1. consider v.认为; 考虑 to be 1)认为 consider + n./代词 + as
+ n. / adj.
consider sb to have done认为某人已经做 过某事 被动：sb be considered to have done We considered that t
he driver was not to blame. You shouldn’t consider him (to be/as) a selfish man. Bell is considered to have invented the telephone.
? . 2)考虑consider
+ n./doing/疑问词 +to do/that clause
He is considering paying a visit to America. ? You have to consider what to do next. ? We considered how we should help them.
? 拓展：认为,把...当作 ? （1）think of...as regard...as look on...as ? consider ... as take...as treat…as ? 1．Graham Bell is considered ______the first telephone. A.to have invented B. having invented B.C. to invent D. to have been inventing ? 2. The Smiths are considering _______their holiday. A.where taking B. where to take C. where they take D. where to be taking
（2）Considering 考虑到。 ? =taking everything into consideration 3. _____ his age, he was considered _____ well in the play. ? A. Consider; acting ? B. Considering; to have acted ? C. Considered; acting ? D. To consider; to act
2. (1) aim v. 瞄准 ? aim（…)at sth/doing sth瞄准,目标是 aim to do 旨在做某事，打算做某事 ? be aimed at doing ? be aimed to do sth He aimed the gun at the enemy officer. I aim to be a lawyer. He aimed to swim a mile. The research was aimed at improving /to improve agriculture. ? (2)N. 目标 ? take aim at …把…对准… He took careful aim at the target. What is your aim in life?
? The athletes adopted the training plan,
? ? ? ? ?
______to win gold metals in the coming 2008 Olympics. A. deciding B. aiming C. thinking D. considering
3. instead adv. “代替, 相反”。放在句 首时用逗号隔开; 或放在句尾。 He is tired, and let me go instead. She never studies. Instead, she plays all day.
? instead of + n./ving/代词/介词短语 ? 取代, 而不是…… ? 1) We intended to have our breakfast in the garden instead of in the dining room. ? 2) I will go to New Zealand instead of Japan. ? = I won’t go to Japan. Instead, I will go to New Zealand. ? 3) I like swimming instead of skating.
4. stand 忍受 = bear = put up with 常与can’t连用。 can’t stand sth/doing sth/being done ① I can’t stand the bad manners of some students. ② Lily can’t stand (others) smoking in the office. ③ The young man can’t stand being made fun of by others.
? ? ? ? ? ?
联想： stand by 支持;袖手旁观 stand for 代表，象征 stand out 突出，醒目 How can you stand by when he treats his dog like that? Our flag stands for our country. The red flowers stand out against the green grass.
? ? ?
He is a friend who ____you when you are in trouble. A. stand out B. stand for C. stand back D. stand by
5. mention v. 提及 mention sth/doing sth Did I hear my name mentioned? Whenever I mention playing football ,he says he’s too busy. Don‘t mention it. 不用谢，不客气 （区区小事，何足挂齿） “Thanks for all your help.” “Don’t mention it.” not to mention更不用说 He has two big houses in this country, not to mention his villa in France.
?6. adopt vt采用，采取，采纳；收养 adoption ?adopted adj 被收养的 ? They adopted a strong attitude towards this matter. ? Our school has adopted a new teaching method. ? They had no children of their own, so they adopted a child.
? After much deliberation, the president decided to ______ her suggestion. ? A. adopt B. adapt ? C. Adore D. admire
7.delightful (adj.)令人高兴的，可爱的 delight (n.) with delight高兴地 to one’s delight delighted (adj.)高兴的 be delighted at /with/by… 因…而 高兴 1)The girl is delightful. 2)To my delight, we will have a three-day holiday. 3)I’m delighted at the result of the experiment.
