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高一英语语法复习必修三


高一英语必修三语法复习——被动语态
二. 重难点讲解: 高一英语必修三中的主要语法点有:被动语态,动词不定式和定 语从句,另外还涉及了主谓一致、间接引语及连接词的用法。

被动语态专题复习

(一)被动语态的构成形式

1. 被动语态的基本时态变化

被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式,被动语

态由 be+过 去分词构成,be 随时态的变化而变化。以 do 为例,各种时态的被动 语态形式为:

(1)am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时

例 Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

(2)has /have been done 现在完成时

例 All the preparations for the task have been completed,

and we’re ready to start.

(3)am/is /are being done 现在进行时

例 A new cinema is being built here.

(4)was/were done 一般过去时

例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

(5)had been done 过去完成时

例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

(6)was/were being done 过去进行时

例 A meeting was being held when I was there.

(7)shall/will be done 一般将来时

例 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

(8)should/would be done 过去将来时

例 The news would be sent to the soldier’s mother as soon as it arrived.

(9)shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)

例 The project will have been completed before July.

(10)should/would have been done 过去将来完成时(少 用)

例 He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.

2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式

(1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+ 过去分词。

例 The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

(2)有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以 把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。 通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

例 His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可 改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

(3)当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时, 将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

例 Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改 为 The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

(4) 在使役动词 have, make, get 以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动 结构中不定式 to 要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加 to。

例 Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可 改为 A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

(5)有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词” , “动词+副词” 也可以用于被动结构, 等, 但要把它们看作一个整体, 不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

例 The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

3. 非谓语动词的被动语态

v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完 成时态) 。

例 I don’t like being laughed at in the public.

(二)如何使用被动语态

学习被动语态时,不仅要知道被动语态的各种语法结构,还 要知道在哪些情况中使用被动语态。

1. 讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者(这时

可省 by 短语) 。

例 My bike was stolen last night.

2. 借助被动的动作突出动作的执行者。

例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

3. 为了更好地安排句子。

例 The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people. (一个主语就够了)

(三)It is said that+从句及其他类似句型

一些表示 “据说”“相信” 或 的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等可以用于句型“It+be+过去分词 +that 从句”或“主语+be+过去分词+to do sth.” 。有:

It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道, It is believed that…大家相信,It is hoped that…大家希望, It is well known that…众所周知,It is thought that…大家认 为,It is suggested that…据建议。

例 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. (=The boy is said to have passed the national exam. )

(四)谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义

1. 英语中有很多动词如 break,catch,clean,drive,lock, open,sell,read,write,wash 等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描 述主语特征时,常用其主动形式表达被动意义,主语通常是物。

例 This kind of cloth washes well.

注意:主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征,而被动语态则 强调外界作用造成的影响。

试比较:The door won’t lock. (指门本身有毛病)

The door won’t be locked. (指不会有 人来锁门,指“门没有锁”是人的原因)

2. 表示 “发生、 进行” 的不及物动词和短语, happen, last, 如: take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动意义。

例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引 出来的呢?

3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、 感官的系动词 feel, sound, taste, book, feel 等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被 动意义。

例 Your reason sounds reasonable.

(五)非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义

在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意

义 。

1. 在 need,want,require, hear 等词的后面,动名词用主 动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。

例 The house needs repairing(to be repaired).这房 子需要修理。

2. 形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义,但 不能跟动词不定式;而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。

例 The picture-book is well worth reading. ( = The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)

3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语,不定式和名词之间有动宾 关系时, 又和句中另一名词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式 表示被动含义。

例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon.(to do 与 things 是动宾关系,与 I 是主谓关系。 )

试比较:I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter

to be posted? (此处用不定式的被动语态作定语表明 you 不是 post 动作的执行者。 )

4. 在某些“形容词+不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中, 句子的主语或宾语又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时, 这时常用不定式的 主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词有 nice,easy,fit,hard, difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting 等。

例 This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作 to work out 省略了 for me).

5. 在 too… to…结构中,不定式前面可加逻辑主语,所以应 用主动形式表示被动意义。

例 This book is too expensive (for me)to buy.

6. 在 there be…句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时, 不定式用主动式作定语,重点在人,用被动形式作定语,重点在物。

例 There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用 to lose 可看成 for us to lose;用 to be lost,谁 lost time 不明确。 )

7. 在 be to do 结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动,被 动表被动。然而,由于古英语的影响,下列动词 rent,blame,let 等 仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。

例 Who is to blame for starting the fire?

(六)介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义

表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义,其 意义相当于该名词相应动词的被动形式,名词前一般不用冠词。

1. “under +名词”结构,表示“某事在进行中” 。常见的有: under control(受控制), under treatment(在治疗中), under repair ( 在 修 理 中 ) , under discussion ( 在 讨 论 中 ) , under construction(在施工中) 。

例 The building is under construction ( is being constructed).

2.“beyond+名词”结构, “出乎……胜过……、范围、限度” 。

常见的有:beyond belief (令人难以置信) beyond one’s reach , (鞭长莫及) beyond one’ control , s (无法控制) beyond our hope. , 我们的成功始料不及。

例 The rumour is beyond belief(=can’t be believed).

3. “above+名词” 结构, “ 表示 (品质、 行为、 能力等) 超过……、 高于……” 。

例 His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough.

4.“for+名词”结构,表示 “适于……、 为着……” 。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。

例 That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold).

