2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
【宝山】 (A) You took a midterm exam (25)_____(hope) to get a 95 percent. When you got your test paper back, you received only a 70 percent. How do you ha
ndle the situation? Do you 1. make a study plan for (26)_______(improve) your grade; 2. keep doing what you‘re doing and hope for the best next time; 3. use a persuasive argument to try and convince your teacher to give you (27)______ better grade? Your answer to the above question shows your EQ, your emotional intelligence. What exactly is EQ? Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer define it as the ability to understand your own feelings and emotions and (28)______ of others. Research supports the significance of EQ. A 40-year study of 450 boys found that IQ wasn‘t the only thing that affected life success. The qualities that did were the ability (29)_____(handle) frustration, control emotions and get along with other people. Can you improve a low EQ? Yes! Start by noticing how you feel. That‘s the first step in becoming more skillful at managing your feelings. Second ,pay attention to how you behave when you feel certain emotions. Then analyze (30)______ that effects your daily life. Next, take responsibility for your feelings and actions. They come from you and no one else. Then you (31)_________(have) a higher EQ--- and likely have a happier and more rewarding life as well. B Imagine shopping in another country and spotting a beautiful scarf. The salesperson tells you the price, (32)_______ it‘s more than you want to buy. What do you do? The answer depends largely on what part of the world you are in. Are you visiting Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America or Africa? In these places, prices often are not set in stone. In fact, customers (33)______(expect) to bargain before agreeing to a price. On the other hand, in North America, Europe and Australia, bargaining is rare and often not allowed. The price (34)____(list) on a price tag cannot be changed. Large stores and malls usually don‘t allow bargaining. On the other hand, outdoor stalls and flea markets, even in Western countries, usually allow bargaining. When in doubt, consult a guidebook ---or (35)_______(good) yet, a local friend. (36)______bargaining custom vary, a few rules of etiquette apply in most cultures. First, avoid wasting people‘s time. If you don‘t intend to make a purchase, don‘t start bargaining. While bargaining, it is OK to walk away. But once you agree to a price, you (37)_____ buy the item. Even in countries (38)____ don‘t allow bargaining, you may find plentiful opportunities to save money. Many stores sell old items on clearance. Others offer discount cards to regular customers. Some of these can function as credit cards (39)_____ the store, and a few can even be used elsewhere. (40)______ you go, understanding local customs can help you find good prices. 【崇明】 (A) After 30 years (25)_____ a pilot, Captain Peter Elliott got to fly holiday-makers on a Thomas Cook flight from Birmingham, UK, to Tenerife, Spain with his daughter. Senior First Officer Laura Elliott (26)_____(fly) for six years but has never before got to work with her father. ―It‘s my dream to be able to fly with my Dad,‖ she said. It had seemed unlikely that the pair would ever co-pilot (27)_____ same aircraft because Miss Elliott learned to fly on Airbus planes when she joined the company in 2009, and her father flew Boeings. However, after Peter Elliott, 59, retrained to fly Airbuses, their dream of flying
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
together came true. Miss Elliott, 30, became interested in flying when (28)_____(inspire) by her father with a trial flight as her birthday present. Miss Elliott said: ―Becoming a pilot was never something I had considered. It was only when my Dad bought me a trial flight for my 18th birthday (29)_____ I considered following in my Dad‘s footsteps.‖ The pair finally sat in the cockpit ( 驾 驶 员 座 舱 ) together and Mr Elliott made an announcement to passengers (30)_____ the flight made it a special day for him as he was flying with his daughter. Miss Elliott recalled the flight, (31)_____(say), ―I was initially nervous and he kept asking (32)_____ I was nervous or not. It was like going for a driving lesson with him. Thankfully, everything went smoothly and the passengers loved it. If it ever happens again, I will definitely be a lot (33)_____(relaxed).‖ (B) Has the world just witnessed its first ever robot suicide? Boring housework was seemingly too much for one cleaning robot to take, when it apparently rebelled and decided to end it all. The robot was given the tiresome task of cleaning up some spilt grain before it climbed on to a kitchen hotplate (34)_____ it destroyed itself, according to reports in Austria. It had reportedly grown tired of (35)_____(force) to clean the house every day and decided to become a martyr(殉 道者) to the robot cause. ―Somehow it seems (36)_____(restart) itself again before it made its way along the work surface. Then it pushed a cooking pot out of the way and basically that was the end of it,‖ explained fireman Helmut Kniewasser, who (37)_____(call) to deal with the fire at Hinterstoder in Kirchdorf. ―It pretty quickly started to melt underneath and then stuck to the kitchen hotplate. It then caught fire. (38)_____ _____ _____ we arrived, it had become just a pile of ash.‖ He added: ―The entire building (39)_____ _____be evacuated (疏散) and there was severe smoke damage particularly in the flat in which the robot had been in use. ―It‘s a mystery how it came to be started and ended up making its way to the hotplate.‖ (40)_____ took an hour to clean and make the building safe. The homeowner plans to charge the robot‘s manufacturer. 【奉贤】 A It was a cold, wet day on June 6, 2010, when 14-year-old Wasana arrived at school. Waiting outside his classroom for his classmates to arrive, Wasana stared at the rain. Then his eyes fell upon the 18-metre-high hill that stood at the back of the classroom. He noticed large amounts of rainwater flowing down the hill, and water was also bubbling at the base of a rock on the hill. For a few minutes, Wasana stared at the water, wondering __25_____ it looked so familiar. Then it hit him--the scene was similar to the video __26_____ he was shown during Disaster Management classes. __27_____ (fear) a coming disaster, he shouted wildly at the students waiting outside their classrooms. ―Run, run, don‘t stay here! The rock on the hill is going to fall on us!‖ Chaos broke out as the students ran to the open area that __28_____ (appoint) as an emergency gathering point. When some teachers approached Wasana, he showed them the water gushing from the hill, and they started leading the students to __29_____ (safe) ground. Just then Principal Gurusinghe drove into the school. Wasana ran over to tell him what was happening. After _30_____ (examine) the site, Gurusinghe knew the school was in danger. The enormous rock at the top of the hill could come crashing down at any moment. Leading a group of teachers and older students, Gurusinghe climbed the hill and tried to make the water flow away from the rock. They were too late: ten minutes later, they heard screams as the huge rock rushed down the hill. There was little Gurusinghe and his group could do __31____
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
they watched the earth swallow their classrooms. __32_____ __32_____ Wasana‘s quick action and careful observation, no one was hurt in the incident. B Many drivers dream of the day when they can sit back while their car drives itself. While several companies are working hard to make __33_____ a reality, self-driving cars still face many problems. Google was one of the first __34_____ (get) into this industry. It __35_____ (develop) self-driving cars since 2009, and its new driverless car is called Firely. But the driverless car is only a ―fair weather friend‖, the Daily Mail commented. According to the MIT Technology Review, the current driverless cars can‘t react like a human driver. They can‘t drive in heavy rain or snow. Chris Urmson, director of the Google car team, said that this is because the detection technology is not yet good enough to separate certain objects from weather conditions. In the cars‘ eyes, raindrops and snowflakes are the same as rocks, and cars stop for them. But if the manhole （下水道入口）ahead is left __36_____ (uncover), they drive over it without hesitation. ___37____ all these problems, Urmson said driverless cars will happen more quickly than people think. But even at that time, driverless cars won‘t be truly ―driverless.‖ In the US, only when someone sits in the driver‘s seat __38_____ driverless cars allowed on roads in certain states European countries, Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Russian follow the United Nations Convention on Road Traffic. The convention used to say: ―Every driver __39_____ at all times be able to control his vehicle or to guide his animals.‖ A change was agreed in May, allowing a car to drive itself __40_____ __40_____ __40_____ a driver is in the car and able to take the wheel at any time 【虹口】 (A) How I Turned to Be Optimistic(乐观的) I began to grow up that winter night when my parents and I were returning from my aunt's house, and my mother said that we (25) (leave) for America soon. We were on the bus then. I was crying, and some people on the bus were turning around to look at me. I remember I could not bear the thought of never hearing again the radio program for school children to (26) I listened every morning. I do not remember myself (27) (cry) for this reason again. In fact I think I cried very little when I was saying goodbye to my friends and relatives. When we were leaving I thought about all the places I was going to see. The country I was leaving never to come back was hardly in my head then. The four years that followed taught me the importance of optimism, but (28) idea did not come to me at once. For the first two years in New York I was really lost. I did not quite know what I was or what I should be. Mother remarried, and things became even (29) (complex) for me. Some time passed before my stepfather and I got used to each other. However, my responsibilities in the family increased a lot since my English vas superior (30) anyone else's at home. I translated at interviews with immigration officers, and even discussed telephone bills with company representatives. From my experiences, I believe that my life will turn out all right (31) it is not that easy.
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
(B) How Room Designs Affect Our Work and Feeling Architects have long had the feeling that the place we live in can affect our thoughts, feeling and behavior‘s. But now scientists are giving this feeling an empirical(实证的)basis. They are discovering how __(32)__(design) spaces that promote creativity, keep people focused, and lead to relaxation. Researches show aspects of the physical environment can influence creativity. In 2012, Joan Meyers-Levy reported that the height of a room's ceiling affects __(33)__ people think. Her research indicates that higher ceilings encourage people to think more freely, __(34)__(lead) them to make more abstract connections. Low ceilings, on the other hand, may inspire a more detailed outlook. Besides ceiling height, the view __(35)__ (afford) by a building may influence an occupant's ability to concentrate. Using nature to improve focus of attention ought to pay off academically, and __(36)__ seems to, according to a study. Students in classrooms with unblocked views of at least 50 feet outside the window had higher scores on tests of vocabulary, language arts and maths than did students __(37)__ classrooms primarily overlooked roads and parking lots. Recent study on room lighting design suggests that dim light helps people loosen up. __(38)__ that is true generally, keeping the light low during dinner or at parties could increase relaxation. So far public buildings (39) (focus) on by scientists. "We have a very limited number of studies, so we are almost looking at the problem through a straw(吸管),‖ architect David says. ―How do you take answers to very specific questions and make broad use of them? That is __(40)__ we are all struggling with.‖ 【黄埔】 (A) Positive thinking can help you win. Some athletes can reach great goals such as the achievement of an Olympic gold medal. Others never live up to their promise. What kind of preparation before (25)_______ race or other event makes the difference? Everyone knows that athletes spare no effort (26)_______ (strengthen) their bodies. But researches show that strengthening the mind may be just as important. Careful study indicates that the best athletes win partly (27)_______ they think they can win. Thinking positive thoughts seems to give the possibility for success in sports. People who say to themselves over and over ―I know I (28)_______ do this. ‖ often find they have the advantage to win. On the other hand, people often fail who think ―I can‘t win.‖ One procedure (29)_______ helps many athletes is creating pictures in the mind. They are told to think of each move they must do. Some use more fanciful pictures. One skater liked to imagine a star bursting inside her, (30)_______(fill) her with energy. Another athlete who wanted to feel calm pictured himself as a bird floating in the air. Next time you want to make progress, try training your mind to help you. Perhaps a teacher or other instructor can help you plan your training. If you imagine yourself doing (31)_______ (well), you may soon see improvement in (32)_______ you really can do. Positive thinking and pictures created in your mind can help you win! (B) Two British colonies Australia, the last continent, was discovered by ships belonging to some European nations in the 17th century. These nations were less interested in changing it into a colony than exploring it. As in the early history of the United States, it was the English (33)_______ set up the settlements
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
in America. This history and the geography of these two British colonies have some (34)_______ things in common. Australia and the United States are about equal in size, and neither of their western lands are rich in soil. It was along the eastern coast of Australia and America that the English first settled, and both colonies soon began to develop towards the west. However, this Westward Movement took place more because the English (35)_______ (search) for better land than because the population was increasing. Settlements of the western part of both countries developed quickly after gold (36)_______ (discover) in America in 1849 and in Australia two years later. Although the development of these two countries has a lot in common, there are some striking differences as well. The United States gained its independence from England by revolution while Australia won its independence without (37)______ (go) to war. Australia, firstly (38)_______ (turn) into a colony by English prisoners, was unlike the United States, and its economic development was in wheat growing and sheep raising. By 1922, for example, Australia had fifteen times more sheep than it had people, or almost half as many sheep as there are people now in the United States. Yet, (39)_______ _______ _______ these and other main differences, Australia and the United States have more in common with each other than either one (40)_______ (have) with the rest of the world.