8. scenery，scene，view, sight
(1)scenery是[u] 是某一地区自然景色的总称。 (2) Scene [c] 指电影，书，图画中的场景; 场面侧重于有人活动的场面;故事、事故发 生的现场 (3)view是[c]1)指从某一位置(窗口,山顶?) 看到的景观; 2)还可表示“观点，看法”。 (4）sight既可以指场景、眼前看到的景观， 又可以指名胜、风景，表示后者的含义时是 [c] ，必须要用复数形式。
用scenery,sight,scene, view填空 ① Guilin attracts lots of visitors by its beautiful natural ②There is a fine our hotel window. ③The Great Wall is one of the___
sighs of scenery . view the mountain from of
④The boats in the harbor make a
? 9.observe v ? (1)观察；注意到；看到；监视 observe sb doing sth observe sb. do sth /sb be observed to do observe + that + clause The police observed the man enter the bank. The man ___ ____ ____ ______ the was observed to enter bank. ? She observed a man walking on the opposite side of the way. ? (2) 遵守；奉行（法律，风俗） observe the law /the traffic rules observe good manners/traditional customs
? 10. 比较alive, live, living, lively, lovely用法 ? (1)alive adj “活着的”，即可指人，也可指 物，可做表语，后置定语或宾补。 ? The badly wounded soldier was still alive when taken to the hospital. ? He wanted to keep the fish alive. ? (2) live adj “活着的’’，通常指物，不 指人；还指“实况转播的，现场的”，作 定语。 ? a live bird/fish/program ? Do you like a live show or a recorded one?
? (3)living adj “活着的，尚在人间的，健在 的”， 做定于或表语。 ? H e is regarded as one of the best living writers at present. ? (4).lively adj “活泼的，活跃的，充满生气 的”。可做定语，表语和宾补。 ? Jenny is a lively girl. ? The teacher always makes his class lively. ? (5) lovely adj 可爱的，令人愉快的，美丽 的，迷人的 ? He has a lovely voice. ? Isn’t it a lovely day? ? She is a lovely girl.
? alive, live, living, lively, lovely alive ? 1.He was ______when they took him to the hospital. alive ? 2.His grandpa is still ___at the age of 90. alive ? 3.Is the dog _____ or dead? ? 4.Although he is old, he is still very lively much _______. ? 5.Australia’s _____ TV comedy live series The Late Show is very popular.
lovely ? 6.She is a ______child and popular with everyone. living ? 7.She is the finest _____pianist. ? 8.My little sister has a _____voice. lovely ? 9.________ weather, isn’t it? Lovely a_______ language ? 10.Latin is living
重点短语 11. at the same time 同时 of all time 有史以来 all the time 一直，始终 from time to time 有时，时常 at a time 一次，每次 at one time 曾经 at times 有时，时常
12. for example / such as / that is for example举其中一个为例,作插入语,可位 于 句首、句中或句末。 What would you do if you met a wild animal — — a lion, for example? such as列举几个例子。直接跟宾语，后面不可 有逗号，不宜与and so on连用。 She has many hobbies, such as singing, dancing and collecting stamps. that is /namely“也就是说, 即”。是对前者的解释 说明。 We'll meet you in a week, that is, on March 1.
13. （1） get/be tired of (doing) sth = be bored with对…感到厌倦 （2）get/be tired from (doing) sth = be tired because of因…而疲倦 （3）tiring 令人疲倦的，无聊的 ① Everybody was tired of studying English so no one passed the exam. ② I’m tired from reading and I want to have a rest before I read again.
14. be fond of (doing) sth 特别喜欢 = like … very much / be crazy about
她热爱读书并且渴求知识。 She's fond of books and anxious for knowledge.
15. tell sth by sth/ from sth 通过/从…判断或 区分 ? 从他的声音我可以知道他真的很失望。 ? I can tell from his voice that he was really disappointed. ? 拓展：tell …apart 区分，分辨 ? tell …from …区别…与… ? tell the difference between …and … 说出…与…的不同
完成句子： ? 1.从他的长相你看不出他是什么样的人。 tell what kind of person he ? ? You can’t________________________ is by/from his appearance. 2.李明和李华长得太像我根本分辨不出他们来。 Li Ming and Li Hua are so much alike, so I_________________________. Ming from Can’t tell them apart/tell Li
Li Hua/the difference between them
16. develop an interest in 培养..的兴 趣 develop a habit 养成喜欢 develop films 冲洗胶卷 develop a plan 制定计划
? 17.take turns to do sth=do sth in turn =do sth by turns 轮流做某事 ? It’s one’s turn to do sth.轮到某人 做某事 ? in turn 反过来，依次 ? Eg. ? We took turns at to drive on the way up to Canada. ? Interest rates were cut ,and in turn, share prices rose.利率降了，因而股 票价格涨了。 ? It’s your turn to read the text now.