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2014 高考英语阅读理解基础极品训练题(28)及答案

阅读理解 It is pretty much a one-way street. While it may be common for university researchers to try their luck in the commercial world, there is very little traffic in the opposite direction. Pay has always been the biggest deterrent, as people with families often feel they cannot afford the drop in salary when moving to a university job. For some industrial scientists, however, the attractions of academia (学术界) outweigh any financial considerations. Helen Lee took a 70% cut in salary when she moved from a senior post in Abbott Laboratories to a medical department at the University of Cambridge. Her main reason for returning to academia mid-career was to take advantage of the greater freedom to choose research questions. Some areas of inquiry have few prospects of a commercial return, and Lee’s is one of them. The impact of a salary cut is probably less severe for a scientist in the early stages of a career. Guy Grant, now a research associate at the Unilever Centre for Molecular Informatics at the University of Cambridge, spent two years working for a pharmaceutical (制药的) company before returning to university a s a post-doctoral researcher. He took a 30% salary cut but felt it worthwhile for the greater intellectual opportunities. Higher up the ladder, where a pay cut is usually more significant, the demand for scientists with a wealth of experience in industry is forcing universities to make the transition (转换) to academia more attractive, according to Lee. Industrial scientists tend to receive training that academics do not, such as how to build a multidisciplina ry te am, manage budgets and negotiate contracts. They are also well placed to bring something extra to the teaching side of an academic role that will help students get a job when they graduate, says Lee, perhaps experience in manufacturing practice or product development. “Only a small number of

undergraduates will continue in an academic career. So someone leaving university


who already has the skills needed to work in an industrial lab has far more potential in the job market than someone who has spent all their time on a narrow research project.” 12. By “a one-way street” (Line 1, Para. 1), the author means ________. A .university researchers know little about the commercial world B. there is little exchange between industry and academia C. few industrial scientists would quit to work in a university D. few university professors are willing to do industrial research 13. What was Helen Lee’s major consideration when she changed her job in the middle of her career? A. Flexible work hours. B. Her research interests. D. Prospects of academic

C .Her preference for the lifestyle on campus. accomplishments.

14. Guy Grant chose to work as a researcher at Cambridge in order to ________. A. do financially more rewarding work world C. enrich his experience in medical research opportunities 15. What contribution can industrial scientists make when they come to teach in a university? A. Increase its graduates’ competitiveness in the job market. B. Develop its students’ potential in research. C. Help it to obtain financial support from industry. D. Gear its research towards practical applications. D. exploit better intellectual B. raise his status in the academic


阅读理解------E (2013·重庆,E)


It is idely known that any English conversation begins with The Weather. Such a fixation with the weather finds expression in Dr. Johnson's famous comment that “When two English meet, their first talk is of weather.” Though Johnson's observation is as accurate now as it was over two hundred years ago, most commentators fail to come up with a convincing explanation for this English weatherspeak. Bill Bryson, for example, concludes that, as the English weather is not at all exciting, the obsession with it can hardly be understood. He argues that “To an outsider, the most striking thing about the English weather is that there is not very much of it.” Simply, the reason is that the unusual and unpredictable weather is almost unknown in the British Isles. Jeremy Paxman, however, disagrees with Bryson, arguing that the English interest is by nature attractive. Bryson is wrong, he says, because the English preference for the weather has nothing to do with the natural phenomena. “The interest is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty.” According to him, the weather in England is very changeable and uncertain and it attracts the English as well as the outsider. Bryson and Paxman stand for common misconceptions about the weatherspeak among the English. Both commentators, somehow, are missing the point.The English weather conversation is not really about the weather at all. English weatherspeak is a system of signs, which is developed to help the speakers overcome the natural reserve and actually talk to each other. Everyone knows conversations starting with weatherspeak are not requests for weather data. Rather, they are routine greetings, conversation starters or the blank “fillers”. In other words, English weatherspeak is a means of social bonding. 文章大意:本文为议论文,上来点题:英语对话往往从天气开始。后面具体的介绍几个 对此有不同理解的人以及他们的观点。 17.The author mentions Dr. Johnson's comment to show that ________. A.most commentators agree with Dr. Johnson. B.Dr. Johnson is famous for his weather conversation C.the comment was accurate two hundred years ago D.English conversations usually start with the weather 答案:D 文章第一句话提到:众所周知,英语的对话往往从天气开始,然后举例说明, 显然举例的目的就是表明英语的对话往往从天气开始,故 D 项正确。 18.What does the underlined word “obsession” most probably refer to?