【闵行】 Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. (A) The year was 1932. Amelia Earhart was flying alone from North America to England in a small single-engined airplane. At midnight, several hours after she had left Newfoundland, she ran into bad weather. To make things worse, her altimeter (高度表) failed and she didn‘t know how high she __(25)__ (fly). At night, and in a storm, a pilot was in great difficulty without an altimeter. At times, her plane nearly plunged into the sea. Just before dawn, there was further trouble. Amelia noticed flames coming from the engine. With all the difficulties, Amelia Earhart wasn‘t sure if she __(26)__ reach land. There was nothing to do but keep __(27)___(go). In the end, Amelia Earhart did reach Ireland. It was with the great courage __(28)__ she made the safe landing. And for the courage she had shown, she was warmly welcomed in England and Europe. When she returned to the United States, she __(29)__(honor) by President Hoover at a special dinner in the White House. From that time on, Amelia Earhart was famous. What was so important about her flight? Amelia Earhart was the first woman __(30)__(fly) the Atlantic Ocean alone, and she had set a record of fourteen hours and fifty-six minutes. In the years that followed, Amelia Earhart made several flights across the United States, and on each occasion she set a new record for flying time and was __(31)__(skillful) than her previous flight. Amelia Earhart made these flights to show that women had a place in aviation (航空) and that air travel was useful. Her passion for flight lasted in her remaining life __(32)__ she mysteriously disappeared from public in the year 1937. (B) It has become acceptable for people to say that women work less than men and therefore deserve less! It may have been true in the past when women were expected to stay at home and look after children, but women have changed over the years. They have ―come out‖! Gone
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
__(33)__(be) the days when they toiled (辛苦) the kitchen stove all day long; they are now aware of their needs and are willing to fight for them. They expect to be given the respect they deserve, both at home and at work. They have realized __(34)__ intellectual potential and have determined to do something about it! Women on two wheels have become __(35)__ familiar sight on the roads of most Asian countries during the past few years. It is common to find a woman __(36)__(take) her children on her bicycle to school and then reaching her office in time. ―Super woman‖ __(37)__ she is, it is rather difficult to combine a career and a decent home life. She needs to feel __(38)__(support). She may arrive at work feeling as if she has already done a full day‘s job. __(39)__ colleagues doubt her passion to her job, she will feel sad. At the same time, women of today expect their partners to contribute towards childcare and household chores. Today‘s women are learning to avoid situations that make them feel more stressed and it is a hard struggle. __(40)__ __(40)__ __(40)__ all this, the new woman, ―the superpower‖ has arrived. She still believes in the power and value of a family unit and she holds it in high esteem(尊重). 【浦东】 Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. (A) What should you take in with you when you take an exam? Pen, pencil, eraser, ruler … and don‘t forget a bottle of water! According to a study held in London, students __25__(bring) water into exams may improve their grades by up to 10%. Scientists in UK did the study on 448 students. The students were studying for different degrees at the University of East London. Only 25% of them entered the exam hall with water. Scientists then compared their exam results with their normal schoolwork grades. They found that all those who __26__(bring) water with them got better grades by 2% to10%. Scientists also predicted the students‘ scores according to their normal schoolwork. They wrote down their possible scores on paper __27__ exams. It is unclear __28__ drinking water improves exam results. But scientists say having enough water in our bodies and not feeling thirsty could have a helpful effect on our brains. Drinking water may also reduce anxiety, __29__ has a bad effect on exam performances. ―__30__ the explanation is, it is clear that students __31__ try hard to stay hydrated (含水的) with water during exams,‖ one of the scientists said. So next time, when you are going to have a big exam, try __32__(furnish) yourself with a bottle of water. It may help you pass the exam! (B) Without any previous notice a documentary dominated headlines and social websites over the weekend. Under the Dome, a 103-minute documentary __33__(self-fund) by former news anchor Chai Jing __34__(release) on video-sharing websites in China on Feb 28. It has rapidly pushed the public awareness about air pollution and encouraged people to join in __35__ effort to make a difference. Chai, 39, said she started the work out of her ―personal clashes‖ with smog after she gave birth to a daughter. ―I sealed tight all the windows. I started every day by checking the air pollution index‖ Chai said. Millions of other people are also doing the same. While they stop there, Chai goes much __36__(deep). ―I don‘t want to live in this way. I need to find out where the smog comes from and what on earth is going on.‖
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
Chai‘s research reveals that it is the burning of coal and oil __37__ contributes to 60 percent of PM2.5 pollutants. She then goes on to disclose loopholes in car emissions regulations. Some of the laws have been in place for years, __38__ have never been applied. The film also explains that businesses are pressured not to obey the laws because violating them carries little or no cost, while making changes bumps up costs. The film also points at China‘s petroleum and steel industries __39__ the biggest sources of air pollution. Chai goes on to list the things ordinary people can do __40__(help) and sums everything up by calling for individual responsibility in reporting illegal emissions via the hotline 12369. 【普陀】 Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. (A) Good ideas often start with really silly questions. Bill Bowerman was making breakfast one day. As he stood there making waffles (华夫饼干) for his son, he wondered what would happen if he poured rubber (25)____ his waffle iron. Later, he tried it and the result looked something like the bottom of most sports shoes we see today. Still, when he took this idea to several existing shoe companies, he was laughed at. In fact, every single company turned him down. Though rather discouraged, Bowerman persevered and went on (26)____ (form) his own company, making NIKE athletic shoes. Sometimes good ideas grow out of frustration. When Fred Smith was a student at Yale University, he needed to have some paperwork (27)____(deliver) across the country the next day. Smith was amazed to find out that overnight delivery was impossible. He sat for a long while (28)____ (wonder) why. Why couldn‘t there be a reliable overnight mail delivery service? He decided to design one. Smith did just that and turned his design into (29)____ class project. His business professor gave him only a C for his efforts. However, Smith was not through. He improved the ideas in that class project and eventually turned (30)____ into one of the first and (31)____ (successful) overnight mail services in the world—FedEx. We know today, of course, that each of these ideas led to an incredibly successful product or service (32)____ has changed the way many of us live. The best questions are usually open-ended and are often silly. Children aren‘t afraid to ask such questions, but adults frequently are. Think how different the world might be (33)____ people never asked ―silly‖ question! (B) A lot of people in the world today are used to working, going on holiday, and having money—but many of them aren‘t happy. Yet other people seem to be really happy, (34)____ ____ they are poor, or have no job, or are surrounded by problems. Why? Professor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, from the University of Chicago, has interviewed thousands of people who have a happy life to find out how they do it. ―I (35)____ (study) happiness for over 30 years,‖ says Csikszentmihalyi. ―My interest in the subject came from my own experience as a child during World War II, when I saw many adults destroyed by the terrible events. But there were always a few who kept their courage, helped others, and were able to give a sense of purpose and meaning to their lives. I wanted to find out how a person (36)____ build a fulfilling and enjoyable life.‖ In general, his research showed that people were unhappy doing nothing. The professor stresses that happy people don‘t waste time, either at work or when they‘re free. ―Many people feel the time that they spend at work or at school wasted. But often their free time (37)____ (waste) as well. Many people are used to doing passive things—watching television, for example—without
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
(38)____ (use) any skills. As a result, life goes past in a series of boring experiences.‖ But it doesn‘t have to be this way. The professor has found that people are happy when they get into (39)____ he calls ―flow‖. When people get very involved in a task that they have chosen, and which is well-defined and challenging, they experience ―flow‖, a situation (40)____ they don‘t notice time passing. People who are not used to happiness can learn how to be happy, says the professor, if they constantly get into ―flow‖ states. Is happiness as easy as that? Perhaps it is. 【徐汇】 【松江】 【金山】 Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. (A) As you get older, it feels like time tends to move faster. As Dan Ariely explains over at The Wall Street Journal, we tend to fall into familiar routines __25__ we age and that makes time move quickly. We perceive time something like a stack of memories, so the less new experiences you have, the __26__(likely) you are to fill in those memories with interesting things. Time does go by (or, more accurately, it feels as if time is going by) more quickly the older we get. In the first few years of our lives, anything we sense or do is brand new, and many of our experiences are unique, so they remain firmly in our memories. But as __27__ years go by, we encounter fewer and fewer new experiences—both because we already __28__(accomplish) a lot and because we become slaves to our daily routines. For example, try to remember __29__ happened to you every day last week，chances are that nothing extraordinary happened, so you will be hard-pressed to recall the specific things you did on Monday, Tuesday, etc. What can we do about this? Maybe we need some new app that will encourage us to try out new experiences, point out things we've never done, recommend dishes we've never tasted and suggest places we've never been. Such an app __30__ make our lives more varied, prod us to try new things, slow down the passage of time and increase our happiness. __31__ such an app arrives, try to do at least one new thing every week. It's not too difficult to push __32__ to do new things. (B) This afternoon, I spoke with Governor Daniel Malloy and FBI Director Mueller. I offered Governor Malloy my condolences(哀悼) on behalf of the nation, and made it clear he will have every single resource that he needs __33__(investigate) this heinous(令人发指的) crime, care for the victims and their families. __34__(endure) too many of these tragedies in the past few years, each time I learn the news I react not as a President, but as anybody else would – as a parent. And that was especially true today. I know there‘s not a parent in America who doesn‘t feel the same overwhelming grief that I do. The majority of those __35__ died today were children---beautiful little kids between the ages of 5 and 10 years old. They had their entire lives ahead of them---birthdays, graduations, weddings, kids of their own. Among the __36__(fall) were also teachers---men and women who devoted their lives to __37__(help) our children fulfill their dreams. So our hearts are broken today---for the parents and grandparents, sisters and brothers of
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
these little children, and for the families of the adults who __38__(lose). Our hearts are broken for the parents of the survivors as well, for as blessed as they are to have their children home tonight, they know that their children‘s innocence has been torn away from them too early, and there are no words that will ease their pain. As a country, we have been through this too many times. __39__ it‘s an elementary school in Newtown, or a shopping mall in Oregon, or a temple in Wisconsin, or a movie theater in Aurora, or a street corner in Chicago---these neighborhoods are our neighborhoods, and these children are our children. And we‘re going to have to come together and take meaningful action to prevent more tragedies __40__ this, regardless of the politics. 【杨浦】 Directions: After reading the passages below, fill in the blanks to make the passages coherent and grammatically correct. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word; for the other blanks, use one word that best fits each blank. (A) Dogs are called ―man‘s best friend.‖ Now a study shows new reasons (25) ______ they really are our best pals. Researchers at UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, say that dogs (26) ______ be good for people‘s health. The study focused on 76 patients who were in the hospital for heart problems. First the patients (27) ______ (split) into three groups. Some were visited by human volunteers with dogs. (28) ______ were visited by people only. The third group had no visitors. Then the researchers wrote down how the patients felt before, during, and after the visit. Researchers found that dog visits (29) ______ (make) the patients feel better. Patients who had been visited by dogs felt 24 percent less scared. Those patients who were visited by just people felt only 10 percent less scared. After just 12 minutes with dogs, patients‘ hearts and lungs seemed to be working (30) ______ (well). It is not news to pet lovers that furry friends can help people feel happier. But before the study there was little proof (31) ______ therapy animals make us healthier. Nurse Kathie M. Cole was a member of the UCLA Medical Center study. She hopes that doctors and hospitals see the good effects (32) ______ using therapy animals. ―Dogs are a great comfort,‖ said Cole. ―They make people happier, calmer, and feel more loved. That is huge when you are scared and not feeling well.‖ (B) A couple had two little boys, (33) ______ were excessively naughty. They were always getting into trouble and their parents knew that, (34) ______ anything terrible occurred in their town, their sons were probably involved. The boys‘ mother heard that a clergyman (牧师) in town had been successful in (35) ______ (discipline) children, so she asked (36) ______ he would speak with her boys. The clergyman agreed, but asked to see them individually. So the mother sent her 8-year-old first, in the morning, with the older boy to see the clergyman in the afternoon. The clergyman, (37) ______ huge man with a booming voice, sat the younger boy down and asked him sternly, ―Where is God?‖ The boy made no response, (38) ______ (sit) there with his mouth hanging open, wide-eyed. So the clergyman repeated the question in an even sterner tone, ―Where is God!!?‖ Again the boy made no attempt (39) ______ (answer). So the clergyman raised his voice even more and shook his finger in the boy‘s face and shouted, ―Where is God?‖
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The boy screamed, ran directly home and dove into his closet, slamming the door behind him. When his older brother found him in the closet, he asked, ―What happened?‖ The younger brother, gasping for breath, (40) ______ (reply), ―We are in big trouble this time. God is missing -- and they think we did it!‖ Section B Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. available B. legally C. incorrect D. denied E. blocks F. labeled G. tie H. roughly I. birth J. appropriate K. limits Dear Editor, Most public libraries now offer all visitors, kids and adults alike, free access to all sites on the Internet. Just like any powerful tool, __41__ must be placed on it. After all, not all sites are good for children or appropriate for them. Some are violent. Some, in the name of free speech, say irresponsible things. Others feature __42__ information for research. And many should be __43__ ―For Adults Only.‖ In 2000, there were 7 .1 million publicly __44__ sites on the Web, with over 200 new adult sites added each day. Couple this figure with the fact that there are __45__ 200 million American children under the age 18 with Internet access, and you have a recipe for disaster. Back in l967, the American Library Association (ALA) passed a resolution （决议） that stated ―a person‘s right to use a library should not be __46__ … because of origin, age, background, or views.‖ Some groups argue that this resolution gives children the right to free and total access to the Internet and its unsuitable sites. This resolution was fine in the past, but it never considered the __47__ of the Internet. Besides, the ALA isn‘t a government agency. It has no power to pass laws, and its resolutions are not __48__ binding（有约束力的）. We must pass real laws that __49__ U .S. government funds for library computers to the use of software that __50__ out offensive material online. If the libraries don‘t use the software, then they don‘t get computers. As a working parent, I can‘t be with my child every time he turns on the computer. I don‘t expect libraries to be babysitters. But I do expect them to work with me, not against me, in making sure my child is protected from adult-only and other irresponsible sites. Sincerely, Julie Richardson Redding, California 【闸北】 Directions: Read the following two passages. Fill in the blanks to make the passage coherent. For the blanks with a given word, fill in each blank with the proper form of the given word. For the other blanks, fill in each blank with one proper word. Make sure that your answers are grammatically correct. (A) Being skinny is not beautiful but being healthy is. Most young people, unfortunately, (25)______(convince) that being thin, and therefore being stylish is a major way of maintaining self-worth. To make the matter worse, they might take this so far that they are likely to end up (26)______ eating disorders. Eating disorders are psychological illnesses defined by abnormal eating habits, (27)______ may involve either insufficient or too much food intake to the damage of an individual's physical and mental health. Bulimia nervosa( 暴食症 ) and anorexia nervosa （食欲匮乏） are the
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(28)______(common) forms of eating disorders. (29)______ diagnosed with anorexia nervosa are well under a healthy bodyweight. But patients with bulimia nervosa may have a body weight that falls within the range from normal to overweight. (30)_____ primarily thought of as affecting females, eating disorders influence males as well. The precise cause of eating disorders is not entirely understood, but (31)______ is agreed that the disease is linked to other medical conditions and situations. Besides, cultural idealization of thinness and youthfulness also contributes to (32)______(reduce) weight forcefully. The problem has affected a large population worldwide. (B) A new report said middle class workers could still be working (33)______ ______ they are at the age of 70, to help out their grown up children. Middle class workers (34)______(age) 50 and above are being forced to delay their retirement, with many blaming their children, a report revealed yesterday. To many middle class workers, (35)______ bothered them from work couldn't compare with the possibility that they might postpone their retirement date by around five years. It is not just the rising cost of living that is causing the delay. Many pointed to the fact that they are constantly having to provide for their grown-up children at an age (36)______ they assumed they should be financially independent. Actually, one in five middle class workers (37)______ keep working in order to support their children. Many workers struggled all along to the retirement date, only (38)______(realize) that they had to switch to a part-time working pattern, also called semi-retirement. Rarely (39)______ people hear of the concept of semi-retirement in the past but now semi-retirement has become the routine among wealthier people in their 50s and 60s, regarded as (40)______ sign of the country‘s on-going worsening economy.
【宝山】 A rapidly advancing contemporary science that is highly dependent on new tools is Earth system science. Earth system science involves observation and measurements on the Earth at all scales from the largest to the smallest. The huge amounts of data that are gathered come from many different locations and require special techniques for handling data. Important new tools that facilitate Earth system science include satellite remote sensing, small deep-sea submarines, and geographic information systems. More than any other way of gathering evidence, satellite observations continually remind us that each part of the Earth interacts with and is dependent on all other parts. Earth system science was born from the realization of that interdependence. Satellite remote sensing makes possible observations at large scales, and in many cases, measurements of factors that could not otherwise be measured. For example, the ozone hole over Antarctica--the decrease in the concentration of ozone high in the atmosphere--is measured by remote sensing, as are changes in deserts, forests, and farmlands around the world. Such measurements can be used in many areas of specialization besides Earth system science. Archaeology, for example, has benefited from satellite observations that reveal the traces of ancient trade routes across the Arabian Desert. New tools for exploring previously inaccessible areas of the Earth have also added greatly
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to our knowledge of the Earth system. Small deep-sea submarines allow scientists to travel to the depths of the ocean. There they have discovered new species and ecosystems thriving near deep-sea vents that emit heat, sasses, and mineral-rich water. Just as important as new methods of measurement and exploration are new ways to store and analyze data about the Earth system. Computer-based software programs known as geographic information systems, or GIS, allow a large number of data points to be stored along with their locations. These can be used to produce maps and to compare different sets of information gathered at different times. For example, satellite remote sensing images of a forest can be converted to represent stages in the forest's growth. Two such images, made at different times can be overlaid and compared, and the changes that have taken place can be represented in a new image. 74. The word "facilitate" in Paragraph I is closest in meaning to ________. A. enable B. require C. organize D. examine 75. The author of the passage mentions that satellite observations are especially effective in ________. A. conducting scientific studies of life on the ocean floor B. predicting future climate changes C. providing data to determine Earth's age D. demonstrating interactions among all of Earth's parts 76. According to the passage, satellite observations of the Arabian Desert allow archaeologists to know ________. A). indications of ancient routes B. evidence of former lakes C. traces of early farms D. remains of ancient forests 77.What is the main idea of the passage? A. special techniques are needed to classify the huge amounts of data about Earth. B. New tools provide information about Earth that was once impossible to obtain. C. Advances in Earth system science have resolved many environmental problems. D. Satellite remote sensing can show changes between two images taken years apart. 【崇明】 Ask a group of elderly people what it was about their lives that made them happiest overall, and they‘ll probably mention some warm relationships with family and friends. If you‘re satisfied with your social life, according to psychologists, you tend to be satisfied with life in general. From the point of my 50s, I‘d say that sounds about right. Some of my happiest moments are the ones I spend with my husband, a few close relatives, and a handful of very good friends who know me well and like me anyway. But the more I read about how social media are interfering with (干扰) good old-fashioned friendship, creating virtual bonds that can‘t quite take the place of real ones, the more I wonder just how today‘s 20-somethings will look back on their own lives when they‘re my age. After all, much crucial relationship building work is done in the 20s. According to research by the late Bernice Neugarten of the University of Chicago, who helped launch the academic study of human development, people choose most of their adult relationships, both friends and lovers, between the ages of 22 and 28. The friends we make in our 20s are not only best friends forever; they‘re also our first truly chosen friends. And choosing how to commit to these friendships is an essential psychological task of the 20s.
