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2014年高考英语一轮总复习语法专题复习


第一讲

主谓一致

英语中谓语在人称、数方面必须与主语保持一致。 一、主谓一致主要遵循以下三个原则 1.语法形式上一致 1) 当主语带有前置或后置定语或插入语时,注意确定主 语,以下句中画线部分为主语,谓语应与其保持一致。 The number of students in our school is 1,700. 我们学校学生的数量是

1700。 More than one_student has seen the play. 不只是一个学生看了那场戏。 Many a_boy has bought that kind of toy. 许多男孩都买了那种玩具。

Lots of damage was caused by flood. 洪水带来了很大损失。 A number of students have gone to the countryside. 许多学生去了乡村。 He,_as well as the two girls, was absent from the meeting. 他和那两个女孩都缺席了会议。 The_officer,_rather than ministers answers for it. 是那位官员而不是部长们应该为此受到惩罚。 Mary,_along with her friends, is going abroad. 玛丽和她的朋友们将出国。 The girl like many boys is fond of football. 那女孩像很多男孩一样酷爱足球。 Everyone here, including old people, likes reading. 这里每一个人包括老人们都喜欢阅读。

2)“分数或百分数+ of+名词”构成的短语以及由“half of, all of, part of, the rest of, most of, any of+名词”构成的短 语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中 of 后面的名词的数保持 一致。 ? ?work has been done. Forty percent of the? ?works have been published. ? ? ?the food is fit to eat. Most of? ? ?the apples are fit to eat.

3)当量词作主语时,谓语动词形式看量词的数而定。如: This pair of shoes needs mending. Two bottles of wine are needed. 4)用 and 或 both?and?连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用 复数形式。如: Both Mary and Jack are admitted to the competition. Mary 和 Jack 都有比赛资格。 注意:如果并列主语指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概 念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时 and 后面的名词没有冠词。 Truth and honesty is the best policy. To love and to be loved is the great happiness. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table. The thief and murder was sentenced to death.

2.意义上一致 1)某些集体名词如 family, team 等作主语时,如果作为一 个整体看待,谓语用单数,如果指集体中的成员时用复数。 Her family is small, but the family are advanced workers. 这 类 名 词 常 用 的 有 audience, class , club, committee, company, crew(水手), crowd, enemy, government, group, party, public, team 等。 2)当名词词组中心词为表示度、量、距离、金钱、时间、 书名等复数名词时,常把这些复数名词看成一个整体,谓语用 单数。 He is rich, so 1,000 dollars is a small sum of money to him. Five minutes is enough to finish the task.

3.就近原则 如 果 连 词 or, either?or? , neither?nor? , not only?but also?, not?but?等连接的并列主语,一个是单 数,一个是复数,谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。 Either you or I am mad. Not one student but ten students were late for class this morning.

二、主谓一致在高考中的运用 1.主谓一致在广东高考语法填空中是一个常见的考点, 比如在 2008 年的试题中,“Being too anxious to help an event develop often ______(result) in the contrary to our intention.” 答案应为 results, 因为句子的主语是 Being too anxious to help an event develop,此时谓语应为单数,结合时态考虑,应为 results。 主谓一致这一考点通常都是搭配动词使用的, 在广东高考 语法填空中给出动词, 用其适当形式填空时有可能会体现这一 考点。这个时候就要求考生要认清句子的主语,再结合适当的 时态,写出正确的答案。 2.主谓一致在写作中也是值得考生注意的。每写一个句 子,都要确定其在人称、时态和数上的一致,要尽量避免一些 小的错误,提高自己作文部分的得分。

一、按语法要求填空。 1.Barbara is easy to recognize as she's the only one of the wears women who ________(wear) evening dress. 2 . Listening to loud music at rock concerts has caused __________(cause) hearing loss in some teenagers. are 3. Such poets as Shakespeare ________(be) widely read, of whose works, however, some are difficult to understand. 4.The teacher together with the students ________(be) is are discussing Reading Skills that ________(be) newly published in America.

