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名 词

名词是高考的热点和难点。从语法和词汇两个方面来考察 其用法,在单项选择、完形、改错中都可感知高考中名词 的考查点。

专有名词主要是指人名、地名或某类人或事物的 名称,如Beijing,China等。 普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的 名词,如:book


专有名词(Proper Nouns)
抽象名词(Abstract Nouns)

不可数名词 (Uncountable Nouns)

物质名词(Material Nouns)

普通名词 (Common Nouns)
集体名词(Collective Nouns)

可数名词 (Countable Nouns)

个体名词(Individual Nouns)


为可数名词(Countable Nouns),物质名词

词(Uncountable Nouns)。

Proper Nouns:

Eg: Diana; Beijing; Americans;English; May; New Year’s Day


Common Nouns:

1. Individual Nouns: 指作为个体而存在的人或东西 可以指具体的人或物。Eg: aunts; a panda; apartments
也可指抽象东西。Eg: a year; fairy tales; a dream

2. Collective Nouns: 表示若干个个体组成的集合体
Eg: army; audience; crew; family; team; police; government; public

集体名词有时作单数看待,有时作复数看。一般来说, 视为整体时作单数看,突出它的成员时作复数看。
is not large. (be) His family _____ are all music lovers. (be) Cf: His family ______
在一些情况下,集体名词后单复数动词都可以用,没什么差别。 Eg: The audience was (were) excited by the show.

Eg: The gang is being hunted by the police. Our company is sending him to work in Berlin.

Eg: The police are looking for him.

3. Material Nouns: 指无法分为个体的物质。
Eg: beer; cake; cloth; cotton; detergent; fur; ice; paint; paper; soil 一般来说,物质名词是不可数的,因而没有复数形式。但有一些 特殊情况: 1) 有些物质名词可用作可数名词,表示“一份”、“一杯”、 Eg: Two strong black coffees, please. ( 两份) “一种” Three beers, please. (三杯) It was a special tea. (一种) 2)个别物质名词的复数形式可以表示特别的意义。 Eg: rains (雨季) sands (沙滩) snows (积雪) waters(海域)…

4.Abstract Nouns:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象 概念
Eg: education; love; policy; trust; nature; fashion; relief; silence; truth,etc. 多数情况下,这种名词常用于单数形式,不加任何冠词。 Eg: He’s learning French for fun. I wish you good luck. 抽象名词转化为可数名词。 Failure is the mother of success. (失败与成功在此为抽象概念) As a teacher , she is a success, but as a mother, she is a failure because she devotes little time to looking after her child. (成功者,失败者,可数)

不可数名词一般没有单复数之分,它包括 抽象名词、物质名词和专有名词。例如: health, advice, glass, wood, English, America


可数名词有单、复数之分。可数名词的复数形 式有以下几种:
情况 一般情况 加法 加-s 例词 Brothers;schools

加-es 以s,x,ch,sh,结尾的 词 以辅音+y结尾的 去y加-ies 词 以辅音+o 结尾的词 多数加-es 以f或fe结尾的词


Heroes; tomatoes*3 把f/fe改成ves Halves; leaves;*4

Notes: *1:stomach stomachs *2:以元音+y或以专有名词+y结尾的名词,直接在词尾加-s. Eg:boys; toys; Henrys *3: 以元音+o eg: videos; studios


eg: zoos; bamboos;kangaroos 直接在词尾加-s.

