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备战2011高考:单项选择解题技巧(结构篇)


Multiple Choice 解题技巧

高考常见的几种 “结构”

一、独立主格结构
独立主格结构有一个独立的主格名词或代 词(作逻辑主语)加上分词(现在分词或过去 分词),形容词,副词,介词短语或不定式等构 成.起状语作用,相当一个状语从句.

A 1.______,they will go and

visit the zoo. A. Weather permitting B. Weather permitted C. Weather being permitted D. Weather having permitted If the weather permits, they will go and visit the zoo.

C 2.The meeting ______over, we all left the room and drove home. A. is B. to be C. being D. would be
After the meeting was over, we all left the room and drove home.

独立主格结构还有以下几种构成方式(4种): 1.名词(或主语代词)+过去分词 He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. 2.名词(或主语代词)+形容词 The weather (being) hot, we all went swimming.

3.名词(或主语代词)+介词短语 Flag on shoulder, the soldiers rushed to the top of the building. 4.名词(或主语代词)+副词 The class (being) over, the students handed in their papers.

practice
1)______, we decided to go for an outing. A. Weather permitting B. Weather permitted C. If the weather is fine D. Weather being so fine If the weather permits, we will decide to go for an outing. Because the weather was fine, we decided to go for an outing.

D

D 2)______, there is no school. A. It is Sunday B. It was Sunday C. It will be Sunday D. It being Sunday
It is Sunday, so there is no school.

Because it is Sunday, there is no school.

3)The experiment______, they left the laboratory. A. had been done B. was done C. having done D. done After the experiment was done (had been done), they left the laboratory.

D

D 4)The last bus ______, we had to walk home. A. has gone B. had gone C. gone D. having gone
Because the last bus had gone, we had to walk home.

A 5)Night______, we started on our way home. A. setting in B. set in C. had set in D. has set in
When night had set in, we started on our way home.

6)He was lying on the grass, his hands B ______ under his head. A. crossing B. crossed C. were crossing D. were crossed He was lying on the grass and his hands were crossed under his head.

二 、“with+复合宾语”结构
这是独立主格的一种变形,也多作状语, 表示伴随,状态,原因,条件等.有时还可作 定语.形式为: “with+名词(或代词)+宾语补足语”.

1.The murderer was brought in, with his D hands ______ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied

2.For miles around me there was nothing but a desert, without a single plant or tree ______. A A. in sight B. on earth C. at a distance D. in place

? 在该结构中,能作宾补的除以上的过去分词和 介词短语外,还有副词,形容词,现在分词等。 如: With the old man leading, the two started towards the mountains. The square looks more beautiful than ever with all the lights on. He went away without a word more spoken.

practice
A 1)With all the children _____ at home during the holidays she has a great deal of work to do. A. being B. were C. having been D. was

2)_____ all his friends and money gone, he felt totally hopeless. A. For B. Because of C. With D. But for Because of all his friends and money having gone, he felt totally hopeless.

C

3)The young woman got on the bus, ______. B = baby in arm A. baby in an arm B. with a baby in her arms C. with her baby in arm D. her baby in the arm

三、动名词结构
一个动名词短语前可以加上一个物主代词 或名词所有格,来表示这个动名词的逻辑 上的主语.这种结构称为动名词结构.它通 常用作主语,宾语,表语.

C 1.How about the two of us ______ a walk down the garden? A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking

C 2.I can hardly imagine Peter______ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed

D 3.He has always insisted on his ______ Dr. Turner instead of Mr. Turner. A. been called B. called C. having called D. being called

C 4.I would appreciate ______ back this afternoon. A. you to call B. you call C. your calling D. you’re calling

1.这一结构不处于句首,常常用人称代词宾格,或名词普 通格,代替物主代词和名词所有格. I don’t like them smoking. I remember mother telling us a story about a fox. 2.如果动名词的逻辑主语是无生命的东西,只用普通格. Is there any hope of our team winning the game? 3.当动名词有一个以上的逻辑主语,亦只用普通格. He suggested Hanz and Paul going on a camping.

B 1)The old man’s______ pity on the snake led to his own death. A. take B. taking C. being D. have

B 2)Tom insisted ______ to the party. A. on me to come B. on my coming C. me to come D. me coming

C 3)______ doesn’t necessarily mean my being wrong. A. You are right B. You being right C. Your being right D. You to be right

D 4)______ made the situation extremely hard for us. A. Li Ming had left B. Li Ming left C. Li Ming having left D. Li Ming’s having left

C 5)What I worried about was ______. A. they not having studied well B. they hadn’t studied well C. their not having studied well D. not their having studied well

四 、“疑问句+不定式”结构
“疑问句+不定式”结构相当于一个名词, 常用在tell/advise/show/find out /decide/discuss/learn/forget 等动词或介词后作宾语.

A 1.Last summer I took a course on ______. A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made C. how to be made dressed D. how dresses to be made

2.There are so many kinds of taperecorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind ______ to buy. B A. what B. which C. how D. where

该结构亦可作主语,且常作单数看待. When and where to build the new factory A ______ yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided.
has not been decided

practice B 1)The question ___has been worrying him recently. A. where is to go B. where to go C. where to go to D. where was he to go

A 2)We must work out a plan on ______ with the rubbish as soon as possible. A. what to do B. what to deal C. how doing D. how dealing

A 3)I didn’t know ______ him or not. A. whether to help B. if to help C. to help D. if that I would help

4)Do you know ______ the repairs? B A. to do B. how to do C. to make D. how to make

C 5)_____ this experiment is known to us. A. Who to do B. Whom to do C. How to do D. What to do

D 6)The question was _____ to take the
children to the theatre or to leave them at home. A. how B. however C. if D. whether

五、插入语结构
插入语一般仅对一句话作一些附加的解释 和说明,而与句子的其他成分之间没有语法 上的关系.常见的插入语结构有: I think / I hope / I’m afraid / I believe / I suppose/ you see / you know / do you think / do you know.

C 1.Which do you think tastes ______, the chicken or the fish? A. well B. good C. better D. best

2.– We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time? C -- What do you suppose______ to her? A. was happening B. to happen C. has happened D. having happened

此外一些不定式短语to tell you the truth; 现在分词短语strictly speaking, judging from/by也可用作插入结构.

practice
1)______ from this fact, he must be an A honest man. Judging A. Judging from/by , B. Judged Speaking of, C. Judges Talking of , D. Judge

Frankly speaking….

B 2)Generally speaking, the ______ are
respected by common people. A. learning B. learned learned 博学的 C. learn D. being learn

3)– What do you think made Mary so upset? -- ______ her new bicycle? C A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing Losing her new bicycle made Mary so upset.

六 、“There be”结构
“There be+ 名词词组(+状语)”结构 1.______ no need for us to discuss the D problem again since it has already been settled. A. It has B. There has C. It is D. There is

B 2.______ a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work. A. It existed B. There existed C. They had D. There had

? “There be”结构有各种变体

There live/stand/come/lie/remain/exist….
? “There be”的习惯用法 There is no use/good/point/hurry….

? “There be”结构有其非谓语形式: He doesn’t want there to be any work to do. He was pleased at there being some money left. There being nothing to do, they went out for a play.


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