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Que Sera Sera
When I was just a little girl,I asked my mother," What will I be ? Will I be pretty? Will I be rich ? "Here's what she said to me. "Qu

e Sera Sera, whatever will be, will be. The future's not ours to see , Que Sera Sera. What will be , will be. When I grew up and fell in love, I asked my sweet heart, " What lies ahead? Will we have rainbows day after day? " Here's what my sweet heart said," Que Sera Sera. Whatever will be will be. The future's not ours to see. Que Sera Sera. What will be will be. Now I have children of my own . They ask their mother, " What will I be ? Will I be handsome ? Will I be rich ? " I tell them tenderly , " Que Sera Sera. Whatever will be will be . The future's not ours to see. Que Sera Sera. . What will be will be."

1.The manager discussed the plan that they would
A like to see______the next year.(2000全国高考)

A. carried out B. carrying out

C. carry out

D. to carry out

B 2.______is known to everyone , the moon travels round

the earth once every month.(2001全国高考)
A.Until B. As C. That D. What

1.简单句(Simple Sentence)

2.并列句(Compound Sentence)
3.复合句 (Complex Sentence)


Her face turned red with anger.

主语 +及物动词+宾语

You can consider my suggestion.

主语+不及物动词+状语 This kind of cloth sells well.

主语+及物动词+间宾+直宾 He explained the sentence

to us. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾补 He found the work half done.

(2)并列句:由两个或两个以上等立而又 相互独立的 简单句构成,两个简单句由等立连词连在一起。 其结构 是: 简单句+等立连词+简单句

He has studied English for only one year,but he can read and write now./Keep on and you will make progress.
(3)复合句:由一个主句或几个从句构成的句子。 从句只用作句子的一个成份,不能独立。根据从句在 句中的作用,可分为名词性从句、定语从句和状语从 句三类。

从句:是一个成份,由一个句子充当某个成份 定语:用于修饰名词或代词 He is a physics teacher. Please show me another ticket. Australia is an English-speaking country.

从句的位置:在名词或代词后 先行词: 引导词: 被定语从句修饰的词 引导定语从句的词 关系代词

引导词的作用: (1)引导定语从句






1.A traveller is a person who\that travels 2.A computer is a machine that does counting most quickly. 3.A clock is a machine that tells people time. 4.A fridge is a machine which is used to keep food fresh. 5.A tailor is a person who makes clothes. 6.A beggar is a person who makes a living by begging.

7.A teacher is a person who gives lessons to students.
8.A nurse is a person that looks after people who are ill. 9.The panda is a kind of animal that can be found only in China.

10.April Ist is the day which is called April Fool’s Day in the West.

作用 作主语 例句
We visited the factory which \that makes toys for children. Most managers who \that are present at the meeting agreed to the plan.

作定语 作状语

The student whom\that\who you want to see has come. The letter which \that I received yesterday was from my father.
The girl whose mother is a teacher works very hard. The room whose windows were broken was mine. In 1998,he returned to the small town where he grew up. I still remember the day when I met him for the first time. The reason why he missed the speech was that he didn’t catch the bus.

why 1.The reason _______he missed the speech is that he forgot the time. that\which 2.The reason____________he gave us sounded reasonable. that\which 3.I’ll never forget the day ____________we spent together in Paris.

4.I’ll remember the day________we stayed together at that time. when
5.This is the factory____________we visited last year. that\which 6.This is the house _________Lincoln where once lived.

Remember: 引导词用关系代词还是用关系副词关键要看他们
在从句中作什么成份而定。或者说,假如把先行词放到从句中 是作主语、宾语还是状语而定。

whose 7.(1) He still lives in the room ________window faces to the south. which (2) He still lives in the room _________is in the north of the city. 8.(1)I will never forget the days ________we when studied together. that (2)I will never forget the days _________we spent together. why 9.(1) The reason ________he didn’t come was that he was ill. that (2) The reason _________he explained is not true. where 10.(1) We will meet at the same place________we met last month.

that (2) We will meet at the same place ________we visited last month.

who,that (先行词为人) 有区别吗?

(2)当先行词为人称代词时。 He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man.
Those who have any difficulty with pronunciation should practise more.

2. 用that不用who的情况: (1) 当先行词既是人又是物。 (2)当句子出现一个who等。 (3)关系代词在定语从句中作表语时。
He talked a lot about the things and persons that he had remembered there Who is the man that spoke to you just now? Mary is no longer the girl that she used to be.

which,that (先行词为物)
1.只用that不用which 的情况:



(2)先行词既是人又是物。 (3)先行词为形容词的最高级或序数词。 (4)先行词被the very,the only,the last,any,every,who等修饰时。 (5)关系代词在从句中作表语时 This is one of the best films that I have ever seen. China is no longer the country that it used to be. All that can be done has been done. He spoke of the things and persons that he had seen abroad. This is the very book that I am looking for. Who that has such a home doesn’t love it?

