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代 词

1、人称代词的替代和转换; 2、物主代词的性;

3、else 的用法;

5、it 的用法;

Find the personal pronouns
1. II am

blind and he is my eyes. 2. He He then described John’s room to them. them 3. John tells us what happened next. 4. II wet some towels and put them along the bottom of the door.

单数 主格 第一人称 第二人称 I you he she it 宾格 me you him her it 主格 we you 复数 宾格 us you




1. 在与其他人称共同做主语时,通常要把‘I’ 放在后面: My friend and I will go fishing tomorrow. 2. ‘it’ 除了指动植物“它”和非生命“它”以 外,还可以表示天气、时间、距离、“人” 等。

数 人称 形容词性 物主代词 my your his her its our your their 名词性 物主代词 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs


第一人称 第二人称 第三人称


第一人称 第二人称 第三人称

My shirt is on the bed, and yours is on the chair. This is not my book. It’s his. 形容词性物主代词:后接名词,用做定语。 名词性物主代词: 后不可再接名词,单独使用, 可用做主语、表语和宾语。

人称代词 第一 人称 单数 第二 人称 第三人称 第一 人称 复数 第二 人称 第三 人称








形容词性 物主代词



his/her/its his/hers/its

our ours

your yours

their theirs

名词性物 mine yours 主代词

I -------- myself you ---- yourself he ------ himself she ----- herself it -------- itself we ----- ourselves you ---- yourselves they ---- themselves

Useful expressions
1. by oneself 单独地, 独自地

2. enjoy oneself 玩得愉快
3. help oneself to … 自用 ..., 4. dress oneself 自己穿衣服 5. say to oneself 自言自语 6. teach oneself 自学
请随意吃 ...

1. 人称代词的指代问题 问题1:
D that we are talking about. It was ____ who did it, but it was ____

A. he … she

B. him … her C. him … she D. he … her

解析: 人称代词的主格在句子中作主语或表语,例如:
John waited a while but eventually he went home. 约翰等了一会儿,最后他回家了。 人称代词的宾格在句子中作宾语或介词宾语,但在口语中 也能作表语,第一人称在省略句中,还可以作主语,例如: I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her. 问题中前后两个分句都是强调句,前面的代词作 did it 的 主语,而后面的代词作 talking about 的宾语。

在使用人称代词时,要注意其人称、数和格的一致。如: Jim and I saw the man passing by. Between you and me, he stole a lot of money from somewhere. (私下跟你说吧,不知他从哪里偷了一大笔钱呢。) He asked three of us, John, Joan and me, to have dinner with

Meat and fish are more expensive than they used to be. 不定代词 anybody,everybody,nobody,anyone,

someone, everyone,no one, 及 whoever 和 person 在正
式场合使用时,可用 he, his, him 代替。 Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来,是吗?

2. 人称代词之主、宾格的替换

— Susan, go and join your sister cleaning the yard.

— Why


? John is sitting there doing nothing.
B.he C. I D.me

解析: 在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在 not 后, 多用宾格。 ---- I like English. --我喜欢英语。 ---- Me too. --我也喜欢。 ---- Have more wine? --再来点酒喝吗? ---- Not me. --我可不要了。


--- May I speak to John?
A. he B. his

--- This is _____ A speaking.
C. him D. himself

解析:a. 在介词 but,except 后,有时可用主格代替宾格。 All but _____ B to the concert tomorrow. A. he and I am going C. he and me are going B. he and I are going D. his and me am going

b. 在电话用语中常用主格。

---- I wish to speak to Mary. --- 我想和玛丽通话。
---- This is she. --- 我就是玛丽。

3. 物主代词的性
--- Is this camera like Bill’s and Ann’s? --- No, but it’s almost the same as ______. B A. her B. yours C. them D. their

解析:形容词性的物主代词修饰名词,不能独用; 名词性的 物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的-’s所有格结构, 例如: That is my book. That book is mine. Theirs is a very large university. 另外,在动名词前常加上形容词性的物主代词构成动名 词的复合结构。如: Would you mind my opening the window?

