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Combustion characteristics of a diesel engine operated with diesel and burning oil of biomas


Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 1025–1032 www.elsevier.com/locate/renene

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Combustion characteristics of a diesel engine operated with diesel and burning oil of bioma

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Hongmei Zhang, Jun Wang*
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan, Road, Hangzhou 310029, People’s Republic of China Received 30 January 2005; accepted 10 June 2005 Available online 10 August 2005

Abstract In this study, burning oil of biomass (BOB) was derived from biomass corncob tar by distillation. The fuel BOB1 was extracted from biomass corncob tar by distilling temperature range from 110 to 220 8C, the fuel BOB2 was extracted from biomass corn tar by distilling temperature over 220 8C. This paper presents that the results in the physical characteristic of BOB as an alternative fuel and a comparative control experiences in unmodi?ed diesel engine. Engine power performance, fuel consumption and emissions (CO2, CO, HC and NO) have been studied. There was no signi?cant difference in performance between diesel fuel and mixed fuel. The mixed fuel operation produced low fuel consumption at the various loading. Mixed fuel 1 (mixed 10% BOB1 with diesel by volume) and mixed fuel 2 (mixed 10% BOB2 with diesel by volume) with 11.7 and 6.6% oil-economizing rate, had better oil-economizing compare to diesel fuel respectively. The mixed fuel 1 and mixed fuel 2 showed signi?cant improvement at CO2 emissions. q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Burning oil of biomass; Alternative fuel; Diesel; Biomass corncob tar

1. Introduction The world has for sometime witnessed growing concern over the environmental impact and/or exhaust of conventional fossil fuel energy sources. The concern has highlighted the need for diversi?cation and prompted research world-wide into potential alternative

* Corresponding author. Tel.: C86 571 86971881; fax: C86 571 86971139. E-mail address: jwang@zju.edu.cn (J. Wang).

0960-1481/$ - see front matter q 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2005.06.006

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sources of fuel energy for internal combustion engine [1]. Environmental well-being requires a modi?ed mix of energy sources to emit less carbon dioxide, starting with a move to cleanly alternative fuels [2]. Worldwide, many regions have experience with alternative fuels other than conventional diesel and gasoline. In Europe, lique?ed petroleum gas (LPG), fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), methanol (M85), biodiesel and bio-compressed natural gas (bio-CNG) have been tested and used in niche markets. Brazil has extensive experience with alcohol (ethanol-program) and palm oil as well as CNG. The USA have also used methanol (M85) for transportation applications. Malaysia has examined SMDS (gas-to-liquids) [3]. These alternative fuels offer the opportunity to enlarge our currently mineral-oil-based fuel system. Among these alterative fuels, biofuels appear to be a potential alternative ‘greener’ energy substitute for fossil fuels. It is renewable and available throughout the world. The sulphur content is negligibly small thus the issue of acid rain is therefore, ameliorated [4]. Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources and be recognized and examined are capable of providing good engine performance in the short term [5]. Alternative fuel is inadequate to satisfy long-term energy demands and to gain independence from petroleum-based fuels presently. It is, therefore, of great importance that all potential fuel alternatives being recognized and examined. The author is talking about a new kind of biofuel derived from biomass corncob tar. The biomass tar is a byproduct of crop stalk gasi?cation and is harmful out growth in biomass process, which causes environmental pollution, harms gasi?cation system, abandons renewable resources, and lower gasi?cation ef?ciency [5]. Its output accounts for 5–10% of the total amount of biomass. So everybody pays close attention to the treatment and use it. Other people have studied biomass tar as new architectural materials. The author studies its other use as biofuel, which adopts water distillation law to draw the ?ammable composition from the biomass corncob tar, call burning oil of biomass (BOB). BOB include BOB1 and BOB2. BOB1 was extracted from biomass corncob tar by distilling temperature range from 110 to 220 8C; BOB2 was extracted from biomass corncob tar by distilling temperature over 220 8C. Physical characteristic of BOB and diesel fuel were tested in similar conditions in order to evaluate their performance in diesel engine. The use of neat BOB in diesel engine is problematic due to its high viscosity and low volatility [6]. So two fuel blends (mixed 10%BOB1 and 10%BOB2 with diesel by volume, respectively) were prepared and tested in similar conditions. The experiments were performed to study the characteristics of BOB and its blend with diesel fuel.

2. Materials and methods The biomass corncob tar used for this research was taken from the gasi?cation processing factory of Huojia County of Xinxiang of Henan Province (China) and was by-produce of corncob in gasi?cation process. The biomass corncob tar sample was tested after dehydration. The fuel was extracted from biomass corncob tar by distilling temperature range from 110 to 220 8C and was named as BOB1, the fuel was extracted

H. Zhang, J. Wang / Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 1025–1032 Table 1 Physical characteristic of diesel and BOB Property Flash point/8C Firing point/8C Density/(g/cmK3) Solidifying point/8C Calori?c value (MJ/kg )[7] Percentage of H/% [7] Percentage of C/% [7] Percentage of O/% Air-fuel rate (A/F) Viscosity (mm2/s) No. 0 diesel 79 90 0.83 0 42–43.3 13.2 86.6 0 14.45 3–8 BOB1 94 102 1.006 K10 36.4 11.4 73.7 10 9.6 9.10 BOB2 108 117 1.01 K7 37.1 11.67 76.3 10.1 9.8 14.82

