Unexplained Mysteries of the Natural World
Learning plan Chen Yongda
attack vt.袭击;攻击 frightening adj.吓人的 exist vi.存在 claim vt.声称 c
alm adj.平静的 cover vt.占地(多大面积) disappear vi.不见;消失 die out 灭绝 throw light on 帮助弄清楚;阐明某事 destruction n.毁坏 due to 由于;因??造成
掌握 attack 作动词和名词的不同用法 注意其与 frightened 的区别 注意相关短语:bring into existence, come into existence 的用法 注意后面可以跟名词、动词不定式和从句作宾语 辨析 calm, peaceful, still, quiet 和 silent 掌握 cover 的多种意思 注意 disappear 和 appear 都属于不及物动词,后面不加宾语 把握其词义及与 die 相关的短语 掌握该短语的用法,并了解 light 的其他相关短语 come to light 和 see the light 掌握该词及其动词 destruct 的用法 牢记其词义,并掌握与短语 because of, owing to 及 thanks to 的区别;注意 due to 一般不放在句首
1.It about two metres tall and has powerful arms and legs.(数词+量词+形容词,用来表示物体的长、宽、高 s 等特征) 2.In another recent sighting, a group of soldiers claim they saw an animal moving on the surface of the water.(see+宾语+宾语补足语) 3.There have been reports of monsters in Lake Tianchi since the beginning of the last century...(since“自从”, 引导时间状语,主句要用完成时态) 4.They say that the low-temperature lake is unlikely to be able to support such large living creatures.(be unlikely “不可能”,后接不定式) 5.Other members of the royal family were allowed to wear dragon symbols, too, but with fewer claws and of a different colour.(of+抽象名词,作定语或者表语、补足语等) 6.They may/might have killed each other.(may/might have done 表推测)
1.掌握表示推断和可能性的 may/might have done 的用法; 2.了解表示虚拟语气的 should/ought to have done 的用法。
Ⅰ Read the four paragraphs in Introduction and fill in the blanks. .
Where does it live What does it look like
The Loch Ness Monster
The Grey Man
1.It often gets angry and will attack anyone who goes close to it.
它经常会发怒,而且会袭击任何靠近它的人 1)attack 的其他用法 There is a newspaper article attacking the England football coach. 报纸上有篇文章抨击英格兰足球队教练。 The government is making no attempt to attack unemployment. 政府无意解决失业问题。 Spain attacked more in the second half and deserved a goal. 西班牙队在下半场加强攻势,攻进了一球。 归纳:动词 attack 还有“抨击,批评;开始处理(某事);(体育)进攻”的意思。 2)attack 还可以用作名词,意思是“攻击,袭击;抨击”等,常与介词 on, against 等搭配。如: There has been an attack on the president. 总统被人行刺过。 考点二(复习)close to 靠近 Don't be close to the dog. 不要离狗太近 归纳:close 也可作副词,意思是“接近地,紧紧地”,表示位置的紧邻、接近。 2)closely 副词,意思是“紧密地,仔细地,严密地”,表示动作的仔细、关系的密切。如: 2....is a frightening creature that lives in Scotland. ??是生活在苏格兰的一种可怕的动物 辨析 frightened 和 frightening: The thunder is _____________.。The___________________ girl ran away quickly. 3.something that continues to exist after death 死亡后仍继续存在的事物 1)派生词:existence n.存在;生存;existing adj.现存的;现行的 2)相关短语: bring into existence 使产生;存在 come into existence 出现;产生;存在 in existence 存在 exist as 作为??而存在
Ⅱ Read the text and answer the following questions. .
1. Fill in the blank according to the three recent sight seeings.
Who saw the monster
What did the monster look like according to his description
2. Who saw the monster clearly? A. Meng Fan ying C. a group of soldiers 3. Which description of the monster is most detailed? A. The soldiers. C. Li Xiao he’s 4. According to the text, which statement is true?
B. Xue Jun lin D. Li Xiao he B. Meng Fan ying’s D. Xue Jun lin’s
A. There have been reports of monsters in lake Tian chi since the beginning of this century. B. Lake Tian chi is the highest volcanic lake in the world. C. Scientist are sure that there is a monster in lake Tianchi. D. People have taken clear photos of the monster.
Ⅲ. Translate the following into Chinese.