4. 反身代词
反身代词通常作宾语、表语和同位语。 a. 作宾语:有些动词需有反身代词

absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt,
introduce, behave, help, dress, keep, … We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. Please help yourself to some fish. b. 作表语; be oneself:

I am not myself today.
c. 作同位语


The thing itself is not important. 事情本身并不重要。

? 1. Mr. More has more money than Mr. Little . D But he doesn’t enjoy _______. ? A. he B. him C. his D. himself ? 2. Lily was 9 years old. _____ was old enough B to go to school ________. ? A. She , she B. She , herself ? C. Her, herself D. Her. she A ? 3. Jim’s watch is much newer than _________. ? A. hers B.she C. her D. herself

常用不定代词有 ?
? some(something,somebody,someone), any(anything,anybody,anyone), no (nothing,nobody,no one), every (everything,everybody,everyone),all, each,both,much,many,(a)little,(a) few,other(s),another,none,one,either, neither等。 一般来讲,修饰不定代词的词要置 于其后。 ? 不定代词,即不指明代替任何特定名词或形容词 的代词。 ? some, any,all,both,none,either,neither,each,every,均为 不定代词。


some “一些”,一般用于肯定句中。 1) 可与复数名词及不可数名词连用。 2) 当做“某一”解时,也可与单数名词连用。(= a certain) You will be sorry for this some day. A certain (some) person has seen you break the rule. 注意:some 用于其他句式中: a. 肯定疑问句中:说话人认为对方的答案会是肯定的, 或期望得到肯定回答时。 Would you like句式中,表委婉请求或建议,如: Would you like some coffee? b. 在条件状语从句中表示确定的意义时,如: If you need some help,let me know.

c. some 位于主语部分,
Some students haven’t been there before.

d. 当否定的是整体中的部分时,some可用于否定句。如:
I haven’t heard from some of my old friends these years.

any “一些”,多用于否定句和疑问句和条件句中。

当表示 “任何一个” 的意思时,any 可用于肯定句。
Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。

A、some / any
问题1 A There’s______ cooking oil left in the house.

Would you go to the corner store and get______?

A. little; some
C. a little; some

B. little; any
D. a little; any

A I asked him for some oil, but he hadn’t ___.

A. any

B. some

C. no

D. anything


We haven’t enough books for
some of you will have to share.



A.somebody B.anybody C.everybody

注意:some, any, every 所构成的合成不定代词不能 与 of 连用,只有分开才可接 of 短语。如: some one of us; every one of them 但要注意:none of them ( no one 后不接 of 短语)

one、 that 和 it
one 表示泛指,that 和 it 表示特指。that与所指名词为
同类,但不是同一个,而 it 与所指名词为同一个。

I can’t find my hat. I think I must buy one. (不定)
我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。 The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought. (同类但不同个)

I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it. ( 同一物)

说明: one… the other 只有两个 one… another,another…一个另一个,另一个 some… others,others… others = other people / things the others = the rest 剩余的全部 1) 泛指另一个用another。 2) 一定范围内两人(物),一个用 one,另一个用 the other。 3) 一定范围内三者,一个用 one,另一个用one (another), 第三个可用the other,a third。 4) 一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用the others。 5) 除去已有的,表示“还有多少”,一般有三个结构: ① another + 数量 + 名词;② 数量 + other + 名词; ③ 数量 + more + 名词。

B、 one,that 和 it
问题1: I was disappointed with the film. I had expected ________ D to be much better. A. that B. this C. one D. it 问题2: The Parkers bought a new house but _____ B will need a lot of work before they can move in. A. they B. it C. one D. which

C、 another / other / the other / others / the others
问题1:Young people may grow quickly in some ways (在某些方面; more slowly in ____. C A. the other B. some other C. others D. these others 问题2: One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow,
在某种程度上 )and

and ____. C A. the other is white B. another white
C. the other white D. another is white

1. anyone 和 any one 2. anyone 仅指人,不与 of 连用;any one 既可指人,也可指物。 2. no one 和 none a) none 后跟 of 短语,既可指人又可指物,而 no one 只单独 使用,只指人。 b) none 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而 no one 作主 语,谓语动词只能是单数。 None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。 ---- Did any one call me up just now? ---- No one. 3. none 和 nothing none 只指量,指所指的一类人或物中一个都没有; nothing 泛指,什么东西都不存在。后面不接 of 短语。如: --- Are there any eggs in the fridge? --- None. In fact, there is nothing in the fridge.