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But with so much of friendship in this age group now being developed online, an essential question is what the effect of that interaction is. A study, conducted in 2010 by Craig Watkins and Erin Lee of the University of Texas at Austin, investigated the Facebook habits of 776 young people between the ages of 18 and 35. ―Whether it is a wall post, a comment, or a photo,‖ they wrote, ―young people‘s engagement with Facebook is driven, primarily, by a desire to stay connected to and involved in the lives of friends who live close by, far away, or have just entered into their lives.‖ This kind of constant contact can be efficient, but it can also be upsetting. For one thing, it adds a new layer of concern to a young person‘s already-heightened awareness of social ranking, giving appearance-conscious young people yet another thing to worry about. ―I see other 20-somethings feeling pressured to constantly keep up a public image, especially a public image online,‖ wrote Ariana Allensworth on the group blog. ―Folks are always keeping the world informed one way or another about what they‘re up to, where they‘re at, what projects they‘re working on. It can be a bit much at times.‖ Not the most fertile ground for real-world friendship. 74. According to the passage, the 20s is an age for people to _____. A. have a good public image B. keep themselves informed C. look back on their own lives D. develop critical relationships 75. Which of the following is a disadvantage of making friends online? A. It makes people pay less attention to social ranking. B. It robs people of the happy moments spent with friends. C. It keeps people away from their family and close relatives. D. It prevents people from keeping in contact with their friends. 76. What was the aim of the study conducted by Craig Watkins and Erin Lee? A. To know about the 776 young people‘s Facebook habits. B. To find out how social media affect real-world social life. C. To help young people stay connected to the lives of friends. D. To investigate what kind of people prefer online interactions. 77. The author may agree that _____. A. old-fashioned friendship can help create virtual bonds B. there‘s no need for young people to make online friends C. real-world friendship is a better choice for young people D. online friendship is an inevitable trend in the modern world 【奉贤】 ―The Heart of the Matter,‖ the newly-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for attaching the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report‘s failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good. In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by federal states and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors(捐助者) and others to maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. In response, the AAAS formed the Committee on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among the Committee‘s 51 members are
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top-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as distinguished figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism. The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because the government supports full literacy (识字) of citizens, the report stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the introduction of a series of curricula that improve students‘ ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning into practice on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs. Unfortunately, despite 2 years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The committee ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don‘t know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing ―progressive‖. Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets and self-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legal intellectual investigation. The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well hold back reform by obscuring(遮蔽) the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to clarify. 74. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to ___________. A. maintain people‘s interest in liberal education B. define the government‘s role in education C. keep a leading position in liberal education D. safeguard individuals‘ rights to education 75. Which one of the following statements about what the AAAS plan suggests is true ? A. An exclusive study of American history. B. A greater emphasis on theoretical subjects. C. The application of emerging technologies. D. Funding for the study of foreign languages. 76. It can be inferred from the passage that ___________. A. professors are routinely supportive of free markets B. intellectual investigation are put great value on in college C. progressive public policy is out of boundaries of proper study D. professors have prejudice against classical liberal ideas 77. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? A. The AAAS‘s Contribution to Liberal Education
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B. Illiberal Education and ―The Heart of the Matter‖ C. Ways to Grasp ―The Heart of the Matter‖― D. Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education 【虹口】 There are desert plants which survive the dry season in the form of inactive seeds. There are also desert insects which survive as inactive larvae (幼虫). In addition, difficult as it is to believe, there are desert fish which can survive through years of drought (干旱) in the form of inactive eggs. These are the shrimps (虾) that live in the Mojave Desert, an extremely dry place in the southwest of the United States where shade temperatures of over 50℃ are often recorded. The eggs of the Mojave shrimps look like grains of sand both in size and appearance. When enough spring rain falls to form a lake, once every two to five years, these eggs hatch. Then the water is soon filled with millions of tiny shrimps about a millimetre long which feed on tiny plant and animal organisms (有机物）which also grow in the temporary desert lake. Within a week, the shrimps grow from their original 1 millimetre to a length of about 1.5 centimetres. Throughout the time that the shrimps are rapidly maturing, the water in the lake equally rapidly evaporates(蒸发). Therefore, for the shrimps it is a race against time. By the twelfth day, however, when they are about 3 centimetre long, hundreds of tiny eggs form on the underbodies of the females. Usually by this time, all that remains of the lake is a large, muddy patch of wet soil. On the 13th day, the shrimps lay their eggs in the mud. Then, having ensured that their species will survive, the shrimps die as the last of the water evaporates. If enough rain falls the next year to form another lake, the eggs hatch, and once again the shrimps pass rapidly through their cycle of growth, adulthood, egg-laying, and death. Some years there is not enough rain to form a lake: in this case, the eggs will remain dormant for another years, or even longer if necessary. 74. Which of the following is the MOST unique feature of Mojave shrimps? A. Their lives are brief. B. They feed on plant and animal organisms. C. Their eggs can survive years of drought. D. They lay their eggs in the mud. 75. What doe the underlined word ―dormant‖ in the last paragraph most probably mean? A. Inactive. B. Sleeping. C. Safe. D. Dead. 76. What can be inferred from the passage? A. Appearance and size are the most important for life to survive in the desert. B. A species must be able to grow up quickly in order to survive. C. Shrimps are the only species with a life cycle of 13 days. D. Some species develop a unique life pattern to survive in extremely hard condition. 77. What is the passage mainly about? A.The life span of Mojave shrimps B. The survival of desert shrimps C. The creatures living in the Mojave desert D. The importance of water to life in the desert 【黄埔】 The late 1980s found the landscape of popular music in America dominated by a distinctive style of rock and roll known as glam rock or hair metal—so called because of the over-styled hair, makeup, and clothes worn by the style‘s shining rockers. Bands like Poison, Whitesnake, and
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Motley Crue popularized glam rock with their power songs and flashy style, but the product had worn thin by the early 1990s. Just as superficial as the 80s, glam rockers were shallow, short on substance, and musically inferior. In 1991, a Seattle-based band called Nirvana shocked the corporate music industry with the release of its first single, ―Smells Like Teen Spirit,‖ which quickly became a huge hit all over the world. Nirvana had simply mainstreamed a sound and culture that got its start years before with bands like Mudhoney, Soundgarden, and Green River. Grunge(垃圾) rockers derived their fashion sense from the youth culture of the Pacific Northwest: a mixing of punk（鬅客）rock style and outdoors clothing like heavy boots, worn out jeans, and so on. At the height of the movement‘s opportunity, when other Seattle bands like Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains were becoming popular, the trappings of grunge were working their way to the height of American fashion. Like the music, the teenagers were fast to accept the grunge fashion because it represented rebellion against shallow pop culture. The popularity of grunge music was momentary; by the mid- to late-1990s, its influence upon American culture had all but disappeared, and most of its recognizable bands were nowhere to be seen to the charts. The heavy sound and themes of grunge were replaced on the radio waves by boy bands like the Backstreet Boys, and the bubblegum pop of Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera. There are many reasons why the Seattle sound faded out of the mainstream as quickly as it rocketed to distinction, but the most glaring reason lies at the rebellion, anti-establishment heart of the grunge movement itself. It is very hard to resist the trend when you are the one setting it, and many of the grunge bands were never comfortable with the fame that was brought to them. Eventually, the simple fact that many grunge bands were so against mainstream rock stardom (明 星地位 ) took the movement back to where it started: underground. The fickle American mainstream public, as quick as they were to hop on to the grunge bandwagon, were just as quick to hop off and move on to something else. 74. Which of the following is TRUE according to the first paragraph? A. The landscape of popular music was dominated by rock and roll from 1980. B. The rock and roll formed a distinctive style just because of the over-styled hair. C. Glam rock became popular with the help of Poison, Whitesnake and Britney Spears. D. Glam rockers were shallow, short on substance, and their music was humble. 75. It was not long before teenagers welcomed grunge fashion because _________. A. it would represent the youth culture B. grunge rockers told them to accept it C. they were tired of Glam Rock fashion D. it resisted the shallowness of pop culture 76. What is the difference between glam rock and grunge rock? A. Glam rock was flashier, while grunge rock was rebellious. B. Glam rock appealed to teenagers, while grunge rock appealed to adults. C. Glam rock faded quickly, while grunge rock is still popular. D. Glam rock was more commercially successful than grunge rock. 77. What is the writer trying to document in this passage? A. The popularity of glam rock.
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B. Nirvana‘s role in popularizing grunge rock. C. The rise and fall of grunge rock. D. The reasons why young people loved grunge rock. 【闵行】 ―Does my smile look big in this?‖ Future fitting-room mirrors in clothing stores could subtly adjust your reflection to make you look ─ and hence feel ─ happier, encouraging you to like what you see. That‘s the idea behind the Emotion Evoking System developed by Shigeo Yoshida and colleagues at the University of Tokyo in Japan. The system can manipulate, or in other word, control your emotions and personal preferences by presenting you with an image of your own smiling or frowning face. The principle that physiological changes can drive emotional ones ─ that laughter comes before happiness, rather than the other way around ─ is a well-established idea. The researchers wanted to see if this idea could be used to build a computer system that manipulates how you feel. The system works by presenting the user with a web-camera image of his or her face ─ as if they were looking in a mirror. The image is then subtly altered with software, turning the corners of the mouth up or down and changing the area around the eyes, so that the person appears to smile or frown (皱眉). Without telling them the aim of the study, the team recruited (招募) 21 volunteers and asked them to sit in front of the screen while performing an unrelated task. When the task was complete the participants rated how they felt. When the faces on screen appeared to smile, people reported that they felt happier. On the other hand, when the image was given a sad expression, they reported feeling less happy. Yoshida and his colleagues tested whether manipulating the volunteers‘ emotional state would influence their preferences. Each person was given a scarf to wear and again presented with the altered webcam image. The volunteers that saw themselves smiling while wearing the scarf were more likely to report that they liked it, and those that saw themselves not smiling were less likely. The system could be used to manipulate consumers‘ impressions of products, say the researchers. For example, mirrors in clothing-store fitting rooms could be replaced with screens showing altered reflections. They also suggest people may be more likely to find clothes attractive if they see themselves looking happy while trying them on. ―It‘s certainly an interesting area,‖ says Chris Creed at the University of Birmingham, UK. But he notes that using such technology in a shop would be harder than in the lab, because people will use a wide range of expressions. ―Attempting to make slight differences to these and ensuring that the reflected image looks believable would be much more challenging,‖ he says. Of course, there are also important moral questions surrounding such subtly manipulative technology. ―You could argue that if it makes people happy what harm is it doing?‖ says Creed. ―But I can imagine that many people may feel manipulated, uncomfortable and cheated if they found out.‖ 74. What’s the main purpose of the Emotion Evoking System? A. To see whether one‘s feeling can be unconsciously affected. B. To see whether one‘s facial expressions can be altered.
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C. To see whether laughter comes before happiness. D. To replace the mirrors in future clothing-store fitting rooms. 75. What can we learn about the web-camera image in the study? A. It recorded the volunteers‘ performance in the task. B. It gave the volunteers a false image. C. It attempted to make the volunteers feel happier. D. It beautified the volunteers‘ appearance in the mirror. 76. What does Creed mention as a limitation of the technology? A. It only changes the areas around the mouth and the eyes. B. It only works in clothing stores. C. It only makes subtle changes to people‘s expressions. D. It only deals with a limited number of facial expressions. 77. What does Creed’s comment on the moral issues with this technology imply? A. Nothing is more important than happiness. B. Technology is unable to manipulate people. C. People should make their decisions independently. D. People should neglect the harm of the technology. 【浦东】 ON MARCH 9th Apple, probably the most successful technology company in history, held an event to launch its smartwatch, which will go on sale next month. In addition to keeping track of time, the watch measures the wearer‘s heart rate and activity levels, processes voice commands, gives alerts of incoming e-mails and calls and facilitates payments at tills. In other words, it does a lot of what smartphones already accomplish, but is worn on the wrist and must be close to an iPhone in order to function. Why is there so much buzz about this watch? As smartphones have enjoyed a sudden and tremendous boost in global appeal, people have started to wonder what the next major technology trend would be. Many analysts have pinned their hopes on wearable devices, which contain small sensors to track and display information. This category includes everything from smartwatches like Apple‘s, to fitness bands that measure sleep patterns and exercise, to ―smart‖ shoes that measure distance, to smart glasses that can take voice commands and display information. Wearables promise to measure personal data and save people time: a glance at one‘s wrist to see alerts takes fewer seconds than pulling out a phone. Companies in various industries, from mining to airlines, are also cautiously testing whether wearables can help improve efficiency or customer service. However, while the number of wearable gadgets has grown, consumers still tend to be geeks(对电脑痴迷的人) and fitness fans. Last year around 21million wearable devices were sold, most of them wrist-worn devices, according to IDC, a research firm. Wearable devices have failed to become mainstream for three main reasons. First, many of them are unable to function without a nearby smartphone, which limits their appeal. Consumers already have to keep track of several devices without adding another. Second, they are not yet considered cool. Google Glass, a pair of ―smart‖ glasses made by the search-engine firm, were so clunky(粗笨的) that even fashion models could not make them look good. Third, there is not yet a ―killer app‖ that proves their usefulness in people‘s daily lives. Technologists imagine a future when wearable devices will serve to confirm personal identity, facilitating payments, unlock house and car doors and track people‘s
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activity and wellness. That future, however, is years away. Apple has a record of pushing existing technologies into the mainstream, including the Macintosh computer, iPod, iPhone and iPad. This helps explain why people are so interested in Apple‘s watch. If the firm‘s new product is attractive enough, it could validate(使…有效) a whole category of technology. Apple has enough loyal fans to sell millions of watches this year. But wearable devices‘ utility for the masses remains uncertain. In the meantime, firms and software developers will need to invest more time and resources in designing new applications that will put the ―wear‖ in wearables. 74. The underlined word “buzz” in the first paragraph probably means “______”. A. excitement B. doubt C. complaint D. satisfaction 75. Apple’s smartwatch has all the following functions except that ________. A. it makes payments more convenient B. it informs people of the arrival of emails. C. it enables the wearer to talk to the caller D. it reacts to commands when talked to. 76. What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs? A. Apple can become the mainstream in technology because most of its products own attractive appearances. B. Wearable technology is popular among the majority because it serves various purposes in diverse areas. C. Firms and software developers need to make wearable devices more wearable to meet the needs of the majority. D. Many people still want to buy Google Glass even if it doesn‘t look good on fashion models. 77. What is the purpose of writing this passage? A. To tell people about the functions and limits of Apple‘s smartwatch. B. To argue that the smartwatch can serve as a good example to improve wearable device. C. To encourage various companies to improve their businesses by using wearables. D. To help consumers differentiate the smartwatch from other wearable gadgets. 【普陀】 Today‘s workplace is unique in history. Never before have we seen people working together who represent such different backgrounds and experiences. This difference of age, race, gender, and work style makes it very difficult to organize and run a company. As a result, companies are looking for individuals who can manage a wide range of employees effectively. Increasingly, managers are discovering that age differences among workers are a major cause of concern. This has been an important realization. The management difficulties and challenges have led some experts to study intergenerational differences for an understanding of problems in the workplace. What they have discovered is interesting and may provide ways of improving working conditions in companies that employ individuals from different generations. The first thing to realize, they say, is that differences of opinion about the importance of work and how to get work done are not a coincidence. That is, it is not an accident that young employees will be different from older employees. In fact, if employers do not pay attention to these differences, it is possible that anger will build up between people and lead to difficulties in the company.
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Resentment (仇恨) between members of different generations, if not attended to, can lead to extreme anger and unhappiness and even lasting enmity if people are not careful. That individuals from different generations should come to view each other as if they were from different sides of warring countries should not be surprising. It is natural for individuals from the same generation to form alliances (联盟), to come together for protection. Different generations represent different experiences in life, and these lead naturally to different opinions about oneself and one‘s approaches to work. If you were raised in a time of plenty, when products were readily available and relatively inexpensive, you would believe that prosperity is natural and expectable. If, on the other hand, you were raised in a time of scarcity, you would always be careful not to waste things for fear you would not have enough. You would make angry people who seem to believe that problems will always solve themselves. Such optimism in the face of difficulties would be a source of unhappiness between you and them. It is difficult, in such circumstances, to achieve a happy, agreeable atmosphere in the workplace. 73. What most possibly makes it difficult to organize or run a company? A. Employees are in different generations. B. Employees are of different backgrounds. C. Employees work in different styles. D. Employees are in different races. 74. Employers should pay attention to ______ if they want to avoid anger between employees. A. the different understanding of problems in the workplace B. the different views on value of work and working methods C. the different generations of employees in the workplace D. the different ways of expressing anger in the company 75. The word ―enmity‖ is closet in meaning to ______. A. hatred B. sorrows C. ignorance D. forgiveness 76. What can be inferred from the passage? A. Employees in some companies regard each other as mere enemies. B. Employees‘ attitudes towards life are related to the time when they grow up. C. Employees who are raised in a time of scarcity tend to be angry with others. D. Achieving a harmonious atmosphere in the workplace is the main task for employers. 77. What does the writer mainly talk about in the passage? A. Employees should be cooperative and friendly with each other. B. It is difficult for employers to have workers work in a friendly way. C. The weakness of human nature causes the anger between employees. D. The generational differences cause the disharmony among employees. 【徐汇】 【松江】 【金山】 The orangutan (红毛猩猩), the most inactive of the great apes, has unusually stable DNA, too. Researchers have just completed the sequencing ( 序 列 ) of the entire genome ( 基 因 组 ) of our orange-haired relative, and they have found to their surprise that its DNA has changed much less dramatically over time than has that of
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humans or chimpanzees. ―The orangutan is very unique,‖ says Devin Locke, a structural geneticist heading the orangutan sequencing project. The orangutan genome had one other big surprise. Locke and colleagues sequenced six Sumatran and five Bornean orangutans, which are classified as different species. The apes have been physically separated for at least 21,000 years—the last time land bridges between the two islands existed—and earlier studies estimated that they became distinct species more than 1 million years ago. But the new analysis, reported online today in Nature, rewrites history: it appears they parted ways just 400,000 years ago. ―Most previous studies used small sets of markers and a limited amount of DNA sequence,‖ says Locke. ―The statistical power is so much greater when you have the whole genome available.‖ The orangutan now joins chimpanzees and humans as the third great ape to have its genome sequenced. ―The orangutan genome is a wonderful resource,‖ says evolutionary geneticist Svante P??bo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. ―It will help clarify how each part of human and African ape genomes are related to each other and evolved.‖ Such insights are already coming in. Orangutans originated some 12 million to 16 million years ago, giving their genomes much more time to evolve than those of humans and chimpanzees, which split into their own lineages （血统） 5 million to 6 million years ago. But a comparison of the three genomes shows that humans and chimpanzees lose or gain new genes at twice the rate of orangutans. The reason may have to do with stretches of DNA called retrotransposons. These key drivers of evolution jump around the genome, creating new genes, damaging existing ones, or altering gene regulation. The new data reveal that common retrotransposons known as Alu elements have moved around the orangutan genome much less than they have in the human and chimpanzee genomes. ―I don‘t want to say that ?Alu retrotransposition events‘ are shut off in orangutans, but they‘ve been covered up,‖ says Locke. The researchers also discovered that, over time, the structure of orangutan chromosomes (染 色体) has changed little, which may be linked to the Alu element finding. Other researchers have suggested that the strong and healthy structural variation in humans and chimps may have stimulated increased intelligence. But Locke notes that orangutans are also highly intelligent. ―If orangutans have had very little structural variation, maybe this decouples structural variation from intelligence,‖ he says. A separate but related study published today in Genome Research reports yet another unexpected finding from a comparison of the three great ape genomes. A team led by Mikkel H. Schierup and Thomas Mailund of Aarhus University in Denmark (both co-authors of the Nature report) discovered that some regions of the human genome more closely resemble the orangutan than the chimpanzee. This reflects the fact that at the time humans split off from a common ancestor with chimps, both species had the same ancestral orangutan DNA. But humans and chimpanzees have evolved separately for millions of years. In the process, chimps for mysterious reasons lost some orangutan DNA that humans kept possession of. More surprises are sure to come as researchers compare the genomes of even more apes. Projects to sequence the other two great apes, gorillas and bonobos, are under way. 51. Orangutans from two islands, Sumatran and Bornean, became different species since ______.