5.“in+名词”结构 ,表示“在……过程中或范围内”常见的 有:in print(在印刷中) ,in sight(在视野范围内) ,等。

例 The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed)

6. on+名词” “ 结构, 表示 “在从事…… 中” 常见的有: sale 。 on (出售) ,on show(展出), on trial(受审) 。

例 Today some treasures are on show in the museum (= are being showed).

7.“out of+名词”结构 ; 表示 “超出…… 之外“,常见 的有:out of control (控制不了) ,out of sight (超出视线之 外) ,out of one’s reach(够不着), out of fashion(不流行) 等。



The plane was out of control ( can ’ t be

controlled). 。

8.“within+名词”结构, “在……内、不超过……” 。

例 He took two days off within the teacher’ permission. s

(七)被动语态与系表结构的区别

当“be+过去分词”作被动语态时表示主语承受的动作;作 系表结构时表示主语的特点或所处的状态时,be 后面的过去分词是 表语,相当于形容词。其区分办法如下:

1. 如果强调动作或句中有介词 by 引导出动作的执行者, 该句 一般为被动语态,否则为系表结构。

例 The glass is broken. (系表结构)

The glass was broken by the boy. (被动语态)

2. 如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时,一般为被动语态。

例 The door is locked. (系表结构)

The door has already/just been locked.(被动语态)

3. 被动语态除用于一般时态和完成时态外,还可以用于其他 各种时态,而系表结构中的系动词 be 只有一般时态和完成时态。

例 The machine is being repaired.

【典型例题】

1. 高考对谓语动词语态的考查例析

(1) In some parts of the world, tea ___ with milk and sugar. (NMET1993)

A. is serving D. served

B. is served

C. serves

(2) This is Ted’s phone. We miss him a lot. He ___ trying to save a child in the earthquake.(NMET2002)

A. killed

B. is killed

C. was killed

D. was killing

(3) — Have you moved into the new house?

— Not yet, the rooms _____. (NMET1991)

A. are being painted

B. are painting

C. are painted

D. are being painting

(4)When and where to go for the on-salary holiday ___ yet. (上海春 2003)

A. are not decided

B. have not been decided

C. is not being decided D. has not been decided

(5)The manager entered the office and was happy to learn that four-fifths of the tickets ___.(上海春 2001)

A. was booked

B. had been booked

C. were booked

D. have been booked

答案:BCADB

2. 高考对非谓语动词语态的考查

当非谓语动词的逻辑主语为动作的承受者时, 须用被动式。 弄清非谓语动词与其逻辑主语之间的执行与承受关系是掌握非谓语 动词语态的关键。

(1)Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ___ whether they will enjoy it. (NMET2002)

A. to see seen

B. to be seen

C. seeing

D.

(2)While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ___ into buying something they don’t really need. (上海 1996)

A. to persuaded

B. persuading

C. being persuaded

D. be persuaded

(3)I feel it is your husband who ___ for the spoiled

child. (上海 2002)

A. is to blame

B. is going to blame

C. is to be blamed

D. should blame

答案:BCA

练一练:

1. The computers on the table ___ Professor Smith.

A. belongs

B. are belonged to

C. belongs to

D. belong to

2. —What do you think of the book?

—Oh, excellent. It’s worth ___ a second time.

A. to read read

B. to be read C. reading

D. being

3. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___.

A. catching

B. to be caught

C. being caught

D. to catch

4. This page needed ___ again.

A. being checked

B. checked

C. to check

D. to be checked

5. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do the exercises

A. Having taught

B. Having been taught

C. taught

D. Teaching

答案:DCCDB

【模拟试题】

1. If city noises ____ from increasing,people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner.

A. are not kept;will have to have

B. are not kept;

C. do not keep;will have to have to

D. do not keep;

2. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are ____and perfected now.

A. developed developed

B. have

C. are being developed

D. will have been

developed

3. —____ the sports meet might be put off.

—Yes,it all depends on the weather.

A. I’ve been told

B. I’ve told

C. I’m told

D. I told

4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___.

A. has completed

B. completes

C. has been completed

D. is completed

5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future.

A. cut been cut

B. are cut

C. are being cut

D. had

6. The new suspension bridge ___ by the end of last month.

A. has been designed

B. had been designed

C. was designed

D. would be designed

7. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____.

A. breaks

B. has broken

C. was broken

D. had been broken

8. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___.

A. have been taken place; have been set up

B. have taken place; have been set up

C. have taken place; have set up

D. were taken place; were set up

9. That suit __ over 60 dollars.

A. had costed costed D. cost

B. costed

C. is

10. — Look! Everything here is under construction.

—What’s the pretty small house that __ for?

A. is being built

B. has been built

C. is built

D. is building

11. —Do you like the material?

—Yes, it ___ very soft.

A. is feeling

B. felt

C. feels

D. is felt

12. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese.

A. write

B. to write

C. to be written

D. written

13. I have no more letters ____ ,thank you.

A. to type

B. typing

C. to be typed

D. typed

14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, for it __ easily.

A. won’t wash out washed out

B. won’t be

C. isn’t washed out

D. isn’t washing out

15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because

the lights happened to ___.

A. be put up

B. give in

C. be turned on

D. go out

【试题答案】

1—5

ACADC

6—10

BCBDA

11——15

CBCAD


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