nor”,“either… or ”连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实 际逻辑意义而定。Neither you nor I am engineer,are we? 13)陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词 everything,that,nothing,this,疑问部分主语用 “it”。 Everything is ready,isn't it? 14)陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:

a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。 Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times,he should have been in China now,shouldn't he? b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定: He is not the man who gave us a talk,is he? He said he wanted to visit Japan,didn't he? c. 上述部分主句谓语是 think,believe,expect,suppose,imagine 等引导的定语从句,疑 问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。 I don't think he is bright,is he? We believe she can do it better,can't she? 15)陈述部分主语是不定代词 everybody,anyone,somebody,nobody,no one 等,疑问 部分常用复数“they”,有时也用单数“he”。Everyone knows the answer,don't they?(does he?) Nobody knows about it,do they?(does he?) 16)带情态动词“dare”或“need”的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用“need”(dare)+主语。 We need not do it again,need we? He dare not say so,dare you? 当“dare”、“need”为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词“do”+ 主语。 She doesn't dare to go home alone,does she? 17)省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用“will you”。Don't do that again,will you? Go with me,will you / won't you? 注意:“Let's”开头的祈使句,后用“shall we”。 “Let us”开头的祈使句,后用“will you”。 Let's go and listen to the music,shall we? Let us wait for you in the reading-room,will you? 18) 陈述部分是“there be”结构的, 疑问部分用“there”省略主语代词。 There is something wrong with your watch,isn't there? There will not be any trouble,will there? 19)否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。 It is impossible,isn't it? He is not unkind to his classmates,is he? 20)“must”在表“推测”时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。He must be there now,isn't he? It must be going to rain tomorrow,won't it ? 3.感叹句: 一、由感叹词 what 引导的感叹句。1.① What+a/an+(形容词)+单数可数名词+主语+谓 语! ② What+名词词组+主语+谓语! 如: What a fine day it is! 2. What+(形容词) +可数名词复数或不可数名词+主语+谓语!如: What kind women they are! 二、由 How 引导的感叹句。(how 用来修饰形容词、副词或动词。) 1.How+形容词(副词)+主语+谓语! 如: How hard the workers are working! How quickly the boy is writing! 2. How+主语+谓语! 如:How time flies! 时光飞逝! 注意:1. 当 how 修饰动词时,动词不跟着感叹词提到主语之前。 如: How fast the runner runs! 2. how 与 what 引导的感叹句中的第一种格式(单数名词)一般情况下可以相互转换,转 换后意义不变。 如: What an interesting story it is! = How interesting the story is! What a beautiful building it is! = How beautiful the building is! 3. 在口语中,感叹句的主语和谓语常常省略。 如: What a nice present!(省略 it is) How disappointed!(省略 she is 或其它可作本句主、谓的词语) 但在口语中,还有一些特殊的感叹句表达形式。 1.以副词 here, there, in 开头的感叹句。 Here comes the bus! 公共汽车来了! 2.以疑问词 who 开头,表示惊奇。Who else will read such a book! 谁还会读这样的书! 3.以情态动词 may 开头,表示愿望。May you succeed! 祝你成功!

4.否定疑问句用作感叹句时,它的意义是肯定的;但肯定疑问句用作感叹句在美国英语中 比较常见。Aren?t they sweet! 他们多可爱啊!I am hungry! 我饿极了! 5.一些短语用作感叹句。Dear me! 哎呀! My goodness! 嗳呀! 6.一些作表语的成分用作感叹句。Just my luck! 又倒霉了!Sorry, my mistake! 7.以从句表示的感叹句。例如:As if were my fault!好像是我的错似的! To think a scandal of this sort should be going on under my roof! 真想不到这种丑事竟然出在我们家里! 3. 祈使句:祈使句的作用是要求、请求或命令、劝告、叮嘱、建议别人做或不做一件事。 谓语、动词一律用原形。句子中通常不用主语,句末用 惊叹号或者句号,用降调。 祈使句的组成:①:动词原形+其他②:Please+动词原形+其他③:don?t+动词原形 Stand up, please. 请起立。 Don?t worry. 别担心。 简单句&并列句&复合句 总结: 一、 引用别人的话有两种方式, 一种是讲述别人的原话, 并把它放在引号里, 这叫直接引语; 另一种是用自己的话来转述别人,并且不能用引号,这就是间接引语。直接引语和间接引语 之间可以互相转换。 1、直接引语如果表示客观真理,变间接引语时,时态不变。 2、直接引语若有明确的表示时间的词语,变间接引语时,时态不变。 3、若直接引语中含有 could,must,should 等情态动词,变间接引语时,时态不变。 4、直接引语变为间接引语时,变为间接引语的宾语从句的时态往前推一个,一般过去 式->过去完成时,一般将来时->过去将来时,现在进行时->过去进行时,现在完成时->过去 完成时,过去完成时和过去进行时不变,can->could,祈使句->不定式等 5、如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to,must, need)和已经是过去时的形式时, (例:could, should, would, might)不再变。 6、直接引语变为间接引语时,有些时间状语,地点状语,指示代词和动词也要作相应 的变动。如:now->then,today->that day, yesterday->the day before 等 定语从句和同位语从句引导词总结:1.引导定语从句的 that 叫做关系代词,它除了起 连接作用,还在定语从句中充当一定成分,并且在意义上代表先行词;引导同位语从句的 that 叫做从属连词,它只起连接作用。不能省略。 2.引导词 when,where,why 引导定语从句时,它们叫做关系副词,在从句中充当状语,可 以转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式;引导同位语从句时,它们叫做连接副词,在从句中充当 状语,但不能转换成"介词+关系代词"的形式。 修饰名词的次序:限定词+数词+描绘词(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色, )+出处+材料性 质+类别+名词。县(限定词)官(观点形容词)行(形状形容词)大(大小形容词)令(年 龄新旧形容词)射(颜色形容词)国(国家等出处形容词)才(材料质地等形容词) 。


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