Engineering cost management
Project cost control emphasis should be transferred to the project construction early days, is transferred to the project decision and design
stage. Project cost control in construction projects throughout the entire process, the key lies in the pre construction investment decision-making with design phase, whereas in the investment decision is made, the key lies in designing. According to expert analysis: architectural design, in the preliminary design stage, design stage, construction design stage to the engineering effect were 75% ~ 95%, 35% ~ 75%, 5% ~ 35%; while in the construction phase, through the optimization of construction organization design, construction cost saving the possibility of only 5% to 10%. We should put the focus shifted to the design stage, in order to get twice the result with half the effort. Pay attention to the technical and economic optimization combination. The combination of technology with economy is most effective way to control engineering cost. China engineering fields for a long time did not do this. The lack of technical personnel economy idea, design thought is conservative, the design of the outcome of the economy are not fully reflect. Therefore, we should solve the problem is to improve economic efficiency as the goal, in the construction process, organization, technology and economy organic ground union rises. Through the economic analysis, comparative study and effect evaluation, correct processing of advanced technology and reasonable in economy between the relation of unity of opposites, strive to advanced technology under the conditions of economic rational, reasonable in economy based on advanced technology. Carry out "limitation is designed" method. To be consciously put the application of value engineering to the specific design, actively promote quota design in engineering design contract, by way of bidding. This has been proven in practice is an effective way, it is not only an economic problem, more precisely a technical and economic problems. This "limitation is designed" to effectively control the project cost. In order to make the "limitation is designed" to achieve the desired objectives, should be involved in the design personnel must be experienced skilled economic designer. Their design results must be practical, advanced and reasonable cost. Control of engineering cost on the other hand is the need for comparison, because the outcome is a process of gradual improvement, and not to decide, so the comparison is a measure of its practical, advanced and economical means. Do good project cost control in the process. ( 1) compilation of economic and feasible construction scheme. Before construction, construction enterprises should be combined with the construction drawings and the actual situation at the scene, their mechanical equipment, construction experience, the management level and technical specification acceptance criteria, a set of practical and feasible construction scheme. The construction scheme is engineering implementation of the programme of action. ( 2) to technical personnel, materials, machinery and personnel staff communication
and coordination. In the process of construction, construction technology, materials and mechanical personnel should cooperate closely, understand each other, to management as the core, to reduce costs for the purpose of. ( 3) to the project completion settlement. Strict supervision system. Control project cost effectively, in the early phase of the project shall be subject to supervision (including cost management ) system. Through analyzing the design process of supervision, make the design more reasonable, cost control to limit the scope of, accomplish truly with the smallest investment maximize output. Strict supervision system. Control project cost effectively, in the early phase of the project shall be subject to supervision (including cost management ) system. Through analyzing the design process of supervision, make the design more reasonable, cost control to limit the scope of, accomplish truly with the smallest investment maximize output. To establish and perfect the independent project cost advisory body, cultivate a Zhi De have both engineering team. To establish a real sense of independent engineering cost consulting agencies. Through improving the laws and regulations, normative behavior, separate government functions from enterprise management, the establishment of independent business partnership, share-holding system, the limited responsibility system and other forms of organization, an industry-based, diversified services integrated project consulting company, build and development and reform the engineering cost intermediary service institutions, make construction project management of a gradual transition by an independent specialized agency in charge of project cost whole process tracking management, truly between owner and contractor plays an intermediary role. To strengthen engineering cost consulting industry association construction, establish project cost consulting industry self-discipline mechanism, and constantly improve the Engineering Cost Association in engineering cost consulting industry status, to be truly representative of the interests of the majority of the industry practitioners, government and enterprises to become connection link and the bridge. At the same time to strengthen the project cost specialty in higher education and in service education. As a result of project cost management in construction projects and various economic interests are closely related, and the whole social economic activities play a very important role, it requires the cost engineering technical personnel should have different levels of knowledge, in addition to their professional knowledge and have a deep understanding, also deal with the design content, design process, construction technology, project management, economic laws and regulations have a comprehensive understanding of. Therefore, the project cost management, project cost per unit of society groups, has already obtained a cost engineer qualification personnel, in order to carry out plan, has the goal, multiple levels of continuing education and training, to understand and master Chinese bilateral agreements with countries project cost technology, regulations, management system and its development trend, to expand domestic and foreign exchanges, and actively participate in international or regional engineering activities, improve their professional quality, so that the current practitioners in intelligent
structure, theory and working experience three aspects can meet the needs of engineering cost management. Cost engineering professionals need to strengthen their own learning, in addition to the professional knowledge to upgrade, should also work in combination with a broad understanding and master the relevant engineering and technical expertise, educational organizations and industry regulatory bodies constitute a complete education system, so as to the field of engineering senior talent development to create good conditions.