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from biomass corncob tar by distilling temperature over 220 8C and was named as BOB2. The BOB1 and BOB2 were generally called BOB. The type of diesel fuel was No. 0. Density was measured by The densimeter of petroleum(Model SY-II, Shanghai shibo biotechnology Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China; Flash point was measured by the ringent apparatus of mensuration ?ash point (Model SYP1001-I, Shanghai huayan instrument Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China); Viscosity was measured by viscosimeter (Model SYP1004III, Shanghai huayan instrument Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China); Solidifying point was measured by the apparatus of solidifying point (Model SYP-1008III, Shanghai huayan instrument Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China). The properties of the fuels were shown in Table 1. The use of neat BOB in diesel engine was problematic due to its high viscosity and low volatility. Eighteen fuel blends (mixed10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90% BOB1 and BOB2 with diesel by volume respectively) were prepared. These fuel blends were stored at room temperature for 3 days, and then were refrigerated to under 0 8C for 1 day. No dividing layers in mixed 10% BOB1 or BOB2 with diesel were found, i.e. 10% BOB1 or BOB2 could be dissolved in the diesel fuel. The mixed fuel 1 (10%BOB1) and the mixed fuel 2 (10%BOB2) were prepared and tested in similar conditions. Test runs were conducted on synthetical test-bed of engine (Model FZD, Qidong examine the work device factory, Qidong, China) according to JB3743-84 ‘standard of the Ministry of Machine Building Industry of the People’s Republic of China’. The type of engine used for this research work was a model ZH100B four cylinder. It was an aircooled, unpressurized direct injection, rated power is 11.03 kW and rated speed is 2200 rpm, four-stroke engine. The dynamometer (Model D110B, Jiangshu nantong tongchang test instrument Co., Ltd.,Nantong, China) was used to load the engine. Exhaust gas was measured by analyzed device ((Model NHA-500, Fushan Nanhua instrument Co., Ltd., Fushan, China); Smoke levels were measured by Untransparence photometer (Model NHT-1, Fushan Nanhua instrument Co., Ltd., Fushan, China); Apparatus of testing oil consumption (Model HZB, Qidong examine the work device factory, Qidong, China) were used to measured fuel consumption.

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3. Results and discussion 3.1. Engine performance Fig. 1 showed fuel consumption results for the three candidate fuels at the speed of 2200 rpm. There was a decrease of fuel consumption at light load and there was no signi?cant difference among operations at high load levels. The operation with mixed fuel 1 and mixed fuel 2 produced similar trends. Fuel consumption of mixed fuel 1 was a little decrease compare to mixed fuel 2. There was about 11.7% lower fuel consumption when running on the mixed fuel1 than pure diesel fuel, and about 6.6% lower fuel consumption when running on the mixed fuel 2 than pure diesel fuel. This was due to calori?c value of BOB was lower than pure diesel, but the density of the mixed fuel was higher than diesel, their calori?c value of the volume was relatively close. In addition, BOB contains a certain amount of oxygen and the high viscosity of BOB may have also provided a good sealant between the piston rings and cylinder wall, enhancing the engine combustion performance, making the fuel combustion completely, raising the utilization ratio of energy. So the fuel consumption rate was lower than the pure diesel fuel. Mixed fuel 1 and mixed fuel 2 burn normally at exceeding rated power 11.03 kW under the speci?ed rotational speed. This implied that mixed fuel can be burned totally under overloading, and meet the power request for the engine. The overall result showed that there was no signi?cant difference in performance between pure diesel fuel and BOB without adjustment engine.

600 550 Fuel consumption/g kw–1 h–1 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 0 5 Power / kW 10 15
No.0 diesel Mixed fuel 1 Mixed fuel 2

3.5
No.0 diesel Mixed fuel 1 Mixed fuel 2

The amount of fuel consumption / kg–1 h–1

3

.

.

2.5

2

1.5

1 0 5 Power / kW 10 15

Fig. 1. The load characteristics curve of diesel engine.

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3.2. Emissions Fig. 2a showed the comparison between the test results of the blends and diesel fuel operation at the speed of 2200 rpm. The amount of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) was high when diesel engine used the mixed fuel 1 and 2 throughout the load range. The high HC emissions of mixed fuel operation are due to cool cylinder wall. It is a kind of combustion phenomena of propagating near the cylinder wall of ?ame that result in wall is surged coldly. Because of cooling function of cylinder wall, the mixed gas can not burnt within the cylinder wall 0.5 mm, forming the unburned hydrocarbon of tail gas [8, 9]. Among the factors of in?uencing the quantity of unburned hydrocarbon, the temperature and ?ow air combustion chamber are very importance. In the combustion chamber, if the low velocity ?ow air and the high temperature, it is unstable to catch ?re and the local combustion is incomplete, release more HC [10]. Table 1 showed that calori?c value of BOB and content of C$H were lower than the diesel oil No. 0, corresponding calori?c value were lower too, so the mixed fuel operation produced small heat energy compared with diesel fuel, causing to reduce the temperature of combustion chamber and resulting in high HC emissions. Fig. 2(b) showed the plots of CO emissions of the blends and diesel fuel operation at the speed of 2200 rpm at different loading conditions. The plots showed that an increase in CO emissions with increase of load. This is typical with all internal combustion (IC) engines since air/fuel (A/F) ratio decreases with increased load. No signi?cant difference in CO