一些外来词(特别是音乐方面的词) eg: pianos 一些缩写词 eg: kilos; photos; memos

一些专有名词 eg: Eskimos; Filipinos *4:以f/fe结尾只加-s的词:

proofs;gulfs; cliffs; roofs;serfs; beliefs; chiefs

单复数相同的情况: sheep; deer; means; fish; works; species; Chinese;Japanese 以及由汉语音译表示度量衡、货币等单位的名词。 Eg: yuan, jiao, fen, jin, mu 只有复数形式的情况: trousers(裤子); glasses(眼镜); compasses(圆规) thanks; clothes; remains; goods; people; cattle

a pair of

1.词末+-s :

film-goers ; forget-me-nots
2.主体名词变为复数形式: lookers-on; editors-in-chief;sons-in-law 3.两个组成部分皆变为复数: women doctors; men cooks* 这种形式的第一个名词必须是man或woman

不规则复数: 1.man men Eg: woman– women; chairman-chairmen

3.+en 4.ouse


Eg:foot-feet; tooth-teeth; goose-geese
Eg:child-children; ox-oxen


Eg: mouse-mice; louse-lice(虱子)

有些外来词的不规则复数形式: Eg: analysis-analyses; basis-bases; thesis-theses; crisis-crises criterion-criteria; phenomenon-phenomena; medium-media

有些名词可以兼作可数名词和不可数名词。 a glass ( 玻璃杯 ) glass ( 玻璃 ) copper ( 铜 ) tin ( 锡 ) a copper ( 铜币/板 ) a tin ( 罐头 ) a paper ( 报纸,证件,论文 ) an iron (熨斗 )

paper ( 纸 )
iron (铁 ) wood ( 木头 ) gold (金子 ) youth (青春 ) power ( 力量 ) beauty ( 美 )

a wood ( 树林 )
a gold (金牌 ) a youth (年青人 ) a power ( 大国 ) a beauty ( 美人,美的东西 )

pleasure( 愉快 )

a pleasure( 使人感到愉快的事 )
a relation(亲戚)

a poem(一首诗 ) a machine(一台机器 ) a job(一件工作 ) a laugh(一个笑声 ) poetry(诗歌总称 ) machinery(机器总称 ) work(工作 ) laughter(笑声 )

a permit(许可证 )
a garment (一件衣裳 ) a bag(case) (一件行李 ) a loaf (一只面包 ) a hair(一根头发 )

permission(允许 )
clothing(衣裳总称 ) luggage, baggage(行李 ) bread(面包 ) hair( 头发)

几个名词的特殊用法 hair _______________. His hair is white (他的头发是白的。) ______________________. He has a few grey hairs (他有几根白的 头发。) fruit The fruit is sweet. He likes pears, peaches, grapes and other fruits.

police were searching for the The police _______ murderer. dozen, score two (many, several) dozen pencils dozen of them / these pencils three _________ dozens of students two score of students scores of people word(消息,通知), man(人类),前面 不加冠词,也不用复数形式,谓语用单数。

? 所有格的形式: 一般的名词所有格在后面加 ’s,如: Mary’s book 以 –s 结尾的复数名词所有格在后面仅加 ’, 如: Teachers’ Day, the students’ reading-room 以 –s 结尾的专有名词所有格,如: Engels’s works 或Engels’ works

? ’s 结尾的所有格形式多用于有生命的东西的 名词。但有时其它的名词也可以,如: today’s newspaper, fifteen minutes’ ride等与 时间有关的名词。 ? 凡不能加 ’s 构成所有格的名词,都可以与 of 结成短语,来表示所有格关系。就是有生 命的东西的名词也可如此,特别是当这个名 词有较长的定语时。如: Do you know the name of the girl standing at the gate?

? 一个名词所有格所修饰的词,如果前面已经 提到,往往可以省略,避免前后重复。如: This is not my pen, but Mary’s. ? 有时某些 ’s 结尾的所有格形式可以表示地 点,如某人的家或店铺、教堂等: We can meet at Mary’s. He went to his sister’s for dinner yesterday. I had the dress made at the tailor’s at the corner of the street. Last week we visited St. Paul’s.

