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防火 Cargill-fire protection


火灾的防护

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Cargill Confidential

Definitions 定义
"Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a flash point at or above 140 deg. F (60 C), and below 200 deg. F (93.3 C) “易燃液体 是指闪点在60C和93.3C之间的液体。 易燃液体”是指闪点在60C和 之间的液体。 易燃液体 是指闪点在60C 93.3C之间的液体 "Flammable liquid" means any liquid having a flash point below 140 deg. F (60 C), and having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100 deg. F. (41.5 C) “可燃液体 是指闪点低于60C,同时在41.5C蒸发压力不超过40磅/平方 可燃液体” 60C,同时在41.5C蒸发压力不超过40磅 可燃液体 是指闪点低于60C,同时在41.5C蒸发压力不超过40 英寸的液体.

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Cargill Confidential

200 F? III 140 F? II 100 F? IC 73 F? IA Combustible易燃 易燃
Flash point > 100 F?

Flammable可燃 可燃
Flash point < 100 F?

IB

Boiling Point F?沸点 沸点
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Flash Point 闪点
The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. 在测试容器内,液体挥发的气体在其表面和空气形成易着火的混合物 在测试容器内, 浓度的最低温度 。 The flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition. 闪点通常是物品着火敏感度的一个指标。

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Flammable (Explosive) Limits 燃烧(爆炸)限值
The flammable range includes all concentrations of flammable vapor or gas in air, in which a flash will occur or a flame will travel if the mixture is ignited. 可燃范围包括易燃汽体或气体在空气中的浓度,在这种浓度下,如果混合 气体被点燃,将立即产生火花或火焰。

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Safety Can 安全罐
Safety can shall mean an approved container, of not more than 5
gallons (18.9 L) capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.

安全罐是指一个经认可的容器,不大于5加仑,有一个弹簧开关盖,喷盖 的设计成在当火灾爆发时,能安全地释放内压。

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Fire Protection and Prevention 火灾的防护
Employer Responsibility: 雇主职责 Development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program 制定和维系一个有效火灾防护程序 At the jobsite 在工作现场 Throughout all phases of construction 涉及到建筑的各个部分。

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Cargill Confidential

General Requirements 基本要求
Maintain access to fire fighting equipment at all times 在任何时候,都要保持到灭火设备的通 在任何时候, 道保持畅通 Conspicuously located 醒目位置 Periodically inspected 周期性检查 Defective replaced 失效时及时更换

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Clearly Visible/Accessible 易于看见/取用

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Fire Protection消防
inspecting!知道检 Know what to look for when inspecting!知道检 查内容 Type of extinguisher 灭火器类型 Labeling 标签 Pins in place? 插销位置 Charged?充满度 Charged?充满度 Heft test 测试重量 Annual Hydrostatic test 每年一次静压测试

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Cargill Confidential

General Requirements 基本要求
Fire extinguishers:灭火器 extinguishers:灭火器 Fire extinguisher provided every 3000 ft ft? 279平方米需一个灭火器 (279 m2) 每279平方米需一个灭火器 In protected areas travel distance to extinguisher < 100 feet (30.5 m) 保护地点距灭火器小于100 feet (30.5 m) 保护地点距灭火器小于100 Minimum one extinguisher per floor 每层楼最少一个灭火器 Multi-story at least one near stairway Multi至少一个储存在楼梯旁

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Cargill Confidential

General Requirements 基本要求
Minimum 10B extinguisher within 50 feet (15.2 m) of 5 gallons (18.9 L) flammable liquid or 5 pounds (2.3 kg) flammable gas 在5加仑易燃液体或者5磅易燃气体的50英尺范围内最少设置10B的 灭火器。 Extinguishers inspected and maintained in accordance with NFPA No. 10A-1970。 按照NFPA N o.10A-1970对灭火器进行检查和维护。

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Fire Protection 火灾保护
Types of Fires 火的类型 Class A- Ordinary materials such as paper, wood, cloth A级:通常材料如纸,木材,布料 Class B- Flammable liquids or Combustible liquids such as gasoline, paint, thinners, propane, kerosene B级:可燃或易燃液体如汽油,油漆,丙烷,煤油. Class C- Electrical equipment fires, appliances, switches, panels C级:电器设备,用具,开关,控制板着火 Class D- Certain metals such as magnesium, sodium, that could explode! D级:几种易爆炸的金属如镁,钠.

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Fire Protection 火灾保护
Using a portable fire extinguisher 使用便携式灭火器 P- Pull the pin 拔掉安全销 A- Aim nozzle at base of flames 喷嘴对准火焰底部 S- Squeeze the trigger 压下板扣 S- Sweep the extinguisher from side to side, covering the area of the fire with the extinguishing agent 用灭火器对各个位置进行扫射,灭火剂覆盖着火区域。

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Cargill Confidential

General Requirements 基本要求
Alarm system established for emergencies: 制定紧急情况报警系统 Alert employees 紧急通知员工 Alert fire department 紧急通知消防部门 Reporting instructions conspicuously posted by phones and worker entrances 用电话汇报建筑物的显著特征,并在入口设置专人指路。

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Fire Prevention 防火
Indoor Storage:室内贮存 No obstruction to exit 不能阻塞出口 Appropriate management of all fire hazard materials 适当管理所有 易产生火灾的材料 Segregate non-compatibles 分类保存 Three feet clearance maintained to sprinklers 与洒水喷头之间保持3英尺的距离。

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Accumulations of Combustible Materials 易燃物的杂乱堆积

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Flammable & Combustible Liquids 可燃和易燃液体
Flammable liquids > 1 gallon (3.8 L) requires safety can 大于1加仑的易燃液体,要求安全罐 Flammables not stored near exits or stairways易燃物不能储存在出口和楼梯

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Flammable & Combustible Liquids 可燃和易燃液体
Inside Storage: 内部储藏 Max 25 gallons (94.6 L) stored outside flammable cabinet 在易燃储物架外,最多储藏94.6L 在易燃储物架外,最多储藏94.6L Away” Cabinets labeled “Flammable - Keep Fire Away Flammable 架上标注“易燃物—远离烟火 远离烟火” 架上标注“易燃物 远离烟火”

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Cargill Confidential

Flammable Material易燃材料

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Cargill Confidential

Flammable & Combustible Liquids 易燃和可燃液体
Dispensing 5 gallons (18.9 L) or more, segregate 25 feet (7.6 M) from other operations 若量超过18.9L时,应保持与其 他操作的间隔在7.6M以上 Bonding required for container transfer 容器转运时, 必须固定/粘.

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Cargill Confidential

Flammable & Combustible Liquids 易燃和可燃液体
The dispensing units shall be protected against collision damage应该避免碰撞 Containers closed when not in use 不用时应密闭容器

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Protect Containers容器保护

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Fire-Hazard Recognition 认识火灾

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Cargill Confidential

Appropriate ? 适当吗?

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If It Holds Fuel-Use It? 这个地方能够保存燃料吗?

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Storage 储存

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Accessible Extinguisher 易取用灭火器

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Separate Cutting From Potential Fires 切割作业与潜在火灾分开

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Cargill Confidential

Summary 小结
? Understand combustible/flammable hazards 明白可燃/易燃物的危害 ? Understand efforts required to protect employees 懂得保护员工的必要 ? Develop an “emergency action plan” 制定一个紧急行动计划 ? Train employees in hazard avoidance (Hot Work Permits) 培训员工避免危害(热加工许可) ? Train employees in their part of the plan 培训员工在紧急行动中的角色。

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Cargill Confidential


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