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非谓语动词总结复习


非谓语动词总结复习

一、什么叫做非谓语动词
在英语中,动词按其在句子中的作用,可分为:谓语 动词和非谓语动词。那么非谓语动词使用条件: 一个句子当中,已经存在一个主句(谓语动词),又没 有连词的情况下,再出现的动词就是非谓语动词。 例如:

1.She got off the bus, but left her handbag

on her seat.
2.She got off the bus, leaving her handbag on her seat.

1.Hearing the news , they got excited.
2.When they heard the news , they got excited.

二、1.非谓语动词的表现形式有:
不定式: to do ,to be done ,to be doing,
to have done, to have been done.

动词-ing: doing,being done, having done,.
过去分词: done ,having been done

2.非谓语动词的否定结构是:not +非动

3.非谓语动词的基本特征 doing表示主动,进行,经常性的 done表示被动&完成 to do表示将来,某一次具体的动作 且常用于固定句型中:

三、非谓语动词充当的成分

非 谓 语 动 词

Collecting information is very important to business men. 主语 I want to see you this evening. 宾语

Hearing the news, he looked disappointed.
The girl standing there is my sister . Seen from the tower, the city looks beautiful. I saw people coming and going in the street . He asked me to do the homework with him.

表语
定语 状语 宾补 宾补

非谓语动词在句中可充当除谓语外的任何成分

四:非谓语动词的考查方向及用法总结:
考查方向一: 非谓语动词作主语,宾语,表语 1.To master/mastering a foreign language is really important nowadays. 2. Her job is teaching/to teach. 3.He contined to read/reading the book. 以上句子中to do,doing都可以作主语,宾语,表 语并无大的区别,但需注意以下特别情况: 1.当主语是aim, purpose, plan,wish,dream 等词时要用to do 作表语。 My dream is to travel around the world.

2. 有些动词后跟to do 和doing意思不一样。
如:try to do尽力做
try doing试着做 regret to do对要做的事遗憾 regret doing/having done对做过的事后悔,遗憾 mean to do打算做

mean doing意味着
forget to do忘记要做 forget doing 忘记做过 remember to do记得要去做 remember doing 记得做过

考查方向二:非谓语动词做定语(主要考查做后置定语) 主要形式有: doing表示主动&进行 done表示被动&完成 to be done表示被动和将来; being done表示被动和进行; to do表示将来,且常用于以下句型中: 1. I have a lot of homework to do . 2.There is no need to compete with her . 3.He is always the first to come . 4.主语+be+adj (easy,heavy,difficult,hard)+ to do The stone is heavy to lift . 5.He was the best man to do the job . There is no room to live in .

singing 1. Look! The girl ________ (sing) is Alice and the dancing one _________ (dance) is Mary. given 2. The book _________ (give) to him is a grammar book. to be held 3. We are invited to a party _____________ (hold) in our club next Friday.

练习:

4. ---The last one ____________ (arrive) pays the meal. ---Agreed!
being sung 5. Listen! The song ___________ (sing) is very popular with the students.

to arrive

考查方向三:非谓语动词做状语
注一:分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句 子的主语一致.
主要形式有: doing表示主动 done表示被动&完成 having done表示主动且动作明显早于主句谓语动作; having been done表示被动且动作明显早于主句的谓 语动作;to do 常用于固定句型中作状语,表将来
注;有些分词短语,其形式的选择不受上下文的影响,称作独立成 分。frankly/generally/honestly/strictly…speaking to be honest to tell the truth judging from/by according to

练习(一):
1.He sent me an E-mail, hoping ________ (hope) to get further information. Founded 2._________ (found) in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the US. Taken 3. ____________ (take) good care of, the trees grow very quickly. writing 4. He sat at the desk _____________ (write) a letter. 5. ________________ (tell) many times, he still repeated the same Having been told mistake. Having written 6. __________________ (write) the letter, he went out to post it.