1. The “Monster of lake Tianchi” is back in the news after several recent sightseeings.
2. Many people t hink the monster may be a distant cousin of the loch Ness Monster in Scotland
3. They say that the 1000-temperater lake is unlikely to be able to support such large living creatures.
4. It covers an area of about tin square kilometers.
5. 靠近，走近 7. 在颜色上 9. 潜入水中
6、一个吓人的动物 8. 清楚地看到 10. 占有……面积
1.The “Monster of Lake Tianchi” in the Changbai Mountains in Jilin province, northeast China, is back in the news after several recent sightings. 最近,几次有人在中国东北吉林省长白山的天池看见怪物,这使得怪物再次成为新闻话题。 考点一 be back in the news “再次成为新闻,再次被新闻关注”,be back 在这里引申为“恢复”。eg: 略 考点二 sighting n.目击,发现,被看见的人或事物。 2..Although no one really got a clear look at the mysterious creature, Xue Jun-lin, a local
photographer, claimed that its head looked like a horse. 尽管没有人看清楚过这神秘怪物的真面目,但当地一位摄影师薛俊林声称:怪物的头看起来像马头。 剖析这是一个主从复合句。although 引导让步状语从句;a local photographer 作 Xue Junlin 的同位语, 指的是同一个人;that 引导宾语从句,在句中作 claimed 的宾语。 考点 claim vt.声称 claim 后边可以接名词、从句,也可以接动词不定式。 2)辨析:claim, declare 和 announce She claims to be a good pianist. 她声称自己是位优秀的钢琴家。 President Sarkozy declared his support to establish partnership between EU and Russia. 萨科奇总统宣布他支持欧盟与俄罗斯建立伙伴关系。 The news was announced by Radio Beijing. 这条消息是由北京广播电台播发的。 归纳:claim 通常指并没有证据的宣称。 declare 一般指在正式场合宣布官方的立场或态度等。 announce 泛指宣布某一消息或某事预示着??的到来。 3.Mr Li Xiaohe said that he and his family were able to see the monster clearly because the weather was fine and the lake was calm. 李小和先生说他和家人能够看清楚怪物是因为当时天气好,湖水平静。 剖析 said 之后的 that 引导的是宾语从句;clearly 作状语修饰 see; because 在宾语从句中引导原因状语 从句。 1)辨析:calm, peaceful, quiet, silent 和 still After the storm, it was calm. 风暴过后,天气恢复了平静。 Norwegian Prime Minister Stoltenberg called on Norwegians to remain calm and do not let panic spread. 挪威首相斯托尔滕贝格呼吁国民保持冷静,不要让恐慌蔓延。 It’s so peaceful in the forest. 树林里是那样宁静。 You must keep quiet for the child is asleep. 小孩在睡觉,你们必须保持安静。 Students should be silent during the study-hour. 学习时间,学生应当保持安静。 Please stand still while I take your photograph. 我给你照相时请别动。 归纳:①calm 指物体不激烈运动,多用于天气、海洋等;亦指人的思想、情绪稳定,不受感情或激情的 干扰,强调镇静。 ②peaceful 指环境、状态的安静。 ③quiet 主要指没有明显的吵闹或骚乱的一种静的状态;用于人时,指人性情温和、文静,但也指人的悠 闲。 ④silent 指没有声响,如人的沉默不语或环境的寂静;指人时强调沉默。 ⑤still 指寂然不动,鸦雀无声,完全没有声响。多用于描绘景物,亦可指人或动物,强调静止不动。 4.There have been reports of monsters in Lake Tianchi since the beginning of the last century, although no one has seen one close up. 自上世纪初以来,一直就有关于天池怪物的传说,尽管还不曾有人近距离目睹过。 剖析 1)although 在句中引导让步状语从句。 2)there have been 是 there be 句型的现在完成时形式。 there be 句型常用的时态形式有一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在完成时和过去完成 时。例如: 5.Scientists, however, are skeptical . They say that the low-temperature lake is unlikely to be able to support such large living creatures. 然而科学家们对此仍很怀疑。他们说,温度低的湖中不可能存活体形如此大的生物。 归纳:skeptical 多用于 be skeptical about/of sth.或者 be skeptical that...几种结构中。 考点二 be unlikely to...不可能??
