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Fire Protection


CAFUC
Fire Protection

J. Long

Contents

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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

General Fire detection system Overheat detection system Smoke detection system Fire extinguishing system Lavatory fire extinguishing system Control and indication of built in fire extinguisher system

Fire Protection

General

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? Aircraft fire zones

Fire Protection

General

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? Fire classification of aircraft

Fire Protection

General

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? Fire extinguishing agent used in aircraft
Fire classification Suitable fire extinguishing agent A B C Water, Freon, Powder Freon, CO2, Powder Freon, CO2, Powder

D

Powder

Fire Protection

General

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? Aircraft fire protection systems

Fire Protection

General

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? Fire warning indications
– Warning lights + Warning bell

Fire Protection

General

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? According to FAR25
– Engine nacelles, APU compartments and Fuel burning heaters must be provided with fire detection systems and built in fire extinguisher systems.

? Hand fire extinguishers are necessary in the cockpit, cabin, class A and B cargo compartment. ? Other installation (refer to P135)

Fire Protection

Fire detection system
– Wire type sensor (electrical sensor element) – Gaseous sensor/ responder tubes – Infrared ray sensor

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? Three types of sensor and fire detection system

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Wire type sensor
– Consists of an inconel tube where one or two inner conductors are placed in semiconductor material.

FENWAL

KIDDE

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Wire type sensor
– The semiconductor has characteristic of negative temperature coefficient.

FENWAL

KIDDE

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Wire type sensor
– Sometimes the sensors are protected against mechanical damage by a perforated cover tube.

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Wire type sensor
– Schematic of wire type warning system

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Wire type sensor
– For even more reliability the engine fire warning system is equipped with dual loop detectors.

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Gaseous sensor/ responder tube

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Gaseous sensor/ responder tube
– Average section overheat detection
? The helium by which the tube is filled expands when the average section of the sensor is heated and activated the fire warning.

– Spot section overheat detection
? Spiral “discrete element” ties down hydrogen when the temperature is low and disengages the hydrogen when the temperature of a spot section of the sensor increases.

Fire Protection

Fire detection system

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? Fire sensors used in civil transport aircraft

Fire Protection

Overheat detection system

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? The wire type and the gaseous sensor/ responder tube fire warning systems are also used as overheat detection systems. ? The differences to fire warnings are
– Lower onset temperature level – No warning bell – No fault warning

Fire Protection

Overheat detection system

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? Sometimes bimetallic switches are used as overheat detectors.

Fire Protection

Smoke detection system

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? Mostly used in cargo and E/E compartment
– Photoelectric smoke detector

Fire Protection

Smoke detection system

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? Mostly used in cargo and E/E compartment
– Ionization smoke detector

Fire Protection

Smoke detection system

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? Mostly used in cargo and E/E compartment
– Ionization smoke detector

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– According to FAR 25
? One fire extinguisher required for APU. ? Two fire extinguisher required for any main engine.

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Fixed fire extinguisher uses freon gas as the extinguishing agent with nitrogen gas used to pressurize the bottles.

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Overpressuer indicator (red) – Discharge indicator (yellow)

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Discharge squibs

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Pulling out the fire switch/ handle

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Preparing for discharging the extinguishing agent

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Turing the fire switch/ handle to discharge the extinguishing agent, bottle discharged lights on.

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Freon gas has the following extinguishing effects
? Anticatalytic effect
– Lower the velocity of the chemical reaction (burning).

? Cooling effect
– Expansion of freon.

? Suffocation effect
– Supplant the oxygen since freon is heavier than air.

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Built in fire extinguishing system
– Cautions: In order to prevent poisoning
? Avoid contact with the agent. ? Do not breathe the agent. ? Ventilate areas before entering.

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Hand fire extinguishers
– Freon/ halon fire extinguishers are usually used in aircraft. – There might be also water, carbondioxide or dry chemical fire extinguisher.

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

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? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

37/49

? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

38/49

? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

39/49

? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing system

40/49

? Hand fire extinguishers

Fire Protection

Lavatory fire extinguishing system

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Fire Protection

Lavatory fire extinguishing system

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Fire Protection

Lavatory fire extinguishing system

43/49

Fire Protection

Lavatory fire extinguishing system

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Fire Protection

Lavatory fire extinguishing system

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Fire Protection

Control and indication of fire extinguisher system

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Fire Protection

Example of Fire Protection System

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? B737-800 fire protection system

Fire Protection

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? Please translate the following pages into Chinese:
– – – – – 134、135、136、137 (Team 1) 138、139、140、141 (Team 2、3) 142、143、144、145、146 (Team 4) 148、149、150、151 (Team 5、6) 152、153、154、156 (Team 7)

Fire Protection

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END OF THIS CHAPTER

CAFUC
Fire Protection


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