只能用which 的情况:
1.介词前置时关系代词只能用which(先行词为物) 2. 引导非限制性定语从句修饰某物或整个句子时只能用which (1) The machine ,which I have looked after for many years ,is still working perfectly. (2)She failed the exam, which made her parents vary angry. (3)He saw a film, which was about the Long March.

(4)My glasses,without which I was like a blind man,fell to the
ground and broke.

Remember:Which 在这两种情况下即使在句中 作宾语也不能省。

先行词为人,关系代词用 whom; 先行词为物,关系代词用which.

句尾,引导词可用that 或who,而且可省去。 关系代词和关系副词可转换:where,when,why =介词+which for which 1.This is the reason ______ ______he left his hometown. (=why)
2.I’ll never forget the day_____ ______ we stayed together. (=when) on which

3.This is the girl from ______ _______I whom learned the news. to whom 4.The person______ _____ I spoke just now is the manager that I told
you about.

in which 5.I’ll show you a store____ ______you may buy all that you need.(=where)
6.I don’t like the way____ _____ you laughed at her.(=that;\) in which


(Correct mistakes)

(多词) 1.Do you like the bike your friend gave it to you? 2.This is the very place where we visited many years ago. (错用引导词) 3. There are ten students are playing basketball on the



4. English is a subject I am interested. (漏介词) 5.Can you show me the book which have been translated

into English by Smith? (主谓不一致) 6.There is not a single person in the street whom I can turn for help.

1.This is the most exciting football match that I have ever seen.
2.I don’t like the way in which/that/不填 you laughed at others.

3.It is the third time that you have been late this week.
It is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.

4.The reason why/that he didn’t attend the meeting was
that his mother was seriously ill. 5. The reason for his failure is that he didn’t work hard.



定语从句修饰主句中某个名词或代词,起着相当于形容词 (定语)的作用,所以也叫形容词性从句。句子那个被修饰 的词叫先行词。定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后。要学好定 语从句,最关键要掌握以下两点: 1.弄清关系代词和关系副词的区别:他们在定语从句中的作用 不同。关系代词在从句中起名词的作用,在从句中担任主语, 宾语,表语和宾语。关系副词在从句中起副词的作用,在从句 中担任状语。 2.掌握关系代词和关系副词的方法:主要看先行词(假如放到 从句中)在从句中所担任的成份,所起的作用。

先行词为 引 导 关 词 系 副 词 关 系 代 词 who that whom which whose 人 物 /人 人 物 某人/某物的 时间 地点 原因

在定语从句中作 主语或宾语 主语或宾语 宾语 宾语或主语 定语 状语 状语 状语 在从 句中 作宾 语可 省去

When Where why

定语从句有限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两种。非限制性定语 从句要注意以下几点:(举例说明)

1.His mother ,whom he loved dearly,went abroad. 2.This machine ,which he has looked after for many years ,is

still working perfectly.

3.Aqiao,whose parents had died ,had to make a living by herself 4.The family ,who lived upstairs,are fond of music. 说明:非限制性定语不能用that 引导; 作宾语用的关系代词不能省;


用法与区别 “限”是先行词不可缺少的 定语.如果省去,主句意思 不完整或不明确;“非限” 只是附加说明。 限制性定语从句 All the people were talking about the wonderful cloth The emperor had ordered to be woven 非限制性定语从句 They set up a state of their own,where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. The letter is from my sister,who is working in Beijing. I saw a good film, which was about the Long March

“限”于主句之间不能用逗 She is the nurse who looks 号隔开;“非限”与主句之 after the children. 间要用逗号隔开。 “限”可以用that引导; “非限”不能用that引导 “限”的关联词作宾语时可 省;非限则不可 That is the very tool that we are looking for

I will never forget the day His dog,which he liked very (that )we spent together much, died yesterday. there He suddenly fell ill, which prevented him from going to school.

“限”一般只修饰先行词; I have finished the novel 非限既可修饰先行词,也可 that you lent me yesterday 是前面的整个句子或句子的 一部分

1.介词 + whom\which The woman general still remember the day on which she joined the army. =she joined the army on that day 2.介词 短语 + which\whom The fisherman lived in a small house in front of which lies a well.
3. 不定代词 或数词 +which\whom

=and a well lies in front of it.

There are many books here , none of which belongs to me. =and none of them belongs to me. China has a lot of famous writers, one of whom is Luxun. =and one of them is Luxin 4.名词+ of which She mentioned a magazine,the title of which I have forgotten. =and I have forgotten the title of it

1.He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten windows,most of _________had not been cleaned for at least one year. which to 2.In the dark street, there was not a single person _____ ______she could turn for help. whom
3.China has a lot of islands ,the largest_____ of _________is which Taiwan.