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A. at least 21,000 years ago B. over 1 million years ago C. some 12 million to 16 million years ago D. 400,000 years ago 52. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to this passage? A. Compared with the DNA of orangutan, chimpanzee‘s is less changed over time. B. Only three apes‘ genomes have been sequenced up to now. C. Humans‘ ancestors stepped on their way of evolution 12 to 16 millions years ago. D. Chimpanzees gain new genes faster than orangutans do in evolution. 53. The reason of orangutan’s little change in DNA is that _____. A. this species is not as active in intelligence as humans or chimpanzees. B. the newly identified Alu elements is believed to have played a special role C. Alu retrotranspositions in orangutan are shut off during the course of evolution D. orangutan‘s low intelligence fails to stimulate the change of its DNA 54. Some region of human genome is more similar to that of orangutan than chimp’s because _____. A. human and orangutan share the same ancestor, but chimp doesn‘t B. humans and chimpanzees have evolved separately for millions of years C. chimps failed to hang on to orangutan DNA for some unknown reason, but human didn‘t D. chimps didn‘t act as actively as humans, resulting in their losing some critical orangutan DNA 【杨浦】 Students wishing to safeguard their careers against changes in the job market should choose science rather than arts degrees, according to a survey of undergraduates. Engineering and chemistry were considered to be the most ―future proof‖, as they are courses most likely to lead to an enduring and adaptable career. Students polled by a college were broadly optimistic（乐观的）that their chosen courses would prepare them for a world in which the job market could change dramatically during their working lives. But opinion was sharply divided over which degrees were best for future-proof careers. Eighty-two per cent of respondents believed engineering would help develop future-proof skills, with 74 per cent believing the same of chemistry and 73 per cent of computer science. But just 33 per cent of undergraduates believed history would lead to a future-proof career, and 40 per cent English. However more than two thirds of students - 67 per cent - thought the world of work would be significantly different or completely unrecognisable in 20 years. The findings, published today, come after Education Secretary Nicky Morgan sparked controversy（争论）with claims that teenagers should steer clear of the arts and humanities and choose science or maths subjects if they want to access the widest range of jobs. She said that in previous decades students would only take maths or science if they wanted to pursue a specific career such as medicine or pharmacy, but nowadays that ―couldn‘t be further from the truth‖. ―If you wanted to do something different, or even if you didn‘t know what you wanted to do…then the arts and humanities were what you chose. Because they were useful – we were told –
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for all kinds of jobs. Of course now we know that couldn‘t be further from the truth, and that the subjects that keep young people‘s options open and unlock doors to all sorts of careers are the STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths) subjects.‖ She also described maths as the subject that employers value most and said that pupils who study A-level maths will earn 10 per cent more over their lifetime. ―These figures show us that too many young people are making choices at the age of 15 which will hold them back for the rest of their lives,‖ she said. 74. According to most students, what will the world of work be like in 20 years? A. The same as it is now. B. Greatly different from what it is now. C. Dramatically challenging. D. More open with a wider range of jobs. 75. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined phrase ―steer clear of‖? A. keep away from B. be familiar with C. have a good command of D. catch up with 76. We can infer from the passage that ______. A. Students who choose science have a wide choice of careers excluding medicine and pharmacy. B. Few students are satisfied with their chosen courses, for they don‘t help develop future-proof skills. C. Arts and humanities used to be considered as future-proof degrees unlocking doors to many careers. D. 73% of the respondents are studying computer science, believing it leads to enduring career. 77. Which of the following is FALSE about the students who choose maths? A. They will enjoy more job opportunities after graduation. B. They are likely to earn more money if they study A-level maths. C. They will likely be favored by employers over students of other majors. D. They are learning a subject that will hold them back in the future. 【闸北】 Trade has a pretty bad name in some quarters. Trade robs poor people of a proper living, and keeps them trapped in poverty. There is a widely held popular view that trade is unfair. Though many claim that a freer trade would change the current indecent reputation of world market, the cure-all free trade is the dream of most textbook economists. In fact, "Free trade" has been used successfully by powerful countries to land their mass-produced goods on fresh overseas dumping grounds and squeeze out local household businesses and craftsmanship. At home the story is different. Large firms have little appetite for free trade and competition in their own backyard. They prefer to enjoy the advantages and protections for which they have carefully earned. Free thus fierce competition has little appeal for those who understand that they will make more profit if they can corner the market, whether at home or abroad. By contrast, making trade fairer is about addressing both outcomes and processes of trade. Fairness is not just moral request. It affects behaviour. Actually the concept of fairness increases steadily as societies achieve greater market uprightness: Businessmen from upright societies are willing to punish those who do not play fair, even if this is costly to themselves. Fairer trade rather than freer trade could partly mend mal-administering of resources in
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certain areas. Though thought of as evil economic policies in the west world, carefully planned special preferences and protectionism could be used intelligently to help to block the economic robbery of the rich class in African countries, and to improve the lives of the bottom billion. Fairness is also important in the control of trade. The current International trade negotiations have resulted in rules favouring the powerful. The rules are made in negotiations in which the countries in control call the shots, and do not always do so in good faith. Industrialized countries were often found to have obtained definite and far-reaching commitments from developing countries, in exchange for vague promises, such as to liberalise agriculture, which they have not kept. On the other hand, the essence of the fair trade lies in the promise that every party benefit from the business, rich or poor, powerful or weak. Making trade fairer is important to avoid a further public hate against trade. It is also important so as better to balance trade goals with other important national goals such as environmental and social protection. Finally, the so-called free trade system needs to be made fairer so that it does not block competition, and crush innovation and business spirit. It needs to offer a more level playing field to commercial newcomers and competitors in rich and poor countries alike. 74. Free trade is a concept at rich countries‘ service to ______. A. open up new markets abroad B. define trade in the economic textbooks C. dump pollutants in poor countries D. learn the skills from local household businesses. 75. The key mechanism of fair trade is ______. A. punishing the rich countries when they cheat the poor countries B. making sure that rich countries provide more chances for poor countries C. promoting special preferences and protectionism in poor areas D. guaranteeing the common interests of all the dealers 76. The underlined word ―mal-administering‖ in the passage is closest in meaning to ______. A. macro-management B. overall collection C. uneven distribution D. negative mining 77. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage? A. Large firms earn huge profits from free trade on domestic markets. B. Honest dealers would sacrifice their own interest to discipline the dishonest. C. Special preferences and protectionism are occasionally adopted in western countries. D. A fairer trade helps to ease competition between the rich and the poor.
【宝山】 82．在美国和加拿大， 用餐后不付小费是很失礼的事。 （tip） 83. 据报道，政府已经下定决心要解决环境污染问题。 （determine） 84. 令他惊讶的是，他的春考成绩比他期望的要好的多。(expect) 85. 汉语是世界上最难的语言之一，学习这种语言的人就会很快发现自己遇到了挑战。
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(challenge) 86. 直到真要出国了，这个年轻人才意识到自立的重要性。 (Not) 【崇明】 1. 我们学习英语不是为了参加考试，而是为了掌握一种交际工具。(tool) 2. 我们应怀感恩之心善待那些爱我们并关心我们的人。(grateful) 3. 只要你懂得如何反思自己的过错，就能从中吸取教训。(reflect) 4. 尽管家境贫寒，但那个男孩志存高远并梦想着有朝一日能获诺贝尔奖。(Despite) 5. 那个刚被批评的女孩哭着跑了出去，根本不知道这样其实让她的父母更伤心。(Out) 【奉贤】 1、我们渴望一个没有污染的星球。( free ) 2、微风吹拂着她的头发，那小女孩注视着彩蝶在花海中飞舞。 （With… ） 3、这部最近出品的电影旨在唤起人们对贫困山区儿童的关注。 （mean ） 4、他向朋友保证在任何情况下他都不会违背做一个诚实守信人的承诺。 （ under no circumstances ） 5 、正是高三的学习经历使我们相信无论过程多么艰难，我们的努力终将会得到回报。 （ convince, pay off ） 【虹口】 Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the word or phrase given in the brackets. 82、据我所知，他们学校的面积是我们的两倍。 （size.） 83、如果你忘记通知他面试时间了该怎么办。 （what if） 84、在现代社会中，手机不仅是通讯工具，也是一种娱乐工具。 （Not only…） 85、这位经济学家在调查中发现，有些人赚的越多，消费的欲望也更强烈。 （the more…） 86、既然选手们已投入比赛，及时结果不尽如人意，你也别对其吹毛求疵了。 （devote） 【黄埔】 Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1．这个协议将为两国的合作铺平道路。 (pave) 2．据说那位年轻教授当众反对了校长的提议。(object)
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3．一旦那个工程师下定决心，就没有谁能说服他改变最初的决定。(once) 4．昨天我把那台不能用的空调退还给了出售它的商店并得到了退款。(where) 5．大卫得知要参加即将在北京举行的决赛后是如此激动以致于彻夜未眠。(So…that…) 【闵行】 Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 82. 昨晚我很累，没做完作业就睡了。(without) 83. 无论多忙，我们都应该经常花时间与父母说说话。(spend) 84. 学生是否必须穿校服，校方和家长各执一词。(opinion) 85. 虽然这种产品有利环保，但因其价格昂贵，几乎无人问津。(in favor of) 86. 骑车不仅能让我们体格强健，还有助于我们免受日益严重的交通拥堵之苦。(suffer) 【浦东】 Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1. 我很难在这份菜单上找到素食。 (difficulty) 2. 希望人人都能各抒己见，因为没有沟通就会产生误解。 (expect) 3. 除了改善公共交通之外，拓宽道路也是缓解交通压力的有效方法。 (relieve) 4. 显而易见，现代社会正在步入一个使机机对话变得十分便利的时代。 (when) 5. 公司在录用新人时，应考虑其能力和工作经验等内在因素，而不应考虑其外貌及家庭背 景。 (independent) 【普陀】 Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1、学校里约半数的学生热衷于玩手机游戏。(keen) 2、事实证明，你尝试的越多，就越有可能提前取得成功。(the more…) 3、他从没像现在这样渴望得到父母的理解和支持。(Never…) 4、自从有了互联网，消费者足不出户就可以轻松买到各种心仪的商品。(access) 5、鉴于日趋严重的环境污染，政府正呼吁市民合理处理废旧电池。(appeal) 【徐汇】 【松江】 【金山】
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Translation Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1. 众所周知，大量砍树对自然平衡有灾难性的影响。 （As) 2. 3. 4. 5. 她的父母忙于工作，因此她在年幼的时候就学会了照顾自己。(age) 这部滑稽的电影的确分散了我注意力，让我暂时忘记了这些难题。(which) 考官在面试时问了他很多问题，为的是了解他是否能胜任科学研究工作。( in order to) 正因为是他被任命为经理，该公司在过去的十年中迅速发展为广告业巨头。(It)
【杨浦】 Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1. 仔细检查作文的话，许多拼写错误是可以避免的。(check) 2. 3. 4. 5. 花匠告诉他这种树是很难被移植的。(transplant) 李光耀（Lee Kuang Yew）去世的消息使全国陷入深深的悲痛之中。(pass) 直到最近发生了一系列空难事故后，人们才开始关注飞行员的心理健康。(Not) 养成每天看天气预报的习惯， 这样你就能够应付上海变幻莫测、 变化多端的天气了。 （so that）
【闸北】 Translation（22 分） Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1． 语言运用需要足够的词汇量为基础。(base) 2． 世界豪华汽车至少 50%的销售依赖于快速崛起的亚洲市场。 （depend） 3． 无论他编造了多少借口， 他都得为因自己失误而造成的后果买单。 （no matter） 4． 必须清楚地意识到自己的长处和短处之后，才能合理地制定人生目标，无怨无悔地为之 奋斗。(before) 5． 参与本次工业展览会的观众无不对一家参展商所推广的家庭自动报警系统赞不绝口。 (who)
【宝山】 For a sight of an evolving technology that promises to shake video gaming to its foundation, check out ―Throw Trucks With Your Mind‖. Unlike most video games, it doesn't rely solely on a mouse. Instead, its players also put on a headset that enables them to throw trucks or other virtual objects simply by thinking. And that's just for starters. Advocates of so-called neurogaming（交感神经游戏）say the concept in a few years will combine a wide variety of physiological factors, from a player's heart
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rate and hand gestures to pupil dilation(瞳孔扩张) and emotions. Moreover, they imagine many such games being developed to improve the health, brainpower and skills of those playing them. The electroencephalography(脑电波仪), or EEG, headset used to throw trucks and other objects onto enemies was made by San Jose, California.-based NeuroSky. It measures separate brainwave frequencies that reflect how focused the player is and how calm they are, according to Lat Ware of Emeryville, California., who developed the game. The game, which can be purchased at www.throwtrucks.com, costs $25, or $99 with the headset. Ware, 29, said it's possible to move a pear or other small virtual object if the player is calm, but not focused, or vice versa. But he said both mental states are essential to flatten an enemy with a huge truck, which takes considerable concentration. Although only a few neurogames have been introduced so far and their action tends to be fairly limited, the games are expected to become far more challenging - and multipurpose - as the software and related technology improves. One concept being explored is to develop games that adjust their action according to the player's changing emotions. These are measured by such factors as their facial expressions, eye movement and skin-conductance(皮肤导电) levels. Another approach is to make games that influence how the player thinks and feels. Consider Los Angeles-based Melon, which, like "Throw Trucks With Your Mind," was recently launched via the online fundraising site Kickstarter. Melon officials say their first game-which challenges players to fold origami（折纸） with their mind, using NeuroSky's EEG headset -- helps people "learn how to focus, relax and meditate better." 78. According to this article, what is the purpose of developing the new kind of games? 79. The function of brainwave frequencies measured by EEG made by San Jose is to _________. 80. According to Ware, if you want to throw something such as a truck, you must be __________. 81.What is the new idea being studied to develop more challenging and multipurpose games? (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN ELEVEN WORDS) 【崇明】 Students in Finland won‘t have to study subjects. Soon, their classrooms would resemble conferences where ―topics‖ are discussed. The education system in Finland is about to undergo a revolutionary and fundamental change, although it enjoys the reputation of being one of the best in the world. The education department has decided to abandon the old method of ―teaching by subject.‖ Instead, the country will now involve the children to help them learn and question by evolving to ―teaching by topic‖, shared Liisa Pohjolainen, who is in charge of youth and adult education in Helsinki – the capital city leading the reform program, ―This is going to be a big change in education in Finland that we‘re just beginning.‖ The education system, though appearing to be revolutionary, is quite logical, explained Pasi Silander, the city‘s development manager, ―What we need now is a different kind of education to prepare people for working life. Young people use quite advanced computers. In the past the banks had lots of bank clerks adding up figures but now that has totally changed. We therefore have to make the changes in education that are necessary for industry and modern society.‖ How does Finland plan to apply the method of teaching by topic? Evidently all-round vocational training and accumulated skill development take up priority over ―lessons.‖ Those in their late teens are already being engaged in what Finland refers to as ―phenomenon teaching‖ – or teaching by topic. For example, ―cafeteria services‖ lessons will include elements of finance, languages (to help serve foreign customers), writing skills and communication skills.
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Students will slowly be taught cross-subject topics which would have varying elements of multiple ―subjects.‖ These elements will vary with the ―topic‖ or ―skill‖ the student is learning. Apart from the same, students will move away from the traditional sitting and evaluation techniques as well. Students will sit in smaller groups and work collectively to solve problems, all the while improving upon their communication skills. They won‘t be made to sit in rows and asked questions individually to assess their progress. Instead, a group whose collaborative efforts bring out results faster will be promoted. The education system needs a thorough reform, owing to the fact that traditional teaching techniques were based on traditional tools that were quite limited in availability and accessibility. With modern world being extensively connected, isn‘t it time for the students to learn how to step ahead of mere fact-based learning that promotes memory expansion rather than mental development? (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.) 78. Finland is launching its education reform by _________. 79. What‘s the purpose of Finland‘s education reform? 80. What are two of the main features of ―teaching by topic‖? 81. Finland decides to reform its education because traditional teaching _________. 【奉贤】 All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility（敌意） than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America. During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation （通货膨胀） . The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of lawsuit filer that makes the legal system a costly nightmare. There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam(律师资格考). This leaves today‘s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that many cannot afford to go into government or non-profit work, and that they have to work extremely hard. Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly an essential enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can take it earlier should be allowed to do so. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third. The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically（道德上）. In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms‘ efficiency. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TWELVE
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WORDS) 78. Students who ____________________ are tempted to take up law as their profession. 79. The underlined word them in Para. 4 refers to _______________________________. 80. In addition to shortening the allowance time to take the bar exam, the system reform should include ________________________________________________________. 81. Why is the guild-like ownership structure of the legal system considered restrictive? ____________________________________________________________________ 【虹口】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. The greatest recent social changes have been in the lives of women in America, or probably in the world. During the twentieth century there has been a remarkable shortening of the proportion of a woman's life spent in caring for the children. A woman marrying at the end of the nineteenth century would probably have been in her middle twenties? And would be likely to have seven or eight children, of whom four or five lived till they were five years old. By the time the youngest was fifteen, the mother would have been in her early fifties and would expect to live a further twenty years, during which custom, opportunity and health made it unusual for her to get paid work. Today women marry younger and have fewer children. Usually a woman's youngest child will be fifteen when she is forty-five years and is likely to take paid work until retirement at sixty. Even while she has the care of children, her work is lightened by modern living conditions. This important change in women's life-pattern has only recently begun to have its full effect on women's economic position. Even a few years ago most girls left school at the first opportunity, and most of them took a full-time job. However, when they married, they usually left work at once and never returned to it. Today the school leaving age is sixteen, many girls stay at school after that age, and though women tend to marry younger, more married women stay at work at least until shortly before their first child is born. Very many more afterwards return to full-or-part-time work. Such changes have led to a new relationship in marriage, with the husband accepting a greater share of the duties and satisfactions of family life, and with both husband and wife sharing more equally in providing the money, and running the home, according to the abilities and interests of each of them. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.) 78. At what age did most women get married in the late nineteenth century? ______________________________________________. 79. A women today can still take care of her children when doing paid work in their forties because of ______________________________________. 80. Of ―such changes‖ today, one is that many more mothers _________________________ after their first child is born. 81. What are the factors that cause a couple to share economic and family affairs in an equal way? ______________________________________________.