D、 anyone / any one;no one / none;nothing
问题1: Playing tricks on others is _____ B we should never do. (2013湖南) A. anything B. something C. everything D. nothing

问题2: We haven’t enough books for

C ; some of you will

have to share. (2014全国卷1)
A.somebody B.anybody C.everybody D.nobody 问题3: She doesn’t know anyone here. She has got______to D talk to. (2013广东) A. anyone B. someone C. everyone D. no one

? something(一些事)与anything(任何事)的区别是: ? anything带有否定/疑问的意思。 ? 比如:Would you like anything to eat? everything(所有 事), ? 比如:Everything is ready. nothing(什么事都没有) anything ? 1) 任何事情/东西, 可以用在肯定句/否定句/疑问句中。 ? 如:You can take anything you like. Do you have anything to say? There is not anything you like here. ? 2)something 的疑问/否定形式。 ? 如:--Is there anything in the box? --No nothing. He has not anything to do today. everything 所有的事情/东西, 如:Everything here is all right. 另外:not anything =nothing ; 而 not everything 并非/不是所有的东西/事情 ☆everything 是单数而不是复数。同类的还有everybody everyone 等。

? 说明: ? 1) every 强调全体的概念, each强调个 体概念。 Every student in our school works hard. ? Each student may have one book.. ? 2) every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个), each指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)

3) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。each可作代词或形 容词。 Every student has to take one. Each boy has to take one. Each of the boys has to take one. 4) every不可以作状语,each可作状语。

We each have a glass to drink water with. 5) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks等; each 没有。 6) every 与not 连用,表示部分否定; each 和not连用表 示全部否定。 Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。 Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

英语中每隔……的表达方法 1. every+基数词(大于或等于2)+复数名词 意思是每 例如: There are buses to the station every ten minutes. 每十分钟/每隔九分钟就有公共汽车去火车站. We hand in our homework every three days. 我们每三天/每隔两天交一次作业 2. every+序数词(大于或等于2)+单数名词意思是每 例如: The Olympic Games are held every fourth year. 奥林匹克运动会每四年/每隔三年举办一次 3. every other +基数词(大于或等于2) +复数名词 意思是每隔 例如: I have to work out every other two days. 我每隔两天就要作一次运动 I had to sit down and rest every other four minutes. 我每隔4分钟就得坐下休息 4. every other +零基数词(等于1)+单数名词 意思是每隔一 例如: Take this medicine every other day. 这药每两天/每隔一天服一次 Please write down these new words on every other line. 请把这些生词隔行写下来 5.every few +复数名词 意思是每隔几 例如: He came to see me every few days. 他每隔几天来看我一次

E、every 和each
____ he goes out for some food.
A. Every a few days


B. Every few days

C. Each few days

D. Every several days

1)both (两者都),either (两者中任何一个), neither (两者 都不)。以上词使用范围为两个人或物。 Neither of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都不聪明。 注意 both,either 的用法区别: both与复数连用,either与单数连用。 Both the boys are clever. Either of the two boys is clever. There are flowers on both sides of the street. There are flowers on either side of the street. 2)all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个), none (都不)。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。 All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。 I don’t like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。 I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。 注意:all 与 none 用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动词; 跟复数名词,用复数动词。 All of the students are there. All (of) the milk is there.

F、 both, either, neither, all, any, none
问题1: I invited Joe and Linda to dinner, but ____ A of them came. (2014北京) A. neither B. either C. none D. both 问题2: --- Do you want tea or coffee? --- _____. (2012 北京) C I really don’t mind. A. Both B. None C. Either D. Neither 问题3: --- Which of the three ways shall I take to the village? --- _________ way as you please. (2014福建) C A.Each B.Every C.Any D.Either 问题4: 26. I had to buy _________ these books because I D didn’t know which one was the best. (2013上海) A. both B. none C. neither D. all

(a) few + 可数名词,

(a) little + 不可数名词

a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点 few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。 a bit of + 不可数名词 not a little = much; not a bit = not at all He has a few friends. 他有几个朋友。 He has few friends. 他几乎没有朋友。 We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。 There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了。 There is only a bit of ink in the bottle. We are not a little tired because we have been working for almost twenty hours. Although he had walked a long way, he didn’t feel tired a bit.

G、few, little, a few, a little, a bit
问题: A on clothes. Although he’s wealthy,he spends ___ A. little B. few C. a little D. a few

spend 所指的是钱,不可数,只能用 little 或 a little. 本句为 although 引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为 否定含义,因此应用 little 表示几乎不。

--- Victor certainly cares too much about himself.

--- Yes. He’s never interested in what ______ is doing.
(2014重庆卷) (B) A. no one else C. someone else

? D. nobody else

B. anyone else

else 常与不定代词连用,用来表示“别的……人或 物”,近几年已成为高考中的热点。 no one else = nobody else,表示“没别的人”,someone else 表示

“别的某个人”, anyone else 表示“别的任何人”。

问题2 If this dictionary is not yours,_____can it be? (NMET2013) A.what else B.who else

C.which else’s


D.who else’s

除了不定代词外,另一种可以与else连用的词就是疑问词。 else 结构的所有格是在else后加-’s。

1. it作人称代词,代替前面提到的事物. 2. it指代时间,季节,距离.