1)反义短语:be likely to 可能 2)likely/unlikely 的常用句型有:It is unlikely/likely that...有可能/不可能??;Sb. is likely/unlikely to do sth.某人有可能/不可能做?? 6.It is 2,189 metres high and covers an area of about ten square kilometres. In places it is more than 370 metres deep. 天池海拔 2,189 米,面积有大约 10 平方千米,有的地方水深达 370 米。 考点 cover vt.占地(多大面积) 归纳:cover an area of...的意思是“占有??面积”。 注意 cover 作动词的不同意思: 1)行过(路程)(不用被动语态) We covered about 30 miles a day. 2)采访,报道 Jack covered the Gulf War for CNN then. 3)掩饰,隐匿 She laughed to cover her anxiety. 4)覆盖;遮盖 Almost all of the Shennonjia Nature Reserve is covered by primeval forest. 5)(钱)足够付 Is the money enough to cover the tuition? 1. frighten v. 使害怕
害怕 n. adj. 完成下列句子： （1）The sudden noise （2）He spoke in a （3）The the girl. voice. girl was speechless. 令人害怕的 adj. 受惊的，害怕的， 被吓得要死
2. attack v. 攻击，进攻，（疾病）侵袭，也可用于名词。
词组 make an attack on a heart attack come /be under attack （1）这只熊袭击了他 （2）胖人很容易患心脏病。
3. close （1）adj. 亲密的，仔细的，势均力敌的
一个亲密的朋友 势均力敌的比赛 （2）近的，接近的，常与 be, get , go stand , come 连用。 靠近 离……站得近 that 从句 to do n. (声称拥有) the queen. a cure for the disease. . 密切注意
4. claim vt. 声称，主张，要求
claim+ （1）She claims 她声称自己与女皇有关系。 （2）The doctor claimed 这位医生声称已经找到治疗疾病的方法。 （3）He claimed the robber 他要求这个抢劫犯应该判处死刑。
（4）Has anyone 有人认领我昨天交来的钱包吗？
I handed in yesterday?
5. He claim to have seen__________________.
不定式完成时 1）不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前。 2）表示过去没有实现的原望，打 算、计划等。 （1）他碰巧以前看过这部电影。 He happened （2）We wanted didn’t get there in time. 我们原想去机场为你送行。 the film before. at the airport but we
6. skeptical adj. 怀疑的，不肯相信的
be skeptical about /of 我十分怀疑调查的结果。
7. be likely to do 可转为 It is likely that/be unlikely to do 可转化为 It is unlikely that.
（1）His condition is unlikely to improve. （2）It is likely that he will come tonight.
8. cover an area of 占……面积
我们学校占地 200 亩。 ◆cover 的其它含义。翻译下列句子，注意 cover 的意义。 （1）It was Tom that had been sent to cover the event. （2）I found that the ground was covered with fallen leaves. （3）The y covered 60 miles in two days. （4）I have covered 1600 pages of the novel. （5）The report covered all aspects of the problem.
情态动词 must may/might can/could should 对现在和未来的推测
3、 4、 5、 6、
本不必做某事 本能够做某事 本可以做某事 本想做某事，而实际没做。
1. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I so much fried chicken just now. A. shouldn’t eat B. mustn’t have eaten C. shouldn’t have eaten D. mustn’t eat 2. We didn’t finish the work in time. You us since you were there. A. might help B. should help C. could have helped D. must have helped 3. It’s very kind of you to do the washing-up, but you it. A. mustn’t have done B. wouldn’t have done C. mightn’t have done D. didn’t have to do 4. That car nearly hit me; I . A. might be killed B. might have been killed C. may be killed D. may been killed 5. My wallet is nowhere to be found. I when I was on the bus. A. must drop it B. should have dropped it C. must have dropped it D. had dropped it 6. you handbag in your office? A. Should you have left B. Must you have left C. Could you have left D. Need you have left 7. My sister met him at the Grand Theatre yesterday afternoon, so he your lecture. A. couldn’t have attended B. needn’t have attended C. mustn’t have attended D. shouldn’t have attended 8. —Did you criticize him for his carelessness? —Yes, but I it. A. I’d rather not do B. I’d rather not have done C. I shouldn’t do D. I’d better not do 9. He attended the meeting this morning. He has been staying at my home for the whole day. A. couldn’t have B. mustn’t have C. shouldn’t have D. needn’t have 10. You go right now if you want, but I think, you , because we have enough time. A. may; needn’t B. must; needn’t C. should; may D. may; must 11. Listen, it must outside now. A. rain B. have rained C. raining D. be raining 12. —Don’t be late again next time. —Yes, I . A. do B. would C. will D. can’t 13. —Did you leave your umbrella at the market? —Yes, I . Which one of the following is WRONG?