4.The old lady had one son and two daughters,_________ none ________ _______treated her well, ______made her of whom which very sad.
5.There are forty students in our class,______ _______20 of whom are girls; the rest are boys.

As 也可以用来引导定语从句.
1.He is not such a man as only think of himself. 2.I should like to use the same pen as I used yesterday. 3.Such problems as are often mentioned should be solved. 4.I will read as many books as are required.

5. Here is so big a stone as no one can lift.

当先行词与as,so,such,the same 连用或先行词本身是 such,the same时,关系代词用as. As在从句中作主语、宾语或 表语。


,which 引导非限制性定语从句 有什么不同吗?

(1) The meeting, which was held in the park,was a great success. (2) All the books , which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him.

放句首。 (1)Cruso’s dog became ill and died ,which made him very lonely.

(2)As we expected, Our football team lost the match again.
3.as 引导的从句有(正如……),(就象……),(由……而知)等含义. (1)Taiwan is a part of China,as is known to us all.

(2)She is very careful,as her work shows,
(3)The lady is very learned,as is said in the book.

1.定语从句和非谓语动词: (1)There are lots of good English programmes which are

broadcast on TV or the radio in China.
------There are lots of good English programmes ________ broadcast on TV or the radio in China. (2)At one time there were long queues of people who were waiting outside the CAAC offices.

waiting ------At one time there were long queues of people ________
outside the CAAC offices.

分析基本规律:从句是主动形式,用现在分词; 从句是被动形式, 用过去分词。或者看定语和被修饰词之间的关系,如果定语和被 修饰 词之间是主谓关系,用现在分词;如果定语和被修饰 词之 间是动宾关系,用过去分词;

2.定语从句和并列句 1. I saw some trees, and the leaves of the trees were black with disease. which -----I saw some trees, the leaves of ________were black with disease.
2. The professor is an ordinary-looking little man, on the nose of

whom __________there is a pair of glasses

3.The World Trade Organization (WTO) finally opened its door to China on November 10,_____ C a 15-year wait. A. to end B. ended C. ending D. ends


3.定语从句和状语从句 that (1)This is such a big stone _______no one can lift it.

as This is such a big stone _______no one can lift.
(2)Please put the letter in the drawer _____ ______he in which can easily find it.(=where) Please put the letter_________he where can easily find it. (3) Please put the letter in which he can easily find it.



是连 词,在从句中不充当任何成分,而定语从句中的as在从句 中要作一个成分(主语,宾语或表语)。

4.定语从句和名词性从句 (1) He did all (that) he could to help me .(=what) (2) All that can be done has been done. (=what) As (3) _______is known to us all, the earth turns round the sun. that It is known to us all _______Taiwan belongs to China. What is known to us all is that the earth is smaller than (4)______ the sun.

7.定语从句和强调句 that lived last year. (1) It is in this room ______I where lived last year. It is the room _______I that (2) It was at seven o’clock ________he went to school this morning. It was seven o’clock _______he when went to school this morning.

is/was +被强调的成份+that/who + 其它部分去掉 It is/was?.that/who? ,句子照样成立。(1) I lived in this room last year. (2) He went to school at seven this morning.而定语从句的引导词在句中要作一成份。


8.定语从句和同位语从句 that (1)The news ________our volleyball team won the

match made us excited.
(2)The news __________he that/which told me yesterday is exciting. (3)The problem __________we should answer for the that accident is clear to you. that/which (4)The problem __________he asked me to solve is hard to solve.


引导 同位语从句,在从句中不充当任成份,并且 引导的句子是说明前一名词的内容, 在从句中不可省去,也 不可用which 替代。That/which 引导定语从句,在从句中充当 成份,作宾语时可省去,从句起说明主句性质和特征的作用。

As 1.________is known to everyone, the moon travels round the round
the earth once every month. (NMET2001) A.until B. As C.That D. What 2.The film brought the hours back to me _______I was taken good C care of in that far-away village.NMET2001) A.until B.which C. when D.where

B 3.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play,_____,
of course,made the others unhappy.(NMET2000) A.who B. which C. this D.what 4.Carol said the work would be done by October,______personally I doubt D very much.(NMET99) A.it B.that C. when D.which

5.After living in Paris for fifty years, he returned to the small town _______he grew up as a child. (NMET96) B A. which B. where C.that D. when 6.The weather turned to be very good,________was more than we B could expect. (NMET94 ) A.what B.which C.that D. it 7.In the dark street , there was not a single person D ________she could turn for help.(NMET 92) A. that B.who C. from whom D. to whom

D 8. He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten windows, most of _______
hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. (NMET90) A. these B. those C. that D. which

Thank you!
Good bye!
2005年6月制作 版权所有会宁三中外语组(L)

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