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【黄埔】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. By the mid-19th century most of Europe was in the first stage of the demographic(人口的) transition. Death rate had decreased, as wars, famines( 饥荒 ) and diseases had; local food shortages were rarer, thanks to better economic organization and transport; public health, medical care and the control of infectious diseases had improved. The population increased rapidly, as Malthus had predicted. Between 1800 and 1900 Europe‘s population doubled, to over 400 million, whereas that of Asia, further behind in the demographic transition, increased by less than 50%, to about 950 million. But something else was happening there that would have taken Malthus by surprise: as people came to expect to live longer, and better, they started to have fewer children. They realised they no longer needed several babies just to ensure that two or three would survive. And as they moved from country to town, they also found that children were no longer an economic property that could be set to work at an early age, but a responsibility to be fed, housed and (some of them) educated, for years. Worse, with too many children, a mother would find it hard to take and keep a job, to add to the family income. Nor were the young any longer a guarantee against a poor old age: in the new industrial society, they were likelier to go their own way. Thanks to Europe‘s newborn limitation, in the past 100 years or so its population has risen only 80%, to 730 million, and most countries‘ birth rate is now so low that numbers are unchanging or falling. But their composition is very different from the past: better living standards, health condition and medical treatment are multiplying old heads, even as the number of young ones shrinks. In contrast, Asia‘s population over the same time has nearly increased four times, to more than 3.6 billion. North America‘s too has grown almost as fast, but largely thanks to immigration. Africa‘s has multiplied 5 times, and Latin America‘s nearly sevenfold. Why these differences? From around 1950, death rate in developing countries also began to fall, and much faster than it ever had in Europe. The knowledge about how to avoid premature death of small children travelled so readily that life expectancy in many poor countries is now not far behind the rich world‘s. But the attitudes and values that persuade people to have fewer children are taking longer to adjust.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.) 78. What prediction did Malthus make?
79. Give one reason to explain why people started to have fewer children according to paragraph 2.
80. Besides medical treatment, increasing number of old people.
are the other two factors that contribute to the
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81. Why has the population in developing countries increased faster than it has in Europe in the last century? 【闵行】 When e-mail first came into general use about twenty years ago, there was a lot of talk about the arrival of the paperless office. However, it seems that e-mail has yet to revolutionize office communication. According to communications analyst Richard Metcalf, some offices have actually seen an increase in paper as a result of e-mail. ―Information in the form of e-mail messages now floods our computer screens. These messages can be sent so quickly that memos tend to be distributed in the hundreds. For those secretaries whose bosses ask them to print out all their e-mails and leave them in their in-trays, this means using up a great deal of paper every month,‖ Metcalf says. Metcalf has found that because some e-mails get lost in cyberspace, important documents are increasingly likely to be asked by clients and colleagues to send all important documents both by e-mail and by fax. This highlights a further potential problem with e-mail in today‘s offices ─ it is taking up time rather than saving it. ―With e-mail, communication is much easier, but there is also more room for misunderstandings,‖ says psychologist Dr David Lewis. Generally, much less care is taken with e-mails than with letters or faxes and the sender will probably print the document and reread it before putting it in an envelope or sending it by fax. More worrying is still the increasing misuse of e-mail for sending ―flame-mail‖ ─inappropriate e-mail messages. Recent research in several companies suggests that aggressive communications like this are on the increase. E-mail has become the perfect medium for conveying workplace dissatisfaction because it is so instant. E-mail can also be a problem in other ways. Staffs all too often make the mistake of thinking that the contents of the e-mail, like things said over the phone, are private and not permanent. But it is not only possible for an employer to read all your e-mails, it is also perfectly legal. E-mail messages can be traced back to their origin for a period of at least two years, so you might want to rethink e-mailing your dissatisfaction about your boss to your friends. The advice is to keep personal e-mails out of the office. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN 12 WORDS) 78. The promise of paperless office has not come true in many offices mainly because many secretaries are asked to _____________. 79. Why has e-mailing taken up time rather than saved it? 80. There is an increasing concern that e-mails are misused by some employees to express _____________. 81. It is advised that employees should not use company e-mails as a way of ___________. 【浦东】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. While some dictionaries define the word ―right‖ as ―a privilege,‖ when used in the context of ―human rights,‖ we are talking about something more basic. Originally, people had rights only because of their membership in a group, such as a family. Then, in 539 BC, Cyrus the Great, after conquering the city of Babylon, did something totally unexpected—he set all slaves free and let them return home. Moreover, he declared people should choose their own religion. Cyrus‘
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statements are about the first ―human rights‖ declaration in history. Every person is entitled to certain fundamental rights, simply by the fact of being human. These are called ―human rights‖ rather than a privilege, which can be taken away at someone‘s sudden desire. They are ―rights‖ because they are things you are allowed to be, to do or to have. These rights are there for your protection against people who might want to harm or hurt you. They are also there to help us get along with each other and live in peace. Yet many people, when asked to name their rights, will list only freedom of speech and belief and perhaps one or two others. There is no question that these are important rights, but the full scope of human rights is very broad. They mean choice and opportunity. They mean the freedom to get a job, adopt a career, select a partner of one‘s choice and raise children. They include the right to travel widely and the right to work without trouble, abuse and threat of arbitrary (霸道) dismissal. They even embrace the right to leisure. In ages past, there were no human rights. Then the idea turned up that people should have certain freedoms. And that idea, in the wake of World War II, resulted finally in the document called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the thirty rights to which all people are entitled. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in No more than 10 words) 78. In 539 BC, people were greatly surprised by Cyrus’s _____________________________. 79. A privilege is different from Human rights in that it _____________________________. 80. How long have human rights officially existed? 81. What’s the main idea of the passage?
【普陀】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Dolphins have been declared the world‘s second most intelligent creatures after humans, with scientists suggesting they are so bright that they should be treated as ―non-human persons‖. Studies into dolphin behavior have highlighted how similar their communications are to those of humans and that they are brighter than chimpanzees. These have been backed up by anatomical ( 解剖学 ) research showing that dolphin brains have many key features associated with high intelligence. Recently, a series of behavioral studies has suggested that dolphins, especially species such as the bottlenose, whose brains weigh about 5lb, could even be brighter than chimps, which some studies have found can reach the intelligence levels of three-year-old children. The studies show how dolphins have distinct personalities, a strong sense of self and can think about the future. It has also become clear that dolphins are ―culture‖ animals, meaning that new types of behavior can quickly be picked up by one dolphin from another. In one study, Diana Reiss, professor of psychology at Hunter College, City University of New York, showed that bottlenose dolphins could recognize themselves in a mirror and use it to inspect various parts of their bodies, an ability that had been thought limited to humans and great apes. In another, she found that they also had the ability to learn an elementary symbol-based language. Other research has shown dolphins can solve difficult problems, while those living in the wild cooperate in ways that imply complex social structures and a high level of emotions. In one recent case, a dolphin rescued from the wild was taught to tail-walk for three weeks in a dolphinarium (海 豚宫) in Australia. After she was released, scientists were astonished to see the trick spreading among wild dolphins who had learnt it from the former captive (被俘的). Such observations have
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prompted questions about the brain structures of dolphins. Researchers have found that brain size varies hugely from around 7oz for the small species to more than 19lb for the sperm whales, whose brains are the largest on the planet. Human brains, by contrast, range from 21lb-4lb. When it comes to intelligence, however, brain size is less important than its size relative to the body. oz: an ounce in weight (1oz=28g) lb: a pound in weight (1lb=454g=16oz) (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in no more than twelve words.) 78. The which in the 2nd paragraph refers to _________. 79. What do bottlenose dolphins do to make Diana Reiss believe they are ―culture‖ animals? 80. The spreading of tail-walk shows wild dolphins have _________. 81. What is the main factor that decides the level of intelligence according to the last paragraph? 【徐汇】 【松江】 【金山】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. ____________________________________________ Technology means different things to different people. A physician might think of technology as a way to produce a new medicine. To a space engineer, it might mean making better rocket engines. Technology is so widespread that it is part of everyone‘s life. Originally, the word technology comes from the Greek word techne, which means ―art‖. You might think that art means only paintings or sculpture. But the Greeks believed an artist could make useful products from natural materials such as trees, rocks, and plants. What school subjects are related to technology? Though people‘s opinions vary on what groups of technology should be broken down to, you, when in school, may have the question: Why should you study technology? That question is easy to answer. Technology is fun, rewarding, and exciting. It is fun because you get to work with your hands. It is rewarding because you get to see the results of your work. Each day it brings new ideas and new challenges, which make technology exciting. Studying technology will also help you develop your problem-solving skills. You can learn to identify a problem and come up with a solution. You will also find that technology is related to other subjects that you study in school such as: Mathematics Science Social studies English language arts Art You might enjoy all of your classes more after you begin to see the relationships between technology and other subjects. Do you know what “technologically literate” means? Technology is often in the news. A journalist might report on a particular electrical power plant, a food additive, or a safety device on an automobile. It is important that you understand the importance of technology. Every day in many ways, technology affects the lives of people around the world. For example, automobile air bags have saved many lives in collisions. However, they inflate so quickly that they have caused injury and death in some cases. As a result, the federal government allows car owners to install an on/off switch for the air bags. Do you think the government should let people do this? To answer this question, you first need to know something about the technology being discussed.
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Does working on a small engine sound difficult to you? With a basic understanding of technology, it might not be as hard as you think. Being technologically literate means understanding technology and feeling comfortable with it. Sometimes there is no one correct answer to a problem. You need to think about and evaluate each situation, and then make a decision. When you can do this, you will be technologically literate. 55. What can the title of the first paragraph be to match the other two? _________________________________________________________________. 56. You can have ____________, since when studying technology, every day you work with your hands, see the results of your work, and have new ideas and new challenges. 57. Why are car owners allowed to switch off their air bags? ________________________________________________________________________. 58. A technological literate can be a person who ____________________________________.
(Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in No More Than Fifteen Words.) 【杨浦】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Do you feel stressed if your phone is not in sight? Don‘t be. Just the sight of your mobile phone can distract（转移，分心）you – even if you have turned it off and put it on the table, researchers from the University of Southern Maine in the US have found. The researchers asked two groups of students to carry out two different tasks which require paying attention. First, they were given a page of 20 rows of numbers and asked to circle one number in particular whenever they saw it. Second, they had to do the same and also cross off any two numbers in different rows that were next to each other and added up to the target number. During both experiments, half the students kept their phones on their desks and the other half put them out of sight. Those who put their phones in their pocket or their bag got an average of 20 percent higher in the test. We love using phones so much that it‘s becoming a problem, previous studies have found. An Android app followed how many times its 150,000 users checked their phone per day in 2013. The average figure was 110 times. A team at Baylor University in the US published a study in September saying that female students spent an average of 10 hours a day texting, e-mailing and on social media, while male students spent nearly eight. Why are we behaving like this? People want a ―constant connectivity‖, said Bill Thornton, a social psychologist at the University of Southern Maine in the US. Many ―check their phones when they wake up and as the last thing before they go to bed‖, he told the Daily Mail. Such behavior is bad for ―our ability to maintain attention‖, he added. Also, we react more slowly as a result. If you are always getting distracted by your phone, here‘s some advice for you: create a no-phone time zone. First, find out at least two hours of your day when you‘re most productive. Then turn off your phone and stay completely dedicated to the work you have to do.
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Oh yes, and don‘t forget to put the phone away as well. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS) 78. The result of the two experiments shows that ______________________________________. 79. Girl students ______________________ than boys in texting, e-mailing and on social media. 80. According to social psychologists, what leads to the high frequency of checking phones and long screen time? _________________________________________________________________ 81. How can people avoid being distracted in their most productive hours? _________________________________________________________________ 【闸北】 Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Few would argue that there has not been significant technological progress in the field of self-driving cars in recent years. Aside from the technology question, the legislative issue gives the world a worse headache. The content of the trouble centres on the question of who is to blame in a crash. The legal field tends to have the owners take responsibility for the messes their cold lifeless machine makes, for which case an explosion of lawsuits are well expected. Today, many of the car manufacturers and their suppliers are researching self-driving technology, but it is unclear why they would want to roll it out quickly. A consumer in America, for example, uses his or her car for approximately one hour per day. There is, therefore, a large amount of "free capacity" in the personal vehicle use market. Imagine a world where you can be driven to work, and where your car can then turn around and drive home so that your partner or anybody else can use it during the day. This shared use pattern could certainly stop the need to own a second car. Taken to its logical conclusion, it could even be the biggest reason to eliminate the need to own a car at all. The effects on car sales volumes could be destructive. The possible violation of privacy is also a big issue on the map. We all know that consumer data is big business. A self-driving car would easily log where you visited, the time of the day you went, and much more. Though your purchase preferences might escape secret peeping, the leakage of your whereabouts seems inevitable as it‘s hard to do what you are always doing to your smartphone toward the sole tool of transportation. Power off the big steel fellow and you are stuck on the road. The now excitedly expecting public are sure to be annoyed soon. Much discussed, the poor application of the technology outweighs the previous factors. In car industry, new vehicle features take a long time to get to broad market mass. Features are typically launched first on high-end vehicles, and then trickle down once there is sufficient space in the market to generate the scale affordable for the volume vehicles. With a car model's life cycle being between five and seven years, it is hard to see self-driving technology being fitted as standards of the mass-market brands. We still have a long way off from a world of completely self-driving cars. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN EIGHT WORDS.) 78. The likelihood to take the car owners as the guilty party in traffic accidents will give rise to ______. 79. What feature of the self-driving car would mainly affect car sales? 80. How can we prevent our personal data from being monitored by the self-driving car? 81. The most serious problem facing the self-driving car is _______.
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【宝山】 A. accounted G. increased B. limited C. commercials H. symbols I. though D. popular E. overnight J. talented K. fashion F. helped
The next time you watch NBA playoff action on TV, take a close look at the shoes that many players are wearing . Gone, for the most part, are the ankle-hugging high-tops that supposedly ____41____ to protect players from injury. The change over the last few years to low-top sneakers(运动鞋 ) seems to go against conventional wisdom. Strangely, __42___, Steven Nash and Kobe Bryant, two of the most __43__ players with the Los Angeles Lakers, aren‘t worried. According to the US market-research firm NPD Group, high-tops once ___44__ for about 20 percent of the US basketball shoe market. Now, the number has sunk to about 8 percent. Low-tops, the kind that Nash and Bryant wear, have grown to 29 percent, from just 11 percent in 2002. High-top sneakers are one of the most celebrated __45___ in modern basketball. After the 1985 Air Jordans so transformed the market, shoe companies began battling one another. They put air pumps in the tongues of their shoes and made carefully prepared and organized __46__. ―All of a sudden it became a __47__ business,‖ Marshal Cohen, an analyst with NPD group, told The Wall Street Journal. The Jordans were excellent. The market went from being nothing to a million-dollar business __48___.‖ One of the reasons high-tops are not so __49__ anymore is that they were never really very good at protecting the feet. In an article in the British Journal of Sports Medicine in 2008, University of Newcastle researcher Craig Richards found no evidence that sneakers__50__ injuries. His research actually found that high-top basketball sneakers could even cause players to run slower and jump lower. Now, the contest has become a war. Companies like Adidas, Nike, Converse and Reebok are all fighting to create the next ―Air Jordan,‖ and with the next market battle. 【崇明】 D. A. marketed B. experience C. increased E. indicate deliberately F. controlled G. potentially H. currently I. convenience J. backed K. access Young children may face serious health risks from popular energy drinks, such as Monster, Red Bull and Rock Star, 41 causing heart problems and other life-threatening conditions, according to the findings of new researches. During a presentation at the annual Cardiac Scientific Sessions 2014 meeting of the American Heart Association (AHA), researchers warned about the risk of allowing young children 42 to the energy drinks, which contain high amounts of caffeine(咖啡因) and other stimulants. Researches 43 that the energy drinks are not intended for young children and are not safe for them to consume. Steven Lipshultz, M.D., lead author of the study, is calling for a warning on all energy drink cans and bottles, warning parents of the risk of allowing children to drink them. Researchers say it is difficult to know exactly how much caffeine is contained in each can or bottle of energy drinks, since they are often 44 as dietary supplements (补充物), which allow the manufacturers to avoid FDA regulations. Energy drink manufacturers have compared the amount of caffeine in their products to that in hot drinks sold in coffee houses, but their products are often packaged in very large sizes and
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they are not sold in 45 environments like coffee houses, which typically would not serve young children. Energy drinks are widely available in 46 stores next to traditional soft drinks, typically packaged in very similar cans and using similar marketing techniques. Some energy drinks in many of the popular lines can contain up to 400 mg of caffeine per can. In comparison, a cup of coffee typically has around 100 mg of caffeine. Caffeine poisoning can occur in adults at levels higher than 400 mg a day; however, children under 12 can 47 caffeine poisoning at only 2.5 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight. A study published in September 48 up the new findings, revealing energy drinks may cause serious heart problems. French researchers revealed the popular energy drinks may be linked to 49 risk of irregular heartbeats and even sudden death. The FDA is 50 investigating health concerns surrounding the drinks after numerous negative event reports have been made in recent years connecting energy drinks to severe injuries and deaths. 【奉贤】 A. analyze B. relevant C. indicating D. restricted J. establishment E. transform K. necessarily F. primarily
G. disciplining H. reputations I. pioneered
Before the 1850‘s, the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from colonial days. They were small, church connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students. Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of university. The German university was concerned __41_____ with creating and spreading knowledge, not morals. Between mid-century and the end of the 1800‘s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study. Some of them return to become presidents of colleges of high __42_____ --Harvard, Yale, Columbia--and __43______ them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for __44_____ students. The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teacher-scholars. Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor‘s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D., an ancient German degree __45_____ the highest level of advanced scholarly achievement, was introduced. With the __46_____of the seminar system, graduate student learned to question, __47_____, and conduct their own research. At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out of the old, __48_____ curriculum(课程) of mathematics, classics, rhetoric, and music. The president of Harvard ___49___ the elective system, by which students were able to choose their own course of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university ___50_____ to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close attention to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists, social welfare workers, and teachers.