A. did D. might
B. may have
C. might have
14. You your parents, if they are wrong. A. mustn’t obey B. don’t have to obey C. wouldn’t have obeyed D. can’t have obeyed 15. I have come earlier, for you have needed some help. A. might; should B. should; might C. must; should
D. must; might
Period Ⅳ function, pronunciation，everyday English
1. If you can adapt to something, you can change in order to make the situation better. 如果你能适应某事,你就能为了情况的改善而改变。 adapt to 适应;适合 adapt 还可以用作及物动词,意思是“使适应;使适合;改编”等 He tried hard to adapt himself to the new conditions. adopt 和 adapt 这两个词属于形近词,但意思截然不同。 adapt 表示“适应,修改,改编”。而 adopt 意思是“采纳;采用;收养” 2..When animals or plants evolve, they change and develop over a long period of time. .动物或植物进化时,它们发展变化了很长一段时期。 固定搭配:evolve from 由??进化而成;由??逐渐形成/得出。 As is known to all, man evolved from anthropoid.( 类人猿) 派生词:evolution n.进化;进展 evolutionary adj.发展的;进化的 evolutionism n.进化论 evolutionist n.进化论者 形近词:involve vt.牵扯;包含;使忙于 3.Perhaps too much fighting caused the dinosaurs to die out. 也许过多的争斗导致了恐龙的灭绝 考点 die out 灭绝,消失 1)die 构成的短语: be dying for(口语)渴望??,很想?? die away 消逝;(声音、光线、风等)渐弱,渐息 die down 熄灭;平息;逐渐消失 2)辨析:die of 和 die from die of 指死于疾病、衰老、饥饿等; die from 则指由于外伤或不注意的原因而死亡,但 from 常以 of 代替。 4.If you throw light on something you make it easier to understand. 如果你阐明某事就是你把这件事弄得更容易理解 考点 throw light on 帮助弄清楚;阐明某事 1) come to light 显露 So another amazing fact came to light. 2) see the light 领悟;公开,(书籍的)出版 I did not approve of his action, but he explained his reason and then I saw the light. 5.If you come straight to the point you say what you want to say 如果你开门见山地说话就是想说什么就说什么 考点 come straight to the point 谈正题;开门见山 point 的常用短语: in point of 就??而言;关于?? make a point of 特别注意,重视 to the point 切题的,切中的 on the point of 正要?? there is no point in doing sth.干某事无意义
1. adapt v. 适应，改编
（1）adapt to （3）adapt a play ① When he move to Canada, 孩子很能适应变化。 ②
（2） adapt oneself to （4）adapt from
2. die out （1）（物种）灭绝，绝迹 （2）（习俗）消失
① ② （1）（风声）渐渐平息 （3）由于…而死 这种动物已经绝种了。 旧传统正在消失。 （2）平息，熄灭
3. come straight to the point
扩展： （1）off the point （3）on the point of （2） to the point
4. throw light on upon
你能把这个问题阐述清楚吗？ ◆go for （1）适用于 （2）喜欢，支持 ①Your sister is a selfish girl and ② . 你也是如此。 . 你喜欢现代音乐吗？
6. be back in the news
It’s quite something
Ⅰ. Read the passage and finish the following True or False questions.