No.0 diesel (a) 14 Mixed fuel 1 Mixed fuel 2 12 0.06 (b) 0.07

No.0 diesel Mixed fuel 1 Mixed fuel 2

10 HC / × 10–6

0.05

6

CO / %

8

0.04

0.03

4

0.02

2

0.01

0 0 5 Power / kW 10 15

0 0 5 Power / kW 10 15

Fig. 2. Comparison of the harmful substance in emitted gas: (a) hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; (b) Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions.

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10 9 8 7

No.0 diesel Mixed fuel 1 Mixed fuel 2

CO2/%

6 5 4 3 2 0 5 Power / kW
Fig. 3. Comparison of CO2 emissions.

10

15

emissions at lighter load levels were shown when running on diesel fuel and the blends, and reduced CO emissions at higher load levels was remarked when running on the blends. The mixed fuel 2 operation produced the lowest CO emissions at higher loading conditions. This was due to the carbon content of BOB2 was lowest than BOB1 and the diesel oil, the proportion of hydrocarbon content was lowest also, the carbon content of diesel was highest (in Table 1). Accordingly, CO emissions of BOB2 were lowest and CO emissions of diesel were highest. Fossil fuel combustion is the main culprit in increasing global CO2 levels which is the consequence of greenhouse effect. Fig. 3 compares percentage CO2 emissions of diesel with the blends fuel at the speed of 2200 rpm. The percentage CO2 emissions of diesel fuel were higher than blend fuels operation form light to high loading conditions. There was slightly difference in CO2 emissions between mixed fuel 1 and mixed fuel 2. This was due to carbon content of BOB is lower than diesel oil and contains a certain amount oxygen, making combustion perfectly, resulting in a signi?cant reduction of the CO2 emissions. The smoke levels are one of the main polluter of the emitted gas of diesel engine too [11]. Diesel engine’s smoke levels by using the mixed fuel were lower than ones by using the diesel under various kinds of load (Fig. 4), because of BOB contains oxygen, increased the density of oxygen in the cylinder, make the carbon cigarette particle which be formed in the course of burning and oxygen have more contact chances, so the smoke levels of tail gas were lower than the pure diesel oil’s obviously.

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4.5 4 3.5 3 K/m 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0

No.0 diesel Mixed fuel 1 Mixed fuel 2

5 Power / kW

10

15

Fig. 4. Comparison of emissions smoked levels.

4. Conclusions Engine performance with mixed fuels was satisfactory and comparable with the diesel fuel operation. There was no signi?cant difference in performance between diesel fuel and mixed fuel. The mixed fuel operation produced low fuel consumption at the various loading. Mixed fuel 1 (mixed 10% BOB1 with diesel) and mixed fuel 2 (mixed 10% BOB2 with diesel) with 11.7 and 6.6% oil-economizing rate, had better oil-economizing compare to diesel fuel respectively. The mixed fuel 1 and mixed fuel 2 showed signi?cant improvement at CO2 emissions.

Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the ?nancial support of Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Chinese University (NCET-04-0544).

References
[1] Nwafor OMI. Effect of choice of pilot fuel on the performance of natural gas in diesel engines. Renewable Energy 2000;21(4):495–504. [2] Isenberg JG. Assessment of automotive fuels. Journal of Power Sources 1999;84(2):214–7.

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[3] Kaula S, Edinger R. Ef?ciency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters. Energy Policy 2004;32(7):929–35. [4] Nwafor OMI. Emission characteristics of diesel engine running on vegetable oil with elevated fuel inlet temperature. Biomass Bioenergy 2004;27(5):507–11. [5] Zhang QH. Experimental study of the waterproof cream from biomass tar. Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica 2004;25(1):68–71. [6] Nwafor OMI. Emission characteristics of diesel engine operating on rapeseed methyl ester. Renewable Energy 2004;29(1):119–29. [7] Wang S. The characteristic of biomass tar materialization and characteristic and gas puri?cation device [Dissertation]. Zhengzhou: Henan University; 2000. [8] Liu ZH, Xu S, Yao R. Nature and application of the liquid fuel. Beijing: Press of Chinese petrochemical industry China; 2000. [9] Li ZM. Technology of automobile measures and diagnoses. Beijing: Press of Chinese agriculture; 1996. [10] Hong CH, Hong CH. Principle of the automobile engine. Beijing: Press of academic periodical; 1988. [11] Fu L, Wang J, Li W. Treatment of automobile exhaust pollution and the utensil of catalyze and transform [M]. Beijing: Press of Chemistry; 2000.


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