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【虹口】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. effect B. aggressively C. additional D. merely F. applied G. intended H. registered I. punishment J. slight E. charged K. offence
Foreign drivers will have a pay on-the-spot fines of up to ? 900 for breaking the traffic law to be carried out next month. If they do not have enough cash or a working credit card, their vehicles will be clamped(扣留) until they pay--and they will face a(n) __41__ fee of ? 80 for getting back their vehicles. The law will also be __42__ to British citizens. The fines will be described officially as "deposits" when the traffic laws take __ 43__, because the money would be returned if the driver went to court and was found not guilty. In practice, very few foreign drivers are likely to return to Britain to deal with their cases. Foreign drivers are rarely__ 44____because police cannot take action against them if they fail to appear in court. Instead, officers often__ 45__ give warnings. Foreign vehicles are 30 percent more likely to be in a crash than British-registered vehicles. The number of crashes caused by foreign vehicles rose by 47 percent between 2008 and 2013, there were almost 400 deaths and serious injuries and 3,000 __46__ injuries from accidents caused by foreign vehicles in 2013. The new law is partly __47__ to settle the problem of foreign lorry drivers ignoring limits to weight and hours at the wheel. Foreign lorries are three times more likely to be in a crash than British lorries. Recent spot checks found that three quarters of lorries that failed safety tests were __ 48__ overseas. The standard deposit for a careless driving __49__--such as driving too close to the vehicle front or reading a map at the wheel--will be ? 300. Foreign drivers will not get points as __50__ added to their licenses, while British drivers will.
【黄埔】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. benefit F. evolution B. welcome G. lasting C. familiar H. reputation D. reach I. goal E. setting J. introducing K. work
Whenever I travel, I meet international leaders who have studied in Britain. These energetic, intelligent people chose Britain because we offer high quality higher education. This is good news for the UK. People who are educated here have a __41__ tie to our country. They promote Britain around the world, helping our trade and our diplomacy. It is easier for our executives and our diplomats to do business with people __42__ with Britain. British exports of education and training are worth some eight billion pounds a year. Money feeds into our institutions and helps our __43__ to open up opportunities for more people to study. Our young people also __44__. They gain from the doors in the world which contact with international students. We can teach, but we can also learn from others. Nowadays, we are launching a long-term strategy to strengthen the United Kingdom as a first choice for the quality of study and the quality of our __45__ to international students. This will be a UK-wide and a Government-wide effort. We are __46__ a package of measures to help encourage students from overseas to study in the UK. We will offer international students more open doors. … We have the measures in place, but we are also __47__ tough targets for recruitment(招募). We want to have 25 percent of the global market share of higher education students and we want
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to increase the number of international students studying in Further Education institutions by 100 percent. Our aim is to __48__ these targets in 5 years. Tough targets, but deliverable. While giving these undertakings, I also want to lay down a challenge to others. To business—I ask you to __49__ with the British Council overseas to market education. And to universities and colleges—I ask you to live up to your __50__, to professionalise your approach, to deliver a quality education to overseas students that encourages involvement and rises to the challenge of our competitors, to work as partners together. 【闵行】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. attraction B. benefit C. enthusiastically D. command E. satisfy F. undoubtedly G. approval H. treasured I. viewed J. developed K. considerable Public image doesn‘t make money directly, nor is it anything visible. However, excellent public image is such an important thing that it is __41__ desired by every company, enterprise, institution, etc. Public image refers to how a company is __42__ by its customers, suppliers, and stockholders (股东), by the financial community, by the communities where it operates, and by federal and local governments. Public image is controllable to __43__ extent, just as the product, price, place, and promotional efforts are. A firm‘s public image plays a vital role in the __44__ of the firm and its products to employees, customers, and to such outsiders as stockholders, suppliers, creditors ( 贷款方 ), government officials, as well as different special groups. With some things it is impossible to __45__ all the different publics: for example, a new highly automated plant may meet the __46__ of creditors and stockholders. However, it will __47__ find resistance from employees who see their jobs threatened. On the other hand, high quality products and service standards should bring almost complete approval, while low quality products and false claims would be widely looked down upon. A firm‘s public image, if it is good, should be __48__. It is a valuable strength that usually is built up over a long and satisfying relationship of a firm with publics. If a firm has __49__ a quality image, this is not easily imitated by competitors. Such an image may enable a firm to charge higher prices, to win the best distributors and dealers, to attract the best employees, to expect the most favorable creditor relationships and lowest borrowing costs. It should also allow the firm‘s stock to __50__ higher price-earnings ratio (比例) than other firms in the same industry with such a good reputation and public image. 【浦东】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. addicted G. anxiety B. unfavorably H. sharpness C. increased D. tapping I. constant J. breaking E. complex F. readiness K. considerably
The regular use of text messages and e-mails can lower the IQ more than twice as much as smoking marijuana (大麻). That is the statement of researchers who have found that __41__ away on a mobile phone or computer keyboard or checking for electronic messages temporarily knocks up to 10 points off the user‘s IQ. This rate of decline in intelligence compared __42__ with the four-point drop in IQ associated with smoking marijuana, according to British researchers, who have described the phenomenon of __43__ stupidity as ―infomania(咨询强迫症)‖. The research conducted by Hewlett Packard, the technology company, has concluded that it is mainly a problem
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for adult workers, especially men. It is concluded that too much use of modern technology can damage a person‘s mind. It can cause a —__44__ distraction(分心 ) of ―always on‖ technology when employees should be concentrating on what they are paid to do. Infomania means that they lose concentration as their minds remain fixed in an almost permanent state of __45__ to react to technology instead of focusing on the task in hand. The report also added that, in a long term, the brain will be __46__ shaped by what we do to it and by the experience of daily life. At a microcellular(微蜂窝，微孔的) level, the __47__ networks of nerve cells that make up parts of the brain actually change in response to certain experiences. Too much use of modern technology can be damaging not only to a person‘s mind, but to their social relationship. 1100 adults were interviewed during the research. More than 62 percent of them admitted that they were __48__ to checking their e-mails and text messages so often that they scrutinized work-related ones even when at home or on holiday. Half said that they always responded immediately to an e-mail and will even interrupt a meeting to do so. It is concluded that infomania is increasing stress and __49__ and affecting one‘s characteristics. Nine out of ten thought that colleagues who answered e-mails or messages during a face-to-face meeting were extremely rude. The effects on IQ were studied by Dr. Glenn Wilson, a psychologist at University of London. ―This is a very real and widespread phenomenon,‖ he said. ―We have found that infomania will damage a worker‘s performance by reducing their mental __50__ and changing their social life. Companies should encourage a more balanced and appropriate way of working.‖ 【普陀】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. case B. experience C. growing D. dominant E. exclusion F. variety G. declining H. remain I. problematic J. contribution share The world faces a future of people speaking more than one language, with English no longer seen as likely to become __41__, a British language expert says in a new analysis. ―English is likely to __42__ one of the world‘s most important languages for the foreseeable future, but its future is more __43__ and complex—than most people appreciate,‖ language researcher David Graddol said. He sees English as likely to become the ―first among equals‖ rather than having the global field to itself. ―Speakers, who only use English, of any __44__ of English—American or British—will __45__ increasing difficulty in employment and political life, and are likely to become confused by many aspects of the society and culture around them,‖ Graddol said. The __46__ of the world‘s population that speaks English as a native language is decreasing, Graddol reported in an issue of the journal Science. The idea of English becoming the world language to the __47__ of others ―is past its sell-by date,‖ Graddol said. Instead, he said, its major __48__ will be in creating generations who use more than one language. A multilingual( 使用多种语言的 ) population is the __49__ in much of the world and is becoming more common in the United States. Indeed, the Census Bureau reported last year that nearly one American in five speaks a language other than English at home, with Spanish leading, and Chinese __50__ rapidly. The diversity of language, in turn, has helped to make English the nation‘s official language. 【徐汇】 【松江】 【金山】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
A. instructions G. situations
B. random H. confirmed
C. highly I. senses
D. revealed J. common
E. simply K. routines
Posting a photo of the food you‘re about to eat on WeChat has become a daily ritual(惯例;仪 式) for many. Often this food in the photo isn‘t as appealing to those looking at it, but scientists are now claiming taking a photo of your food before you eat it makes it taste better. Researchers at University of Minnesota‘s Carlson School of Management claim taking a photo puts you in the moment and in doing so, heightens your __41__. The person taking the photo will, on some level, feel the motivation to continue the practice. Researchers wondered about the power of rituals after noticing the funny__42__ that people often perform before eating and drinking. They conducted experiments to investigate whether these kinds of ritualistic(试卷上改成 habitual) behaviour influences taste. In the first experiment, some participants were asked to eat a piece of chocolate following a detailed set of __43__: ?Without unwrapping the chocolate bar, break it in half. Unwrap half of the bar and eat it. Then, unwrap the other half and eat it.‘ The other participants were __44__ instructed to relax for a short amount of time and then eat the chocolate bar however they wanted. The results showed that those who had performed the ritual rated the chocolate more __45__, enjoyed it more, and were willing to pay more for the chocolate than the other group. A second experiment __46__ these findings, showing that __47__ movements don't produce a more enjoyable eating experience. The data also __48__ that a longer delay between ritual and consumption enhanced these effects, even with a common food like carrots. While these rituals may seem insignificant, the researchers note that the effects they produce are quite amazing. And while rituals are __49__ before mealtimes, they could play a role in other __50__, too. 【杨浦】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A. available B. legally C. incorrect D. denied E. blocks F. labeled G. tie H. roughly I. birth J. appropriate K. limits Dear Editor, Most public libraries now offer all visitors, kids and adults alike, free access to all sites on the Internet. Just like any powerful tool, __41__ must be placed on it. After all, not all sites are good for children or appropriate for them. Some are violent. Some, in the name of free speech, say irresponsible things. Others feature __42__ information for research. And many should be __43__ ―For Adults Only.‖ In 2000, there were 7 .1 million publicly __44__ sites on the Web, with over 200 new adult sites added each day. Couple this figure with the fact that there are __45__ 200 million American children under the age 18 with Internet access, and you have a recipe for disaster. Back in l967, the American Library Association (ALA) passed a resolution （决议） that stated ―a person‘s right to use a library should not be __46__ … because of origin, age, background, or views.‖ Some groups argue that this resolution gives children the right to free and total access to the Internet and its unsuitable sites. This resolution was fine in the past, but it never considered the __47__ of the Internet. Besides, the ALA isn‘t a government agency. It has no power to pass laws, and its resolutions are not __48__ binding（有约束力的）. We must pass real laws that __49__ U .S. government funds for library computers to the use of software that __50__ out offensive material online. If the libraries don‘t use the software, then they don‘t get computers.
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As a working parent, I can‘t be with my child every time he turns on the computer. I don‘t expect libraries to be babysitters. But I do expect them to work with me, not against me, in making sure my child is protected from adult-only and other irresponsible sites. Sincerely, Julie Richardson Redding, California 【闸北】 Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can be used only once. Note that there is one word more than you need. A peak B. prospect C. intense D. indicating E. mild F. uncertainty G. unusually H. complicated I. applied J. prepare K. model A drop in the sun's radiation can cause cold winters in parts of North America and Europe, scientists say, a finding that could improve long-range forecasts and help countries ___41___ for storms. Scientists have known for a long time that the sun has an 11-year cycle during which radiation from the sun reaches a(n) ___42___ then falls. But detecting a clear link of the cycle to the weather has proved much ___43___ . "Our research notices a link between solar activities and regional winter climate," lead author Sarah Ineson of the UK Met Office told the reporters in an email. Her team focused on the data from the recent minimum solar radiation period during 2008-10, which was a(n) ___44___ calm period for the sun but at the same time, ___45___ winters in the U.S and Europe were recorded which brought troubles to many businesses and made people‘s lives difficult. The researchers found that a reduction in radiation from the sun can affect wind patterns , ___46___ cold winters. "While radiation levels won't tell us what the day-to-day weather will be, they provide the exciting ___47___ of improved prediction for winter conditions for months and even years ahead. These predictions play an important role in long-term weather planning," Ineson said. Ineson's team used the data in a complex computer to ___48___ long-term weather patterns. It successfully reproduced what scientists had observed happening in the upper atmosphere during changes in solar radiation. More study was needed, though. The key ___49___ in the experiment lay in the satellite data used, because it spans(跨度) only a few years. "So there are still questions concerning whether the current research results are accurate and whether they can be ___50___ to other solar cycles," she said.