工程造价控制重点应转移到项目建设的前期，即转移到项目决策和设计阶 段。工程造价控制贯穿于项目建设全过程，关键在于施工前的投资决策和设计阶 段，而在做出投资决策后，关键在于设计。据有关专家分析：建筑设计方案，在 初步设计阶段、技术设计阶段、施工图设计阶段对工程的影响分别达 75％～ 95％、35％～75％、5％～35％；而在施工阶段，通过优化组织施工设计，节约 工程造价的可能性只有 5％～10％。所以应该把重点转移到设计阶段，以取得事 半功倍的效果。 注重技术与经济的优化结合。 技术与经济相结合是控制工程造价最有效的手 段。中国工程设计领域长期以来没有做到这点。技术人员缺乏经济观念，设计思 想保守，使设计成果的经济性得不到充分体现。因此，我们现在应该解决的问题 是以提高经济效益为目的，在工程建设过程中将组织、技术与经济有机地结合起 来。通过经济分析、技术比较及效果评价，正确处理技术先进与经济合理两者之 间的对立统一的关系，力求在技术先进条件下的经济合理，在经济合理基础上的 技术先进。 推行“限额设计”方法。要自觉地把价值工程运用到具体的设计中去，积极 推行限额设计， 在工程设计发包中采用招投标方式。 这是被实践证明的有效途径， 它不单纯是一个经济问题，更准确地说是一个技术经济问题。这种“限额设计” 能有效地控制整个项目的工程造价。为使“限额设计”达到预期目的，应该做到 参与设计人员必须是有经验懂技术经济的设计师。他们设计的成果必须实用、先 进而且造价合理。控制工程造价的另一方面是必须进行多方案比较，因为设计成 果是一个逐步完善的过程，并不是一开始就能确定下来，所以多方案比较是衡量 其实用性、先进性和经济性的重要手段。 做好工程实施过程中的造价控制。 （1）编制经济可行的施工方案。施工前， 施工企业要结合施工图纸及现场实际情况、自身的机械设备、施工经验、管理水 平和技术规范验收标准，编制一套切实经济可行的施工方案。该施工方案是工程 实施的行动纲领。 （2）做好技术人员、材料人员、机械人员的沟通与配合。施工 过程中，施工技术人员，材料人员和机械人员要密切配合，互相了解，以经营管 理为核心，以节约成本为目的。 （3）做好工程竣工结算。 严格实行监理制度。有效地控制工程造价，在项目建设前期阶段必须实行监 理（含造价监理）制度。通过对设计过程的监理，使设计趋于合理，造价控制在 限额范围内，真正做到用最小的投入取得最大的产出。 建立和完善独立的工程造价咨询机构， 培养一支德才兼备的工程造价队伍 。 要建立一批真正意义上独立的工程造价咨询机构。通过健全法规，规范行为，政 企分开，建立自主经营的合伙制、股份制、有限责任制等多种组织形式，一业为 主、多种经营服务的综合性工程项目咨询顾问公司，建立和发展与改革相适应的 工程造价中介服务机构， 使建设项目管理逐步过渡到由一个独立的专业化中介机 构负责对工程造价进行全过程跟踪管理，真正在业主与承包商之间起中介作用。 要加强工程造价咨询行业协会的建设，建立工程造价咨询行业自律机制，不断提 高工程造价协会在工程造价咨询行业的地位， 使之成为真正代表行业内多数从业
者的利益，成为政府与企业联系的纽带和桥梁。 同时要加强工程造价专业高等 教育及在职人员的再教育。 由于工程造价管理在建设项目中和各方经济利益密切 相关，且对全社会的经济活动起着十分重要的导向作用，它要求造价工程专业技 术人员应具有多层次的知识，他们除了要对本专业的知识有深入的了解外，还应 对设计内容、设计过程、施工技术、项目管理、经济法律法规等有全面的了解。 为此，工程造价行业管理机构，工程造价学会团体等部门单位，对目前已经获得 造价工程师资格的人员，要进行有计划、有目标、多层次的继续教育及培训，了 解和掌握与中国达成双边协议的国家的工程造价技术、法规、管理体系及其发展 动向，扩大内外交流，积极参与国际性或区域性工程造价组织的活动，不断提高 他们的业务素质，使目前从业人员在智能结构、理论水平和工作经验三方面都能 满足工程造价管理工作的需要。工程造价专业人员也要加强自身的学习，除了对 本专业的知识进行更新提高外， 还应该结合工作广泛了解和掌握有关工程技术专 业的知识，国民教育机构和行业管理机构构成完备的教育体系，从而为工程造价 领域高级人才的成长创造良好的条件。