A.A social trend. B.An emotional state. C.A historical concept. D.An unknown phenomenon. 答案:B 词意猜测题。由语境可知,Bill 认为因为英国天气一点也不令人兴奋,因此用 它对话时表达出来的________难以理解。兴奋应是与人的情感状态有关,故 B 项正确。 19.According to the passage, Jeremy Paxman believes that ________. A.Bill Bryson has little knowledge of the weather B.there is nothing special about the English weather C.the English weather attracts people to the British Isles D.English people talk about the weather for its uncertainty 答案:D 细节理解题。由文章第三段信息 The interest is less in the phenomena

themselves, but in uncertainty.可知 D 项正确。 20.What is the author's main purpose of writing the passage? A.To explain what English weatherspeak is about. B.To analyse misconceptions about the English weather. C.To find fault with both Bill Bryson and Jeremy Paxman. D.To convince people that the English weather is changeable. 答案:A 主旨大意题。文章主要讲述英语对话以天气开始的一些事情,故 A 项正确。

(六)A (2013·重庆,A) The morning had been a disaster. My tooth was aching, and I'd been in an argument with a friend. Her words still hurt: “The trouble with you is that you won't put yourself in my place. Can't you see things from my point of view?” I shook my head stubbornly—and felt the ache in my tooth. I'd thought I could hold out till my dentist came back from holiday, but the pain was really unbearable. I started calling the dentists in the phone book, but no one could see me immediately. Finally, at about lunchtime, I got lucky. “If you come by right now, ” the receptionist said, “the dentist will fit you in.” I took my purse and keys and rushed to my car. But suddenly I began to doubt about

the dentist. What kind of dentist would be so eager to treat someone at such short notice? Why wasn't he as busy as the others? In the dentist's office, I sat down and looked around. I saw nothing but the bare walls and I became even more worried. The assistant noticed my nervousness and placed her warm hand over my icecold one. When I told her my fears, she laughed and said,“Don't worry. The dentist is very good.” “How long do I have to wait for him?” I asked impatiently. “Come on, he is coming. Just lie down and relax. And enjoy the artwork, ”the assistant said. “The artwork?”I was puzzled. The chair went back. Suddenly I smiled. There was a beautiful picture, right where I could enjoy it: on the ceiling. How considerate the dentist was! At that moment, I began to understand what my friend meant by her words. What a relief! 文章大意:本文为一篇夹述夹议的文章,作者通过自己看牙医的一段经历,体会到了下 面的道理,即:要站在别人的角度上考虑问题。 1.Which of the following best describes the author's feeling that morning? A.Cheerful. C.Satisfied 答案:D B.Nervous. D.Upset.

推理判断题。由文章刚开头提到的“The morning had been a disaster”以

及后面“牙痛,跟朋友的辩论又伤害了我”可知,我很沮丧,故 D 项正确。 2.What made the author begin to doubt about the dentist? A.The dentist's agreeing to treat her at very short notice. B.The dent ist's being as busy as the other dentists. C.The surroundings of the dentist's office. D.The laughing assistant of the dentist. 答案:A 细节理解题。由文章第三段第三句话 What kind of dentist would be so eager to treat someone at such short notice?可知,A 项正确。 3.Why did the author suddenly smile? A.Because the dentist came at last. B.Because she saw a picture on the ceiling. C.Because she could relax in the chair. D.Because the assistant kept comforting her.