属格 形式

应用场合 用在表示有生命的名词后 用在时间名词后



用在距离,长度名词后 用在地点名词后 用在天体名词后 用在价格名词后

Tom and Mike's room(两人共有 Tom's and Mike's rooms(两人分 别所有) three weeks' leave, today's paper twenty miles' journey
China's industry the earth's surface a dollar's worth

of属格 用在表无生命事物名词后 the door of our classroom 名词前有a, some, any, few, a friend of my brother's 双重 no, several 属格 several classmates of his 等词修饰时

名词所有格(The Possessive Case of Nouns)
some patterns: 1. I’ll take the risk for friendship’s sake. (为了友谊)

(黔驴技穷) 2. She was at her wit’s end.
3. Now they could sing at their heart’s content. (尽情地) 4. We should get the children out of harm’s way. (不受损害) 5. We had best keep them at arm’s length. (保持距离) 6. For goodness’ sake,stop arguing. (看在上帝的份上)

7. Jane got the money’s worth out of the coat. (很合算)

名词在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、 补语等。 名词作定语时,需注意: an enemy soldier enemy soldiers several _______________ boy students a boy student three ____________ men teachers a man teacher three _____________ women doctors a woman doctor three ______________ a shoe store ___________ (一家鞋店)

用名词作定语和用形容词作定语的比较: heart trouble snow mountain hearty welcome snowy table-cloth rain drops stone house rainy season stony heart rose garden rosy face gold ring golden sunshine/times/age/wedding

1. _______ turn green in spring. A. Leaf B. Leafs C. Leave D. Leaves 2. He dropped the _______ and broke it. A. cup of coffee B. coffee’s cup C. cup for coffee D. coffee cup 3. I need _______ cloth, for I’m going to make _______ clothes. A. a lot of; many B. much; much C. many; many D. many; a lot

4. He gained his _______ by printing _______ of famous writers. A. wealth; work B. wealths; works C. wealths; work D. wealth; works 5. Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of _______. A. energy B. source C. power D. material

6. You’ll find this map of great _______ in helping you to get round London. A. price B. cost C. value D. usefulness

7. ---- Who did you spend last weekend with? ---- _______ . A. Palmer’s B. The Palmers’ C. The Palmers D. The Palmer’s 8. My parents always let me have my own _______ of living. A. way B. method C. manner D. fashion 9. The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a(n) _______ of courage and power. A. example B. sign C. mark D. symbol

10. We volunteered to collect money to help the _______ of the earthquake. A. victims B. folks C. fellows D. villagers 11. If you don’t take away all your things from the desk, there won’t be enough _______ for my stationery. A. area B. place C. room D. surface 12. It is widely accepted that young babies learn to do things because certain acts lead to _______ . A. rewards B. prizes C. awards D. results

13. In the botanic garden we can find a(n) _______ of plants that range from tall trees to small flowers. A. species B. group C. amount D. variety 14. ---- Can you shoot that bird at the top of the tree? ---- No, it’s out of _______ . A. range B. reach C. control D. distance 15. The life of London is made up of many different _______ . A. elements B. sections C. material D. realities

16. For the sake of her daughter’s health, she decided to move to a warm _______ . A. weather B. temperature C. season D. climate 17. To regain their ______ after an exhausting game, the players lay in the grass. A. force B. energy C. power D. health 18. I saw Bob play the piano at John’s party and on that _______ he was simply brilliant. A. scene B. circumstance C. occasion D. situation

19. It can’t be a(n) _______ that four jewelry stores were robbed in one night. A. coincidence B. accident C. incident D. chance 20. According to the recent research, heavy coffee drink and heart attack is not necessarily _______ and effect. A. reason B. impact C. fact D. cause 21. ---- I’m sorry I stepped outside for a smoke. I was very tired. ---- There is no _______ for this while you are on duty. A.reason B.excuse C.cause D.explanation

22. The manager has got a good business ________ so the company is doing well. A.idea B.sense C.thought D.thinking 23. Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within ______ of little children. A. hand B. reach C. space D. distance 24. The environmentalists and wild goats’ _______ on the vast grasslands was a good indication of the better environment. A. escape B. absence C. attendance D. appearance

25. The village is far away from here indeed. It‘s _____ walk. A . a four hour B. a four hour's C. a four-hours D. a four hours’ 26. I have read the material several times but it doesn't make any ________ to me. A. meaning B. importance C. sense D. significance

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