1. Dragons can bring us good luck sometimes. ( ) 2. Dragons have an important position in the mind of people. ( ) 3. Dragons have closely relationship with the royal family. ( ) 4. A person born in the year of the dragon is sure to be cleverer. ( ) 5. The same animals may have different meanings in different countries. (
Ⅱ、阅读 The Universal Dragon,根据文章的内容填空
)In Chinese culture Dragons are ________and_________ ,although they can be ____________. The dragon was closely connected to______ _________ ________. If you were born in the year of dragon, you are________, __________and a________ ___________ Dragons had a different __________ . In the story, the dragon is_________ However, in Wales, the__________ dragon which appears on the Welsh flag is a_______ symbol, indicating________ and a sense of _________ __________
2)In western culture
Sentences and language point
1. In Chinese culture, dragons are generous and wise, although they can be unpredictable. 在中国文化中,龙是大方的,富有智慧的,尽管有时它们变幻莫测 考点一 generous adj.有雅量的;大方的;心地高尚的 1)名词是 generosity “慷慨,大方,宽容”;副词是 generously“慷慨地” 常用短语:be generous with sth./be generous in doing sth.在??方面大方, 在??方面慷慨。如: He is generous with his money.他用钱大方。 He is generous in giving help.他慷慨助人 考点二 unpredictable adj.变化莫测的 .2.But in the west, dragons had a different reputation. 但在西方文化中,龙的名声就不同了。 考点 reputation n.名誉,名声 常用短语:have a reputation for...有??的名声 of reputation 有名望的 have a reputation as sth.作为??而出名 live up to one’s reputation 不负盛名,名不虚传 earn/make a reputation(for oneself)(为自己)树立声誉,博得名声 辨析:reputation 和 fame reputation 可指好名声,也可指坏名声,强调人们心目中的印象。fame 仅指 好名声,强调较高的知名度。如: He has a reputation for greediness. 他以贪婪而出名。 Nearly all of them are eager for fame. 几乎他们所有的人都渴望成名。 3.Some experts believe it is due to the animals the myths grew out of. 一些专家认为,这是因为衍生出龙的神话故事来自于不同的动物 考点一 due to 由于,因为 归纳:due to 中的 to 为介词,后接名词或动名词。 due to 还有“可归于??;应付的;到期的”等意义。 His success was due to hard work The wages due to him will be paid tomorrow. 辨析 because of, due to, owing to 和 thanks to: ①because of 意为“由于,因为”,强调因果关系,在句中仅作状语,修饰句中的一部分,与其他成分不用 逗号隔开 ②owing to 与 because of 一样,也强调因果关系,除作状语外,也可作表语。作状语时修饰整个句子,可 在句首或句末,用逗号隔开 ③due to 引出造成后果的原因,在句中作表语、状语和定语。作表语和状语时与 owing to 同义,作状 语时,一般不与其他成分隔开 ④thanks to 表示“幸亏,多亏”,多用于表达正面意思,相当于感谢,在句中作状语和表语。 Eg: ① We must not get discouraged because of such a minor setback.( 挫折) ②hey decided to cancel the flight, owing to the storm ③This accident was due to(owing to)his careless driving. ④.Thanks to your advice, much trouble was saved. 4.But in China, the idea of the dragon may have come from the alligator — a shy animal which lives in rivers, but which is usually only seen when there is plenty of water — a good sign for agriculture. 但是在中国,龙的形象来自鳄鱼,一种生活在河里的害羞的动物—— 通常有大水的时候,才能看到的 动物—— 这是农业的好征兆。 剖析这是一个主从复合句,the idea of the dragon may have come from the alligator 是主句;which lives in rivers, which is usually only seen 都是定语从句, 修饰 animal; when there is plenty of water 是时间状语从句,a shy animal 是同位语。 So the Chinese dragon was a bringer of good fortune. 因此在中国龙是一种会给人带来好运的动物
考点 fortune n.运气;命运;财富 fortune 的常用短语: make a/one’s fortune 发财 try one’s fortune 碰运气 read/ tell sb’s fortune 给某人算命 seek one’s fortune 寻找发财的机会;找出路 词形变化:fortunate adj.幸运的;幸福的 fortunately adv.幸好;还算幸运 )反义词:misfortune n.不幸,坏运气;灾祸
Ⅱ. Try to find out the following expressions in the text. Then write them down.
1、带来好运 2、和……相关 3、皇室 4、龙年 5、民族感 6、因为；由于 Ⅲ. 1. Indicate v. 指示……；表示；象征； n. （1） The arrow indicate the way to the park. 那个箭头指示到公园的路。 （2）His signs indicate what we should do. 他的手势告诉我们该怎么做。 （3）Those clouds indicate rain. 那些云是下雨的迹象。 2. Fortune n. 运气；财产 adj. fortunate in doing 在…方面运气好 to do ◆have the fortune to do 幸好/幸运做…… receive a large fortune 获得一大笔财产 1、他父母去世了，留给他一大笔财产。 2、能赶上火车，我很幸运。 3、他幸运地通过了高考。 3. According to 根据，按照；随着 （1）根据天气预报，今天会下雨。 （2） the timetable, the train leaves at 10:25, so we should be at the station by 10:00. A. According to B. Because of C. Judging from D. In the opinion of 4. due to 由于，因为 He succeeded at last which his efforts instead of luck. 他最后成功了，这很大程度是由于他的努力而不是运气。 （1）adj. 应付的，到期的； （2）adj. 预定的，预期的 知识拓展：（1） 。他们得到应得的钱了吗？ （2） 。会议预定下周召开。 知识拓展：表示原因的短语还有 , , , 常构成：be fortunate