5.Either you or one of your students ________(be) to is attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. 6.A survey of the opinions of experts shows that three is hours of outdoor exercise a week ________(be) good for one's health. 7.The company had about 20 notebook computers but were used only onethird__________(use) regularly.Now we have 60 working all day long. is 8.A poet and artist ________(be) coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon. goes 9.The father as well as his three children ________(go) skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter.

10 . As you can see, the number of cars on roads keeps ________(keep) rising these days. 11.With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of are being washed good earth __________________(wash) away each year. 12 . No one in the department but Tom and I knows ________(know) that the director is going to resign. 13 . All the employees except the manager are encouraged _______________(encourage) to work online at home. has been used 14.Every possible means _____________(use) to prevent the air pollution, but the sky is still not clear. was 15.I told him what I was surprised at ________(be) his attitude towards his study.

二、根据中文提示翻译下列句子。 1.这里三分之一的人口是工人。 are workers One third of the population here ______________. 2.又聋又哑很难与人交流。 makes communication very difficult Being deaf and dumb ____________________________. 3.受伤的人都被送进了医院。 were taken to hospital The injured ______________________________________.

4.这个海里大量的水被污染了。 A large quantity of water in the sea has ______________ been polluted so far. 5.每一种方法我们都用过了,但是我们还是救不了他。 has been tried Every means _______________ but we can't save him. 6.老师和学生们在讨论问题。 discussing a question. The teacher with his students is __________

三、按语法要求填空。 A are In North America people1.________(be) always in a hurry.Children have special lessons or sports activities after school.Parents often work late and won't get home until 7 or 8 o'clock at night.Most North American families 2.________ (not) don't have time to prepare a meal because the family 3.________(be) are is so busy.That is why fast food 4.________ (be) so popular in North America.People spend about 40% of their dollars on fast food.It seems to them 100 dollars a day for fast is food5.________(be) not that much.

People usually buy fast food from restaurant chains such as Pizza Hut, McDonald's, or KFC, where they can enjoy pizza, sandwiches, fried chicken, and so on.Fast food 6.________ saves (save)work and time, but it is not healthy. Fast food is popular in many countries.American fastfood companies now have restaurants all over the reaches (reach) world.The number of fast food restaurants 7.________ such a great one that no one really 8.________(know) what it knows is.But not everyone 9.________(be) happy about the spread(扩 is 展) of North American fast food.A group of people in Italy want 10.________(want) to fight against the spread of American fast food.They don't like the idea of more fast food chains opening restaurants in their country.

B has hurt (hurt) you or let you Forgiving someone who 1.________ is down 2.________(be) never an easy thing.Several new studies, however, say that it could have a lot of health benefits.When you think of forgiveness, you probably don't think of it as being a health or medical problem.Studies from Stanford show University, on the other hand, 3.________(show) that something like anger can change your wellbeing.

When cartoon book characters like the Incredible Hulk get 4.________(get) angry, they change colours and often gain is special power.In the real world, anger 5.________ (be) less obvious and may be more dangerous.That's why Professor Fred Luskin, founder of the Stanford Forgiveness Project and says author of Forgive for Good, 6.________(say) holding on to anger and hatred can harm your physical and mental health.Two new studies seem to show the same idea.

The studies find that people who are able to forgive feel less stress, less back pain, and less depression.They also have fewer headaches, lower blood pressure, and fewer problems on sleeping. So it doesn't matter if your anger is caused by the traffic or other things.Learning to let it go 7.________(be) is important.Techniques such as deep breath or thought can help.Or just ask yourself if it's worth hurting yourself by staying angry with someone else. Forgiveness 8.____________ does not mean (not mean) that you simply accept what happened and say it's OK.Instead, it's a way of making peace with yourself about what happened in the past.


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