练习(二): 1. Watching TV, ___. A. the doorbell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 2. In order to make our city green, ___. A. it is necessary to have planted more trees B. many more trees need to plant C. our city needs more trees D. we must plant more trees

注二:非谓语动词尤其是doing 和done作状语时,其前可 以有when,while .if ,unless, though 等,但做题方法一样看 和相关名词和代词的关系,比如:
hearing When________ the news, they all jumped with joy.(hear) given If ________more time , we could do it much better .(give)

注三:难点了解,非谓语动词作状语一般和主句主语一 致,但如果非谓语有自己的主语那么就称为独立主格结 构。
1. Work finished ,we went home. 2. He was lying on the grass, his eyes staring at the sky。 3. Weather permitting,they will go on outing to the beach tomorrow. 4. Her wallet stolen,she had no money to even a bus ticket.

to do作状语 ①常表目的或出乎意料的结果。
The bus stopped so as to /in order to /to pick up passengers. To catch the first bus , he got up early. 特别注意:to do和 doing 都可以做结果状语,但doing表 示顺其自然的结果,to do表示出乎意料的结果。 体会下面两句话: 1.He woke up, only to find his wallet gone. 2. The cup dropped to the ground, breaking into pieces.

②放在be + adj之后作状语,表示喜怒哀乐后跟 不定式表原因。
He was astonished to hear the news. I am so sorry to hear your mother is ill.

③在带有enough 或too 的句子里也常用不定式 作状语表结果 He was too excited to say a word .

考查方向四:非谓语动词作宾语补足语(多用于有些动词 的常用结构中)
表现形式有: doing表示主动;done表示被动 ;to do表示主动,to有时需省略。

singing I heard the girl _________ in the classroom.(正在唱歌)

sing I heard the girl _______ a song .(唱完了一首歌)
sung I heard the song ________ by the girl.(被唱) The teacher made me __________the question.(answer)
to stay She asked me __________there.(stay) washed He had his clothes___________.(wash) answer

练习:
1. She was glad to see her child well _______ (take) care of.
blowing 2. I could feel the wind _________ (blow) on my face from an open window. taken

3. He found them ____ at a table____. A. seating; playing chess B. sitting; to play chess C. seated; playing chess D. seat; play the chess

4.① He made his sister ______ by taking away her toy. ② His sister was made _______ by his taking away her B toy. A. cry B. to cry C. crying D. cried

A

5. My advisor encouraged __ a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me take D. me to take 6. He had his leg __ in the match yesterday. A. to break B. broken C. break D. breaking 7. With her baby _______ on her back, the woman was cleaning the rich man’s house. A. sleep B. slept C. to sleep D. sleeping 8. With his hair _______ like a role in the film, the boy felt very cool. A. cut B. to be cut C. cutting D. to cut
to do 9. With so much work _______, I have no time to go shopping with. (do)

考查方向五:独立主格
非谓语动词如果有自己的主语,那么就称为独立主格。 具体形式表现为; 1.逻辑主语(名词/代词)+非谓语动词的适当形式,主句。 Time permitting ,we will set out tomorrow . Homework finished ,they go home together . 2.逻辑主语(名词/代词)+名词/形容词/副词/介词短语,主句 The brave man fought the wolves ,a stick his only weapon . He turned to me ,his eyes sleepy . School over ,we all went home . The new teacher came in ,a smile on his face . 3.With /without 的复合结构 Without anyone noticing ,he slipped through the window .

易混点考查一

Have you anything to send ? 你有什么东西要寄吗? (不定时to send的动作执行者是句中的) Have you anything to be sent ? 你有要我或别人寄得东西吗? (不定时to be sent的动作执行者是我说话人或别人) I want to go to the supermarket ,have you anything ________.(buy).

易混点考查二

作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的 名词或代词是不定式动作的地点,工具等,补丁是后面须 有相应的介词。 The Browns have a comfortable house to live in . There is nothing to worry about . 不定式如果所修饰的名词是time,place,way,不定式后面 的介词习惯上省去。 Eg. He had no money and no place to live( in ). He found a way to solve the problem (in) .