3. it作形式宾语,常用在6123结构中。 (think ,
find, make, believe, …)

4. it作形式主语. 当动名词,不定式,从句作主语

5. It is … that….的强调句型.

1.代替上文中提到过的人或事物。指代人时, 一般用于小孩或身份不十分明朗的人。 例 如: -Who is the baby? -It’s my teacher’s son. -Who is that gentleman? -It’s my friend, Tom.He (不可用It) wants to see you. 【典型例题】 (NMET2014) The Parkers bought a new house but _____ B will need a lot of work before they can move in. A. they B. it C. one D. which



It’s half an hour’s walk from here to our


It’s nice and warm here.But it’s two o’clock

now, and it’s time for us to go to school.

①.It is time ( about time ,high time ) that ...

It’s high time that we left. ②.It is the first ( second ... ) time that ... ”


It’s the first time that I have been praised. ③.It is .... since ... 自从….以来有多少时间 ◆ It’s three years since they got married. ④.It is / was ... when ... ”当…的时候,是…“。 ◆ It was 1949 when the PRC was founded. ⑤.It is / was ... before ... ”…之后…“。 ◆ It will be two years before we meet again.

3. We think it important to learn a foreign language. 该句型中的it 作形式宾语。 # 指主句中常用的动词:think, believe, make, find, consider, feel; #指的是形式宾语 it; #指的是宾补的两种形式:形容词或名 词; # 指的是真正宾语的三种形式:不定式短 语, 动名词短语或 that 引导的宾语从句。

4. It is necessary ( for sb. ) to do sth.
此句型中的真正主语是不定式短语,主句中的形 容词通常是表示重要性,紧迫性,频繁程度,难 易,安全等情况的形容词,常见的形容词有:①

important, necessary, natural ② easy , safe , common , normal , hard , difficult , dangerous , unusual, rare , impossible , pleasant 在①中的形容词作表语可以用从句改写, 如:It is important for her to come to the party. = It is important that she (should ) come to the party

It作形式主语时的几个常见句型: ①. It is kind ( of sb. ) to do sth. 该句型中的不定式如果须要逻辑主语,则 须要前置介词 of, 而句型中的形容词必须是 能表示逻辑主语特征的形容词,常见的有: bad , brave , careless, clever , cruel , foolish , good (好心的), honest , horrible , kind , lazy , modest , naughty , nice(有教养的), polite, rude , silly , stupid , wise , wrong 这个句型可以改写为:sb. is kind to do sth.

②. It takes sb. ... to do sth. “做…要花某人…” ◆ It took me ages to repair my computer. ③. It is no good (use ) doing sth. 该句型中的真正主语是动名词短语,主句中 的表语可以是 no good , no use , no value, no importance … ◆ It’s no use crying over the spilt milk. ④. It doesn’t matter whether ( if ) ... "不论(是否)…没关系… ◆ It doesn’t matter whether he is for my plan or not.

⑤. It happens (seems, appears ) that... ◆ It happened that I had seen this problem in some book. ⑥. It is said (reported, learned....) that ... “据说”(据报道,据悉...) ◆ It is said that he has gone to New York to attend a medical meeting. ⑦. It is a pity ( a shame ... ) that ... ◆ It is a pity that we have lost the match with a close score.

⑧. It is important ( necessary, right, strange,

natural...) that ...
记住that 后的从句应用虚拟语气(should

+ 动词原形),should 可以省去.
⑨. It is suggested ( ordered ... ) that ...

that 后的从句要用虚拟语气(should + 动
词原形),should 可以省.常译为"据建


⑩. It is up to sb. to do sth.

up 后的to是介词。

It is up to him to clean our classroom today. 今天应由他做教室清洁。

It is up to parents to teach their children
manners. 该由父母教孩子礼貌。

5. It is + 被强调部分 + that ... 将被强调的部分放在前面,其它部分置 于 that 之后.被强调部分可以是主语,宾 语,表语或状语.强调的主语如果是人, that 可以由 who 换用.如果把这种句型结构 划掉后,应该是一个完整无缺的句子.这也 是与其 它从句区别判断的方法. 注意: It is not until + 被强调部分 + that ... 强凋“直到…才…”,需将 not 置于 until 之前

1.It was about 600 years ago ______ A the first

clock with face and an hour hand was

A.that B.until C.before D.when
2.____computers play such an important part B

in our daily life?
A.Why it is that B.Why is it that

C.Why was it that

D.Why is it

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