【宝山】 Are you a graduate trying to plan out the best career path for yourself? Here, some tips are given on how to go about it. A university degree is no __51___ of a job, and job hunting in itself requires a whole set of skills. if you find you are not getting past the first interview, ask yourself what is happening. Is it a(n) __52__ to communicate or are there some skills you lack? And find out what you need t do to bring yourself up to the level of __53__ that would make you more attractive t them. Do not be too discouraged if you are __54__ for a job, but think about the reasons the employers give. Those who made the second interview might have been studying the same subject as you and be of __55__ ability level, but they had something which made them a __56___ match
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to the selector‘s ideal. That could be experience gained through projects or vacation work, or it might be that they were better at communicating what they could offer. Do not take the comments at __57__ value: think back to the interviews that generated them and make a list of where you think the shortfall in your performance lies. With this sort of analytical approach you will eventually get your foot in the door. Deciding how long you should stay in your first job is a tough call. Stay too long and future employers may question your ___58__ and ambition. Of course, it depends on where you are aiming. If you are a graduate, spending five or six years in the same job is not too long provided that you take full advantage of the __59__. However, do not use this as a(n) __60__ for lacking interest or enthusiasm. Graduates sometimes fail to take ownership of their careers and take the initiative. It is up to you to make the most of what‘s available within a company, and to monitor progress in case you need to__61__. This applies particularly if you are still not sure where your career path lies. It is helpful to think through what kind of experience you need to get your __62__ job and it is not a problem to move around to a certain extent. But in the __63__ stages of your career you need a definite strategy for reaching your goal, so think about that carefully before deciding to step forward from your first job. You must cultivate __64__ to be competent for any role. There is no guarantee that you will get adequate training, and research has shown that if you do not receive proper help in a new role, it can take 18 months to __65__ it. 51. A. input 52. A. failure 53. A. highlight 54. A. asked 55. A. different 56. A. closer 57. A. depth 58. A. character 59. A. knowledge 60. A. substitute 61. A. pass by 62. A. part-time 63. A. critical 64. A. patience 65. A. know B. cause B. key B. comment B. refused B. high B. better B. face B. personality B. experience B. equivalent B. switch on B. dream B. last B. love B. prohibit C. guarantee C. introduction C. fluency C. headed C. similar C. stronger C. data C. behavior C. skill C. excuse C. move on C. secure C. middle C. habits C. master D. preparation D. contribution D. qualification D. helped D. low D. poorer D. test D. drive D. loyalty D. requirement D. stick to D. well-paid D. early D. friendship D. select
【崇明】 It‘s a high-risky, multibillion-dollar industry with tight deadlines, demanding customers and lives in danger. The business is __51__. And it‘s booming. The number of jobs for translators and interpreters doubled in the past 10 years while their wages steadily __52__ before, during and after the recession. During a period of stagnating (停滞 的) wages across the labor market, the language-service industry with its 50,000 jobs is a __53__ spot in the jobs outlook. Lillian Clementi is a French translator working in corporate communications from her home in Arlington, Massachusetts and is routinely on tight deadlines to hand in translated material. ―The risks can be huge,‖ said Clementi, ―There‘s tons of __54__ pressure.‖ In some cases, a(n) __55__ translation or interpretation is also vital. If a user‘s guide for medical equipment is not translated well, it could lead to __56__ during an emergency. Soldiers in
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conflict areas require excellent interpreters to speak with community members. Any change of tone or context could put lives __57__. Translators‘ and interpreters‘ immunity (免疫力) to the nation‘s economic downturn also __58__ the growing demand for people who can speak several languages in an increasingly globalized economy, experts said. ―Good translators who __59__ a particular subject and become really good at it can really make six-digit figures annually,‖ said Jiri Stejskal, spokesman for the American Translators Association. Multinational corporations, U.S. demographic (人口的) changes and the Internet economy raise the need for translated and localized information. Companies increasingly want their content __60__ to the tongue of the town, even between dialects of the same language. ―As more people __61__ the worldwide economy, that‘s going to drive more commerce, and that‘s going to drive more language services,‖ said Bill Rivers, executive director of the National Council for Language and International Studies in the Washington region. __62__, qualifications for translators and interpreters are not as simple as they may seem. Speaking two languages does not mean a person can work in the language-service industry, experts said. Learning how to translate or interpret is a __63__ skill beyond knowing the language. Furthermore, the most successful translators and interpreters maintain a __64__, such as legal documents, quarterly earnings reports or a special knowledge of industry. Technological advances may cut jobs in some industries, but online translation services like Google Translate __65__ raise demand for human translators and interpreters, experts said. Online sales companies also drive demand for translation. 51. A. tourism B. language C. technology D. economy 52. A. shrank B. changed C. grew D. remained 53. A. bright B. scenic C. historic D. tough 54. A. money B. peer C. blood D. time 55. A. proper B. quick C. direct D. innovative 56. A. disease B. depression C. violence D. confusion 57. A. in order B. at risk C. under control D. out of state 58. A. highlights B. understands C. increases D. resists 59. A. set up B. depend on C. specialize in D. object to 60. A. limited B. accustomed C. related D. tailored 61. A. agree with B. have access to C. are confident of D. insist on 62. A. Instead B. Therefore C. However D. Otherwise 63. A. separate B. genetic C. learnable D. worthwhile 64. A. certificate B. diploma C. strategy D. specialty 65. A. automatically B. respectively C. actually D. immediately 【奉贤】 Most American magazines and newspapers reserve 60 percent of their pages for ads. The New York Times Sunday edition __51_____ may contain 350 pages of advertisements. Some radio stations devote 40 minutes of every hour to __52_____. Then there is television. The vast majority of television ads today consist of brief advertising spots, __53_____ in length from a few seconds to several minutes. According to one estimate, American youngsters sit through three hours of television commercials each week. By the time they graduate from high school, they will have been ___54____ 360,000 TV ads. Television advertises in airports, hospital waiting rooms, and schools. Major sporting events are now major advertising events. Racing cars serve as high speed ___55____. Some athletes receive most of their money from advertisements. One top-ranking
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basketball player earned $3.9 million by playing ball. Advertisers paid him nine times that much to ___56____ their products. There is no escape. Commercial ads are __57_____ on walls, buses, and trucks. They ___58____ the inside of taxis and subways --even the doors of public toilets. __59_____ messages call to us in supermarkets, stores, elevators --and __60____ we are on hold on the telephone. In some countries so much advertising comes through the mail that many recipients proceed directly from the mailbox to the nearest wastebasket to ___61____ the junk mail. ___62____ Insiders’ Report, published by McCann-Erickson, a global advertising agency, the estimated amount of money spent on advertising worldwide in 1990 was $275.5 billion. Since then, the figures have soared to $411.6 billion for 1997 and $434.4 billion for 1998. Big money. What is the __63____ of all of this? One analyst put it this way: ―Advertising is one of the most powerful socializing forces in the culture. Ads sell __64____ than products. They sell images, values, goals, __65_____ of who we are and who we should be. They shape our attitudes and our attitudes shape our behavior.‖ 51. A. lonely 52. A. commerce 53. A. ranging 54. A. taken to 55. A. flashes 56. A. improve 57. A. symbolized 58. A. modify 59. A. Audio 60. A. since 61. A. throw away 62. A. Except for 63. A. effect 64. A. less 65. A. outlooks B. alone B. consumers B. varying B. spent in B. billboards B. promote B. illustrated B. decorate B. Studio B. while B. lay down B. Apart from B. affect B. same B. opinions C. singly C. commercials C. changing C. expected of C. attractions C. urge C. demonstrated C. polish C. Oral C. unless C. blow out C. According to C. result C. similar C. concepts D. individually D. contracts D. adjusting D. exposed to D. messages D. update D. displayed D. fix D. Video D. if D. break down D. Including in D. purpose D. more D. implications
【虹口】 Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. In any planning system, from the simplest budgeting to the most complex corporate planning, there is an annual process. This is partly due to the fact that firms __51__ their accounting on a yearly basis, but also because similar __52__ often occur in the market. Usually, the larger the firm, the longer the planning takes. But __53__, planning for next year may start nine months or more in advance, with various stages of evaluation leading to__ 54__ of the complete plan three months before the start of the year. Planning continues, however, throughout the year, since managers __55__ progress against targets, while looking forward to the next year. What is happening now will __56__the objectives and plans for the future. In today's business climate, as markets constantly change and become more difficult to __57__, some analysts believe that long-term planning is __58__. In some markets they may be right, as long as companies can build the sort of flexibility into their operations which allows them to __59__to any sudden changes. Most firms, however, need to plan more than one year ahead in order to __60__.their long-term goals. This may reflect the time it takes to commission and build a new production plant,
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or, in marketing __61__, it may be a question of how long it takes to research and launch a range of new products, and reach a certain __62__ in the market. If, for example, it is going to take five years for a particular airline to become the __63__ choice amongst business travelers on certain routes, the airline must plan for the various __64__ involved. Every one-year plan, therefore, must be __65__ in relation to longer-term plans, and it should contain die stages that are necessary to achieve the final goals. 51. A make up B carry out C bring about D put down 52. A patterns B guides C designs D distributions 53. A surprisingly B contrarily C equally D typically 54. A approval B permission C admiration D objection 55. A value B confirm C review D survey 56. A restore B promote C influence D maintain 57. A guess B advocate C recognize D predict 58. A pointless B meaningful C realistic D inevitable 59. A lead B respond C refer D contribute 60. A share B handle C develop D benefit 61. A expressions B descriptions C words D terms 62. A reputation B position C situation D direction 63. A reserved B selected C preferred D supposed 64. A acts B steps C means D points 65. A handed over B left behind C made out D drawn up 【黄埔】 Directions: For each blank in the following passages there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. The United States does not have a government office that regulates the film industry. Government, __51__, does link with the movie business in several ways. In the United States, films generally come from two __52__ : large studios that produce many films and television programs each year and independent filmmakers, including both students and experienced filmmakers. Sometimes—through grants from universities or arts or humanities councils—independent filmmakers do receive __53__ indirectly from funding that originated with the local, state, or federal government, but more often funding comes from private investors or through charity organizations __54__ either promotion of arts or promotion of a cause being addressed by a film. While there is no __55__ of film, there are many government offices that interact with the film industry. At the state and local levels, government film offices promote local film locations because use of their locale brings employment and other __56__ advantages to promote local tourist sites. These offices also help filmmakers work with the police and others to __57__ filming that impacts traffic, uses public buildings, or otherwise needs special consideration. __58__, government organizations, especially the branches of the military, have offices that help coordinate（协调） filmmakers‘ use of facilities, equipment, and even personnel. It would be __59__, for example, for a filmmaker to construct a make-believe aircraft carrier or to hire a cast of extras to be in the __60__ of a movie who look like real soldiers, sailors, airmen, or marines (whose haircuts, fitness levels, and posture are often different from that of civilian (群众) actors). The military is willing to make their facilities __61__, within reason, for approved projects, and each branch has an office that handles these requests. Other branches of the government __62__ requests to use public spaces and buildings, such as monuments or parks. Many years ago, the U.S. government did produce quite a few feature films and worked closely with Hollywood on films that would encourage public morale during wartime. However,
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since World War II, these programs have been __63__ due to a combination of budgetary and philosophical concerns. The United States Information Agency, __64__, for many years produced films for exhibition to overseas audiences to complement its other educational programs. One such film, John F. Kennedy: Years of Lightning, Day of Drums, a posthumous contribution to the president, even won the 1965 Academy Award for best documentary. This __65__, now a part of the U.S. Department of State, no longer produces such feature films. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. A. therefore A. factors A. criticism A. regarded as A. ministry A. educational A. cooperate with A. Hopefully A. flexible A. industry A. academic A. address A. promoted A. for example A. agent B. moreover B. sources B. invitation B. compared to B. feature B. economic B. focus on B. Similarly B. impatient B. background B. artificial B. introduce B. initiated B. by contrast B. program C. however C. studios C. support C. made of C. promotion C. enormous C. arrange for C. Surprisingly C. neutral C. civilization C. available C. receive C. eliminated C. in reality C. director D. otherwise D. methods D. guidance D. concerned with D. need D. effective D. make up D. Obviously D. difficult D. entrance D. apparent D. propose D. highlighted D. as a whole D. organization
【闵行】 Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. Just as the stock market rises and falls in response to what people are willing to put their money behind, we have inside ourselves an inner economy that rises and falls in response to our beliefs about what is possible. Sometimes the degree to which we are willing to __51__ our belief systems determines the success of our inner economy. For example, imagine that your family of origin had a belief that musical talent was not something they __52__. As a member of that group, you would likely __53__ that same belief about yourself. As a result, even if you had a great desire to create music, you might be __54__ to really get behind yourself. Because you might fear that your __55__ would not pay off. Even if you had the courage to follow your passion, your inner belief that you are not __56__ would probably stop your trying. And that would be a major __57__ to invest your energy in your dream. On the other hand, belief isn‘t anything __58__. If you found a way to __59__ that negative belief, a great flood of energy would pour forth, greatly increasing the possibility of your success. How much energy we are willing to invest in the various ideas and dreams is like the money people are, or are not, willing to invest in the various products available for trade on the stock market. And in both cases, __60__ plays a key role in determining how willing we are to get behind something. One way to open up the possibility for greater success in our inner economies is to understand that belief is not the reliable __61__ we sometimes think. There are other more reliable things of success that we can put our __62__ in, such as passion, feeling, and sense. Some of the most successful investors in the stock market are the ones that go against the grain, trusting their sense over the __63__ opinion held by ordinary people about what will work. In the same way, we can learn to trust our heart‘s desires and our sense to guide us, __64__ any beliefs that stand in the way of our ability to fully invest in ourselves. As we take out energy from limiting ideas about what is possible, we __65__ the resources that have the power to
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
make our inner economy prosper. 51. A. simplify B. challenge 52. A. possessed B. trusted 53. A. reject B. preserve 54. A. willing B. sorry 55 A. success B. knowledge 56. A. devoted B. talented 57. A. obstacle B. excuse 58. A. important B. fixed 59. A. enhance B. reserve 60. A. energy B. hobby 61. A. guide B. ability 62. A. aim B. faith 63. A. unacceptable B. strange 64. A. questioning B. understanding 65. A. stick to B. lead to
C. eliminate C. objected C. deny C. reluctant C. profession C. concerned C. chance C. changeable C. release C. expense C. goal C. task C. unbelievable C. interpreting C. free up
D. maintain D. missed D. share D. ready D. investment D. interested D. principle D. stimulating D. follow D. belief D. policy D. dream D. common D. believing D. leave out
【浦东】 Directions: For each blank in the following passages there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. （大学英语六级模拟） Sometime when you take a common drug, you may have a side effect. That is, the drug may cause some effect other than its __51__ one. When these side effects occur, they are called adverse reactions. __52__ you have an adverse reaction, you should stop taking the drug right away. Ask your pharmacist(药剂师) whether he can suggest a drug that will __53__ the symptoms(症状) but that will not cause the adverse reaction. If an adverse reaction to a drug is serious, consult your doctor for advice at once. Drugs that are __54__ in the dosage(剂量) stated on the label may be very dangerous in large doses. As for aspirin, it is __55__ thought of as dangerous, but there are many reports of accidental poisoning of young children who swallow too many for their young bodies to handle. In adults, __56__ use of some pain-killing drugs may cause severe kidney(肾) damage. Some drugs for relief of stomach upsets, when taken in excess, can cause an upset in the body's secretion of enzymes(酶的分泌), perhaps causing serious digestive problems. You should never use any over-the-counter drug on a regular, continued __57__, or in large quantities, except on your doctor's advice. You could be suffering from a serious illness that needs a doctor's care. Each drug you take not only acts on the body but may also __58__ the effect of any other drug you are taking. Sometimes the consequences of this change can lead to dangerous or even fatal reactions. __59__, aspirin increases the blood-thinning effect of drugs given to patients with heart disease. __60__, a patient who has been taking such a drug may __61__ hemorrhage(出血) if he uses aspirin whenever he gets a headache. When it comes to __62__ certain drugs can safely be taken together, you should ask your doctor and follow his advice. Alcohol may increase the effect of a drug. With alcohol, Sleeping pills and antihistamines are two types of drugs that combine with alcohol to produce drowsiness(半醒半睡). When taking any drug, you should ask your doctor whether drinking alcohol could be dangerous in __63__ with medicine. Experts believe there is a relationship between adult abuse of legitimate(合法) medicines and the drug culture that has swept our country. You can do your share to __64__ the chances that your children will become part of the drug culture by treating all medicines with __65__. 51. A. imagined B. intended C. created D. extended 52. A. Wherever B. Whatever C. Whenever D. However
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
53. A. reduce 54. A. safe 55. A. merely 56. A. adequate 57. A. basis 58. A. have 59. A. In addition 60. A. However 61. A. avoid 62. A. how 63. A. combination 64. A. increase 65. A. respect
B. recover B. reliable B. generally B. excessive B. ground B. create B. In conclusion B. Moreover B. discover B. whether B. harmony B. improve B. doubt
C. relieve C. adequate C. particularly C. direct C. level C. alter C. By contrast C. Therefore C. slow C. what C. association C. reduce C. patience
D. remove D. available D. hardly D. full D. control D. take D. For example D. Namely D. risk D. when D. comparison D. take D. permission
【普陀】 Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. GM (转基因) crops are debatable. On one hand, some farmers and scientists feel that GM crops can make the world a __51__ place. If bioengineers can create crops that are resistant to insects, __52__, then they won‘t have to worry about insects destroying plants. In the __53__ of insect damage, crops can grow to feed the poor and hungry. Genetic engineering can create plants with other desirable properties as well. Plants that don‘t require much water, that can live even in times of drought, can help prevent the widespread __54__ that would occur if people have nothing to eat. It‘s easy to see why many people believe that GM crops will help the world meet the difficult __55__ that it will face as more and more people need to be fed. But not everyone thinks bioengineering is a good idea. Other people are __56__. They mistrust the claims made and don‘t believe that biotechnology is without __57__. The possible dangers include harming the ecosystem—the inter-related community of plants and animals and bacteria that __58__ the Earth. They __59__ that changing plants can harm our environment, and damage to our surroundings can hurt us. One danger is that GM crops can transfer their characteristics to other plants. Plants that reproduce by spreading their pollen (花粉) in the wind can possibly fertilize wild plants, making them more __60__ to control. Another problem is that GM plants might be a source of allergens (过敏源). This seems __61__, but in the process of making GM foods, genes are transferred that are known to cause problems for some people. Allergic reactions can __62__ from coughing and sneezing to death. Indeed, people hold very different opinions about __63__. While some people look forward to crops that will not rot during the trip to market, others claim that we will ruin our cropland and destroy what we are trying to save. While some people look forward to crops that can __64__ droughts, others claim that contact with GM plants can pollute other crops, making them __65__ for use. For some people, GM crops are the hope of the future; for others, they are a poison that will harm or destroy our farmland. 51. A. worse B. better C. less healthy D. more peaceful 52. A. in no way B. by all means C. for example D. by contrast 53. A. absence B. appearance C. case D. effect 54. A. war B. poverty C. starvation D. robbery 55. A. challenge B. specification C. standard D. principle 56. A. knowledgeable B. supportive C. ignorant D. suspicious 57. A. control B. risks C. criteria D. doubts 58. A. turn up B. make up C. give up D. take up
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
59. A. ensure 60. A. temperate 61. A. inevitable 62. A. suffer 63. A. bioengineering 64. A. cause 65. A. efficient
B. worry B. difficult B. inaccessible B. arise B. allergens B. reduce B. expensive
C. deny C. efficient C. unavoidable C. start C. drought C. stand C. unfit
D. demand D. enjoyable D. unlikely D. range D. future D. change D. possible
【徐汇】 【松江】 【金山】 Directions: For each blank in the following passages there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. An examination is a very important part of life, which is used to test a person‘s ability. But as you know many of us has __(51)___ and are afraid of it. Though they know that exams are there for their benefit, they still have a lot of fear for it. It is very often we find such people. You will find such people a little anxious and a little stressed about their exams. Many a time such nerves can be __(52)___ and useful to you, for others it‘s nerve wrecking. To overcome these nerves we got some tips for you. Don‘t get too excited about the exams and for that don‘t drink too much of the coffee or tea to cope up with the exam __(53)___. Eat a healthy and proper diet and don‘t worry about the exams while eating. Stress can be harmful to you __(54)___ sometimes. It can cause a lot of problems in your body, which can be increased heartbeat and breath, sweating palms, nervous attitude, stressed about exams, etc... Before moving to the examination hall you prepare thoroughly about the exams. For that firstly make a list of what is to be studied and then make an overlook for that. Now divide each subject into some easy sub-classes. Go through some __(55)___ question papers and study your earlier mistakes made in it. Make a perfect schedule for your study. Overlook the __(56)___ used for answering the questions I mean their pattern and style of writing. Solve few more question papers to achieve a proper time __(57)___. Take some quick breaks in your study time so that you can __(58)___ an interest in your study. Now while taking the exams just relax, control your breath and believe in yourself. Don‘t panic and be optimistic. Try to reduce your stress and be happy. Don‘t __(59)___ at least an hour before the exams, just get yourself calmed down. Keep your focus on the paper and tell yourself that you are __(60)___ prepared. For exams reach before the time and try to __(61)___ in the surroundings. Don‘t listen to any of the exam rumours before exams. If you still can‘t control your exam stress then go for some meditation or hypnosis（冥想或催眠）. Yes, hypnosis, a real good and __(62)___ way to control your nerves and reduce your stress. It can be seen that a person‘s whole life changes completely only from few of the __(63)___ instructions. In hypnosis a person directly deals you‘re your subconscious mind instead of your conscious mind. The fact is your subconscious mind is a lot more __(64)___ and following than your conscious mind, so instructing correctly to your subconscious mind results terrific in reducing your nerves. Hypnosis reduces your fear of failure and __(65)___ a sense of confidence in you. It decreases your negativity and forces you to think positively about your exams. You also multiples your potential. You simply need to get your hands on the hypnosis for examination MP3. This is easily downloadable and you‘ll be well on your path to combating and overcoming the condition. 59. 60. 61. 62. A. interest A. motivating A. participation A. mentally B. panic B. suffering B. motivation B. physically C. faith C. shocking C. expansion C. continuously D. concept D. spreading D. tension D. exhaustingly
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73.