非谓语动词做题步骤

一、分析句子结构, 辨别是“谓语还是非谓语”, 同时找出主语。

1. ______many times , but he still C ______ couldn't understand it . A 2. ______many times , he still couldn't understand it .
A. Having been told B. Told C. He had been told D. Though he had been told

二、找固定搭配
当非谓语动词充当宾语时,我们可以先看谓语动 词有无固定搭配,同时要注意语态(4)。
to have finished 1.They seem ____________ (finish) their work. 2.Having been ill in bed for nearly a month, he had difficulty passing _____________the exam.(pass) to study 3.I have decided _____________(study) engineering. being polluted 4.We should prevent the river from__________________.(pollute)

综合练习:
1. ___ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed
2.When asked by the police, he said that he remembered __ at the party. A. to arrive B. to arrive C. arriving D. arriving saying 3. Peter received a letter just now ________ (say) his grandma would come to see him soon. to be shown 4. The play ________________ (show) next month aims mainly to reflect the local cultural. affected 5. With the government’s aid, those people___________ (affect)by

the earthquake have moved.

Feeling 6. _________ (feel) hot, Mike uncovered his quilt . completed 7. When __________ (complete), the museum will be open to the public next year. to find 8. He hurried to the station only _________ (find) the train had left. leaving 9. His parents were killed in the accident, _______ him an orphan.(leave) To get 10 . _________ (get) the project in time, we’ll work two more hours a day. 11. _________ for an hour by his teacher, the boy felt depressed. A. Being scolded B. Having been scolded C. To be scolded D. Scolding

12. The policeman found the thief ____ his hand into an old man’s pocket and arrested him. A. put B. putting C. to put D. being put

13. Don’t leave the water ___ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run
14. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it ___ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained 15.Victor apologized for ___ to inform me of the change in the plan. A . his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being able D. him to be not able

非谓语动词重点回顾:
1.非谓语动词使用条件。 2.非谓语动词表现形式及否定结构。 to do 3.主语是aim ,wish,dream等时应用__________。 4.非谓语动词做后置定语的形式有____________________________ doing,done,being done, to be done, to do ________________. doing, done, having done 5.非谓语动词作状语形式有_______________________________ having been done ____________. 目的状语 出乎意料的结果 6. to do作状语表示_____________,____________________

7. 非谓语动词如果有自己的主语,那么就称为 独立主格结构 ____________________. 8.非谓语动词作宾补时常用于固定动词搭配,但应注意: 1)如果是hear,see,notice, watch 等时,宾补有三种形式 do doing done _______,__________ ,_________. 2)如果是复合结构,宾补的非谓语有三种形式 doing done to do ___________,_________,__________

巩固练习:
1. ___ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed
2.When asked by the police, he said that he remembered __ at the party. A. to arrive B. to arrive C. arriving D. arriving saying 3. Peter received a letter just now ________ (say) his grandma would come to see him soon. to be shown 4. The play ________________ (show) next month aims mainly to reflect the local cultural. affected 5. With the government’s aid, those people___________ (affect)by

the earthquake have moved.

Feeling 6. _________ (feel) hot, Mike uncovered his quilt . completed 7. When __________ (complete), the museum will be open to the public next year. to find 8. He hurried to the station only _________ (find) the train had left. leaving 9. His parents were killed in the accident, _______ him an orphan.(leave) To get 10 . _________ (get) the project in time, we’ll work two more hours a day. 11. _________ for an hour by his teacher, the boy felt depressed. A. Being scolded B. Having been scolded C. To be scolded D. Scolding

12. The policeman found the thief ____ his hand into an old man’s pocket and arrested him. A. put B. putting C. to put D. being put

13. Don’t leave the water ___ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run
14. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it ___ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained 15.Victor apologized for ___ to inform me of the change in the plan. A . his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being able D. him to be not able


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