答案: B

细节理解题。 由文章倒数第二段信息 Suddenly I smiled.There was a beautiful

picture,right where I could enjoy it,on the ceiling.可知 B 项正确。 4.What did the author learn from her experience most probably? A.Strike while the iron is hot. B.Have a good word for one's friend. C.Put oneself in other's shoes. D.A friend in need is a friend indeed. 答案:C 推理判断题。A 项表示“趁热打铁” ;B 项表示“对朋友说好话” ;C 项表示“站 在别人的角度上考虑” ; D 项表示 “患难朋友才是真朋友” 。 由文章第一段朋友的话: The trouble with you is that you won't put yourself at my place. Can't you see things from my point of view.以及文章倒数第二段 I began to understand what my friends meant by her words.可知,作者从这段经历当中知道了:要站在别人的角度上去考虑问题,故 C 项正确。

阅读理解---------C People being tested for radiation exposure The crisis at the damaged Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station in northern Japan has raised worries about radiation risks. We spoke Tuesday with Jonathan Links, an expert in radiation health sciences. He is a professor at the Johns Hopkins

Bloomberg Sc hool of Public Health in Maryland. Professor Links says workers within the nuclear plant are the only people at risk of extremely high doses of radiation. JONATHAN LINKS: "Of course, we don't know what doses they've received, but the only persons at risk of acute radiation effects are the workers." For other people, he says, there may be a long-term worry. People can get cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation, the kind released in a nuclear accident.


Professor Links says scientists can use computers to quickly model where radioactive material has blown and settled. Then they measure how large an area is contaminated. He says if the situation is serious enough, officials could take steps like telling people not to eat locally grown food or drink the water. JONATHAN LINKS: "But that would only be the case if there was a significant release and, because of wind direction, the radioactive material was blown over the area, and then settled out of the air into and onto water, plants, fruits and vegetables." The reactors at Fukushima are on the Pacific coast. But Professor Links says people should not worry about any radioactive material leaking into the ocean. JONATHAN LINKS: "Even in a worst-case scenario accident, the sea provides a very high degree of dilution. So the concentration of radioactivity in the seawater would still be quite low." Japan is the only country to have had atomic bombs dropped on it. That memory from World War Two would create a stronger "psychological sensitivity" to radiation exposure, Professors Links says. Next month is the twenty-fifth anniversary of the explosion and fire that destroyed a reactor at Chernobyl in Ukraine. The nineteen eighty-six event was the world's worst accident in the nuclear power industry. A new United Nations report says more than six thousand cases of thyroid cancer have been found. These are in people who were children in affected areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The report says that by two thousand five the cancers had resulted in fifteen deaths. The cancers were largely caused by drinking contaminated milk. The milk came from cows that ate grass where radioactive material had fallen. To get the latest updates, go to www.unsv.com. Contributing: James Brooke 8. The passage mainly tells us __________. A. What measures the Japan Government takes to solve the nuclear crisis . B. Worries and influences caused by the nuclear crisis . C. With great efforts of scientists , the Japan Government has put the nuclear crisis

under control . D. To explain that the nuclear crisis has less effect on its neighboring countries. 9. Which of the following is NOT the influences caused by the leak of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station? A. Workers at the nuclear station are suffering the risk of death . B. People can get cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation, the kind released in a nuclear accident. C. The radioactive material may be blown over the area causing the pollution to water . D. The concentration of radioactivity in the seawater can not be diluted. 10. What’s the meaning of the underlined word “dilution”? A. chemical B. salt C. dissolution D. elimination

11. According to the passage which of the following is not TRUE ? A. Water people drink ,food and vegetables people eat may be polluted by nuclear radiation . B. Japan is the only country to have had atomic bombs dropped on it. C. You can go to www.unsv.com. to get the latest news . D. The nuclear accident in Japan is the worst in the nuclear power industry.



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