A. previous A. preparations A. administration A. entertain A. revise A. normally A. mix A. instructive A. appropriate A. impatient A. enjoys
B. patient B. lessons B. management B. contain B. rush B. informally B. resolve B. significant B. splendid B. obedient B. shakes
C. personal C. schedules C. limitation C. maintain C. instruct C. comparatively C. adjust C. effective C. original C. ordinary C. generates
D. current D. techniques D. scale D. complain D. discuss D. completely D. focus D. romantic D. negative D. desirable D. generalizes
【杨浦】 Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. How many New Year‘s resolutions have been made, only to dissolve before the end of the month or even the week? As we all know, making a decision is easy, but being consistent is not. This is __51__ true when a sense of achievement is not enough __52__ to reach a goal. Dean Karlan, an economics professor at Yale University, knows all too well that people don‘t always follow through with what they say they want to do. __53__, provided with the right incentives (奖 励、激励), people are more likely to __54__ their goals, such as losing weight or exercising __55__. Mr Karlan believes, __56__ on his own experience and years of research, that commitment contracts help people __57__ commitment they would not otherwise keep. Karlan brainstormed about his idea with a fellow professor and a student at Yale. Together, they soon __58__ stickK.com, a website where people __59__ commitment contracts. The second K in stickK is the shorthand symbol for contract used in legal documents. In a contract, a person usually agrees to place a bet on a certain goal. If the goal is not reached by a __60__, the amount of money that is bet is __61__ to a charity, a friend, or even a(n) __62__. Losing money is a very __63__ threat as well as a strong incentive. That is why people that are eager to get rid of those unwanted pounds __64__ give out their credit card information when they place their bets on stick. Office workers, college students, and even athletes have had __65__ taking advantage of this service. If you still need stimuli to lose weight this year, rush to stick, place a bet, and start exercising right away. 51. A. gradually B. obviously C. especially D. desperately 52. A. demonstration B. motivation C. preparation D. instruction 53. A. Moreover B. Otherwise C. However D. Anyway 54. A. attempt B. keep C. abandon D. achieve 55. A. regularly B. automatically C. willingly D. formally 56. A. focused B. based C. relied D. taken 57. A. adapt to B. worry about C. hold on D. stick to 58. A. set B. entered C. founded D. activated 59. A. sign B. dissolve C. renew D. break 60. A. degree B. deadline C. requirement D. force 61. A. donated B. voted C. sponsored D. exchanged 62. A. relative B. team C. opponent D. owner 63. A. dangerous B. economic C. vivid D. realistic 64. A. urgently B. readily C. responsibly D. randomly 65. A. terrible experience B. good relationship
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
C. negative influence
D. great success
【闸北】 Recently, Pew Research Center announced that over a quarter of Americans have shared a selfie online. Unsurprisingly, the practice of photographing oneself and sharing that image via social media has ___51___ among all age groups. Evidence of its mainstream nature is seen in other aspects of our culture too. Last year, "selfie" was not only added to the Oxford English Dictionary, but also named Word of the Year. Yet, despite the huge number of people practicing it, ___52___ is also surrounding selfie. An assumption that sharing selfies is embarrassing runs throughout the journalistic and scholarly coverage on the topic. Negative words like "self-centered" and "___53___" have inevitably become a part of any conversation about selfies among scholars. But, over a quarter of all Americans are relying on it. Why? The usual reasons given by scholars—self-center and fame-seeking—seem too ___54___ to explain such a crowd acting. There is always more to a social cultural practice than what ___55___. Simply put, physical and digital technology make it possible. The idea that technology ___56___ the social world and our lives has been recognized by people. To some extent, world is shaped by technological revolutions. The selfie is not a(n) ___57___ form of expression. Artists have created self-portraits for centuries, from cave to oil paintings, to early photography and modern art. People are ___58___ their feelings and thoughts through certain media. What's original about today's selfie is its public popularity. Technological advancement ___59___ the self-portrait used to be restricted to the art world and gave it to the masses. Those digital front-facing cameras, social media platforms, and wireless communications conveniently available make selfie a job ___60___ any time anywhere. Besides, We are not ___61___ beings living by ourselves. We are social beings who live in social communities, and as such, our lives are fundamentally formed by social relations with other people. As photos meant to be ___62___, selfies are not individual acts; they are social gestures. Selfies, as well as our presence on social media generally, are a part of ―identity work"--the work that we do on a daily basis to ___63___ that we are seen by others as we wish to be seen. In fact, the crafting and display of identity has long been understood as a social process. The selfies we take and show are to present a ___64___ image of us so as to become a part of our identity formation and ___65___. 51. A. flowered B. returned C. imposed D. functioned 52. A. negotiation B. criticism C. regret D. punishment 53. A. self-contained B. self-evident C. self-absorbed D. self-financed 54. A. necessary B. smart C. certain D. shallow 55. A. meets the eye B. takes the lead C. raises the alarm D. makes the point 56. A. operates B. produces C. structures D. ruins 57. A. advanced B. new C. intelligent D. available 58. A. offering B. revising C. inspiring D. conveying 59. A. liberated B. tagged C. honoured D. maintained 60. A. at length B. with ease C. at large D. with regards 61. A. isolated B. courageous C. traditional D. civilized 62. A. saved B. shared C. updated D. deleted 63. A. claim B. suppose C. ensure D. signal 64. A. fashionable B. skillful C. mysterious D. particular 65. A. summary B. evaluation C. monitoring D. exhibition
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
【崇明】 第 I 卷 I. Listening Comprehension （共 30 分。 第 1 至 10 小题， 每题 1 分； 第 11 至 16 小题， 每题 2 分； 第 17 至 24 小题，每题 1 分。 ） 1. C 2. D 3. D 4. B 5. A 6. B 7. B 8. C 9. A 10. A 11. D 12. C 13. D 14. A 15. B 16. B 17. 298 18. Extra 19. breakfast 20. tax 21. (visit/attend) the opening 22. waitin g for 23. her subject‘s personality/ a person‘s character 24. (The) well-known/famous people 听力 17—24 题评分标准： 1. 17-20 题，每小题 1 分，每一个拼写错误扣 1 分。 2. 21-24 题，每小题 1 分，每一个拼写错误或冠词错误扣 0.5 分。 II. Grammar and Vocabulary（共 26 分。每小题 1 分。 ） 25. as 26. has been flying/has flown 27. the 28. inspired 29. that 30. that 31. saying 32. wh ether 33. more relaxed 34. where 35. being forced 36. to have restarted 37. was called/ had been c alled 38. By the time 39. had to 40. It 41. G 42. K 43. E 44. A 45. F 46. I 47. B 48. J 49. C 50.H III. Reading Comprehension（共 47 分。第 51 至 65 小题，每题 1 分；第 66 至 77 小题，每题 2 分；第 78 至 81 小题，每题 2 分。 ） 51. B 52. C 53. A 54. D 55. A 56. D 57. B 58. A 59. C 60. D 61. B 62. C 63. A 64. D 65. C 66. A 67. B 68. D 69. A 70. C 71. A 72. D 73. B 74. D 75. B 76. B 77. C 78. replacing studying subject with discussing topics / teaching by topic instead of by subject 79. To prepare people for working life. / To adapt people to modern society. 80. It teaches cross-subject topics and focuses on team work. / It focuses on vocational skill develo pment and team work. / It focuses on vocational skill development and cross-subject topics. 81. emphasizes mere fact-based learning that promotes memory expansion 第 78 至 81 小题评分标准： 1、内容正确，语法基本正确，得 2 分。 2、内容基本正确，语法正确或虽有错误，但不影响理解，得 1 分。 3、即使语法正确，但是内容错误，得 0 分。 4、答案超过规定字数过多，得 0 分。 I. Translation（共 22 分） 1. We learn English not to take exams but to develop a tool for communication. (1+1+2) 2. We should kindly treat those who love and care for us with a grateful heart. (1+2+1) 3. As long as you know how to reflect on your mistakes, you can learn lessons from them. (1+1+2) 4. Despite his poor family, the boy is ambitious and dreams of getting the Nobel Prize one/some d ay. (1+1+2+1) 5. Out rushed the boy who had just been criticized, crying and not knowing at all that in fact it ma de his parents sadder. (1+1+2+1)
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
翻译评分标准： 1、第 1—3 题，每题 4 分。第 4—5 题，每题 5 分。 2、在每题中，单词拼写、标点符号、大小写错误累计每两处扣 1 分。 3、语法错误每处扣 1 分。每句同类语法错误不重复扣分。 4、译文没有用所给单词，扣 1 分。 【奉贤】 I. Listening: Section A 1-5 BBAAC Section B 11-13 CAA
Section C 17. assistant 18. surgery 21. change her/the position 23. pleasant climate
19. schooling 20. two 22. further advancement/promotion 24. in salary
Section A: 25. why 26.that/which 29. safer 30.examining 32. Thanks to/ Owing to/Because of 33. it 34. to get 37. Despite 38. are 40. as long as/on condition that Section B: 41-45 FHEGC III. Reading Section A 51-55 BCADB Section B 66-69 CBDB
27. Fearing 28. had been appointed 31. when/as/while
35. has been developing 36. uncovered 39. shall/should/must
Section C ? want to make a lot of money/ make a fortune/ earn a lot ? sensible ideas to reform the legal system ? allowing people to study law as an undergraduate degree. ? Because non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm./ Because law outsiders are kept out of a law firm. 第二卷 I. Translation: (4’+4’+4’+5’+5’) 1. We long for a planet free of pollution. 2. With the breeze blowing through her hair, the little girl watched the colorful butterflies dancing in
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
the sea of flowers. 3. The film released newly is meant to arouse people‘s concern about/attention to the children in poor mountainous areas. 4. He assured his friends that under no circumstances would he break the promise that he should/would be faithful/trustworthy and honest. 5. It was the learning experiences in Senior Three that convinced us that however hard the process was, our efforts would eventually pay off. 【虹口】 第Ⅰ 卷 II Grammar and Vocabulary 25. would leave/be leaving/were leaving 26. which 27.crying 28. the 29. more complex 30. to 31. even though/if 32. to design 33. How 34. leading 35. afforded 36. it 37. whose 38. if 39.have been focused 40. what 41-50.CFAED JGHKI 51-65 BADAC CDABC DBCBD III. Reading Comprehension 66-69 BCCA 70-73 ADBB 74-77 CADB 78. in their middle twenties 79. her age and the lightened work 80. return to full or part-time job 81. Their abilities and interests 第Ⅱ 卷 Translation： 82. As far as I know, the size of their school is twice that of ours. 83. What if you forget to inform him of the time for interview? 84．Not only are mobile phones a means of communication in modern society but also a means of entertainment. 85. The economist has found in the survey that the more some people earn, the more they want to buy. 86. Since the participants have devoted themselves to the match, you had better not find fault with the result even if is far from satisfactory.
【黄埔】第 I 卷 1-5 CADBC 11-13 DAD 17. today 19. charge 21. log onto 23. The book title 25. a 29. which/that
18. 250 20. hundreds 22. confirming their purchase 24. English Dictionary 26. to strengthen 30. filling 27.because 31. better 28. can 32. what
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
33. who/that 37. going 41-45 51-55 66-69 GCIAB CBCDA ABCD
34. other 38. turned 46-50 56-60 70-73 JEDKH BCBDB DABC
35. were searching 39. in spite of 61-65 74-77
36. was discovered 40. has CACAD DDAC
78. That the population would increase rapidly. 79. They no longer needed several babies to ensure their survival. / Children were no longer an economic property for working./ Children were a responsibility to be fed, housed and educated./ Having too many children made a mother hard to work./ The young were no longer a guarantee against the old. /… 80. better living standards and health condition 81. Because the death rate in developing countries falls much faster. 第 II 卷 I. Translation 1. This agreement will pave the way for the cooperation between the two countries. 2. It was said that the young professor objected to the headmaster‘s proposal in public. 3. Nobody can persuade the engineer to change his original decision once he has made up his mind. 4. Yesterday I returned the useless air-conditioner to the shop where it was sold /I bought it and got a/the refund. 5. So excited was David that he failed to fall asleep the whole night when/after he learned that he would participate in the final competition to be held in Beijing. 【闵行】 I. Listening Comprehension 1-5 CADBC 6-10 DACDB 11-13 BDA 14-16 ACD 17. philosophy 18. mental 19. ambitious 22. analyze current situations 23. detailed II. Grammar and Vocabulary (A) 25. was flying 26. could 30. to fly 31. more skillful (B) 33. are 34. their 38. supported 39. If/When (C) 41-45 CIKAE 46-50 GFHJD
20. Thursday 24. justice
27. going 28. that 32. until 35. a 36. taking 40. In spite of
29. was honored 37. as/though
III. Reading Comprehension 51-55 BADCD 56-60 BABCD 66-69 BDAD 70-73 CADB
61-65 ABDAC 74-77 ABDC
78. print out all their bosses‘s me-mails/ keep paper copies of their bosses‘ e-mails 79. Because important documents are sent both by e-mail and by fax. 80. workplace dissatisfaction 81. personal/private communication (with friends)
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
第 II 卷 I. Translation 82. I was so tired last night that I went to bed without finishing my homework. 83. However busy we are, we should regularly spend some time talking with our parents. 84. The school (authority) and parents have/ hold different opinions on whether students must wear school uniforms. 85. Although this product is in favor of environmental protection, few people show interest in/ would like to buy it because of its high price. 86. Cycling can not only make us physically strong, but also help us avoid suffering from the increasingly serious traffic jams. 【浦东】 I. Section A Section B Section C
1-5 CBBBB 6-10 CDDAD 11-13 ACB 14-16 BCA 17. Beach 18. car 19. Friday 20. friends 21. All staff 22. Marketing Manager 23. 5 Jan. 2003 Conference
II. (A) 25. bringing 26. had brought 27. before 28. why 29. which 30. Whatever 31. should 32. furnishing (B) 33. self-funded 34. was released 35. an 36. deeper 38. but 39. as 40. to help (C) 41-45 DBCIF 46-50 KEAGH III. 51-65 66-69 IV. 78. 79. 80. 81. BCCAD BDCB BACDC DCACA 70-73 ABCD 74-77 ACCB
setting slaves free and allowing people to choose their religion can be taken away at someone‘s sudden desire. (For) 80 years The development/evolution/history of human rights
V. Translation 1. I have/had(great) difficulty (in)finding vegetarian food/dishes on this menu. 2. Everyone is expected to express/voice his/her own opinions, as lack of communication may lead to/give rise to/ bring about/ cause misunderstanding. 3. In addition to/ Besides improving the public transport, widening roads is another effective way to relieve traffic pressure. 4. It is obvious that our modern society is stepping into a new era, when robot-to-robot communications are made very easy. 5. When employing a new staff member, a company should take into consideration/account his or her ability and work experience, independent of his or her appearance or family background.
2015 年二模 分类汇总 Kiwi
Sample One: Parents‘ words and behaviors have a great influence on their children. Patents are their children‘s role models. By observing and communicating, children usually follow their parents‘ examples, and form proper values. There is no doubt that my parents play an important role in my life and it‘s certain that they influence me in many aspects. I can still remember when I was four, out of interest, I began to play the piano. It was, of course, amusing at first. However, later on I found that I had to spend a lot of time practising if I wanted to play a short piece of music. It was tough and I almost wanted to give up. However, my mother told me, ―If I wanted to play the piano well, perseverance is very important. Remember: ?no pains, no gains.‘‖ What my mum said that day is still very clear in my mind now. Thanks to her encouragement, I can play the piano excellently and I won‘t give up easily. ( 168 words) Sample Two: It‘s generally acknowledged that actions speak louder than words. We can hardly imagine what great impacts the behaviors of parents can have on their children. I can still clearly recall the day when my mother taught me a lesson. That day, my mother and I went to visit the newly-opened amusement park. When we arrived, a Mickey Mouse show was on its way , so I sat with an ice cream in my hand and waited patiently . Soon, the 90-minute show was over, and then I hurriedly rushed to the exit because there would be a parade outside in ten minutes. However, my mother stopped me that I was totally confused .Then slowly and carefully, she cleared away all the rubbish that was left behind by me. Seeing I was impatient, she said to me in a serious tone that I had never heard before,‖ Always remember that it is your duty to do so.‖ Then she walked with me to the rubbish bin and I put the bag into it. Although I missed the parade in the end, I learned something more important. Every time I leave a public spot, I will take away all the rubbish. And there is no denying that my mother has deeply impressed me by her own behavior. I hope all the adults in the world will set a good example. (228 words) 【普陀】 1. B 2. C 3. C 4. B 5. D 6. D 7. B 8. A 9. A 10. C 11. B 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.B 16.C 17. personal 18. social 19. efficiently 20. management 21. a garden view 22. single rooms 23. noisy 24. (the) 15/fifteen dollars 评分标