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湖北省罗田县2016高考英语二轮复习 阅读理解精练(3)


湖北罗田县 2016 高考英语阅读理解二轮精练(3)
科普知识(阅读理解)由 (2013 河北石家庄高三质检二)改编 Fish have different personalities which change as they experience life’s highs and lows according to British biologists. Resear

chers identified different“personalities”in their fish by observing the boldness or shyness of individuals,according to The Nature.Like people,some fish are very confident in the face of novelty(新奇事物)or conflict;while others are silent and shy. The scientists selected particularly bold and shy rainbow trout,and tested whether they changed their outlook depending on what life threw at them.They arranged some fish to fight and others to watch to see how both the participants and observers responded to victories and defeats.Winning or losing a fight,or even watching fellow fish overcome the difficulties influenced the future behavior of the creatures studied in the lab. The researchers made fish compete with much larger or smaller opponents to ensure that they would win or lose their fights.These bold fish that won their fights tended to be even bolder when later presented with a novel food item;losing their fight caused them to be much more cautious. Fish also learn by watching others.Bold fish watching a shy fish exploring a mystery object were much more nervous when later given a novelty item for themselves. Predictably,shy fish that won a fight also gained more confidence,but surprisingly,shy fish that lost their fights also grew bolder when exploring strange new food,Sneddon said,adding that this could be due to what she calls a “desperado effect”(亡命徒效应). The new research suggests that animals can gradually adapt their

personalities.The results echo the effects that life experience can have on human. 1.What does the underlined word “creatures”probably refer to?( A.Fish. B.Participants. C.Observers. D.Researchers. )

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2.The third paragraph of the text is mainly about A.a conclusion of the research B.an explanation of fish characters C.a statement of the experiment D.a description of fish fights 3.What can we know from the research?( )

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A.Bold losing fish become bolder when presented with a novel food item. B.Losing their fights causes the bold fish to be much more courageous. C.Bold fish watching a shy fish exploring a mystery get less nervous. D.Shy fish losing fights grow more confident in exploring new food. 4.What’s the main idea of the text?( A.Fish have stress in the fierce fights. B.Fish care about winning or losing a fight. C.Fish have adaptable personalities. D.Fish can learn a lot by watching others. 语篇解读:英国的生物学家通过实验证明,“鱼”具有适应能力很强的特性,向我们揭开 了鱼的世界的奥秘。 答案及剖析:1.A 词义猜测题。由画线单词所在的句子...or even watching fellow fish overcome the difficulties influenced the future behavior of the creatures...可知, 打斗的双方和观战的全是鱼,故选 A 项。 2.C 主旨大意题。由文章内容可知 ,作者先表明实验对象 (虹鳟鱼 ),实验目的 (whether )

they changed their outlook...), 实 验 过 程 ( 鱼 相 互 打 斗 , 有 观 战 鱼 ), 实 验 结 论 (...influenced the future behavior of...),由此可知 C 项正确。 3.D 细节理解题。由倒数第二段的 ...shy fish that lost their fights also grew

bolder when exploring strange new food...可知 D 项正确。 由第四段的 These bold fish that won their fights...losing their fight caused them to be much more cautious 可排除 A、B 两项;由第五段的 Bold fish watching a shy fish...more nervous 可排除 C 项。 4.C 主旨大意题。 由文章的首句 Fish have different personalities which change as... 和最后一段的第一句话 ...animals can gradually adapt their personalities...可知,作 者用首尾呼应的方式点出文章的主题,故选 C 项。
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【疑难词汇解读】 1.bold adj.&n.勇敢的;明显的;粗体 Alice is a bold girl. 爱丽丝是一个勇敢的女孩。 2.outlook n.观点,态度;前景 He has a positive outlook on his life. 他有一个积极的人生观。 【长难句子分析】

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科学家们挑选了特别勇敢的和害羞的虹鳟鱼,测试它们是否会因为生活的变化而改变它 们看待事物的观点。

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A 、B 、C 和 D) 中,选出最佳选项。 【2013 广东省广州市调研测试】 As thousands of communities in the USA — especially in the South — became booming gateways for immigrant families from Central and South America during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English learners arriving in their classrooms. Education programs needed to be built from scratch. “We had no teaching resources suitable for English learners here before. We had to develop them all ourselves,” a Texas principal said. Throughout the country, districts had to train their own teachers to teach English to non-native speakers or recruit teachers from

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elsewhere. School staff members had to figure out how to communicate with parents who spoke no English. But even as immigration has slowed or stopped in many places, and instructional programs for English-learners have matured, serving immigrant families and their children remains a work in progress in many public schools, especially those in communities that are skeptical, or sometimes unwelcoming, to the newcomers. One of the biggest challenges educators face, is communicating effectively with parents who don’t speak English — an issue that, in part, has contributed to recent complaints of discrimination by Latino students in some cities. “The parents’ role is very important for the success of these students, but it's also one of the most difficult things we’ve had to tackle,” said Jim D. Rollins, the president of the Springdale school district, where the 19,000-student school system has gone from having no English-learners 15 years ago to more than 7,500 now. “You have to make it a priority and work on it, work on it, and work on it.” Aside from the practical challenges, such as finding bilingual (会说两种语言 的) staff members, guiding districts through such dramatic changes requires school leaders to bridge difficult political and cultural divides. For school leaders in the South, especially in the last few years, this difficult job has been made harder still by the negative attitudes of some locals towards immigrants. 36. According to the passage, what is the problem that public schools are facing? A. Handling more cases from the immigrant Mexican communities. B. Offering services to immigrant families in the southern states. C. Offering enough communicative lessons to immigrant parents. D. Providing education for non-native English learners. 【答案】D 【解析】细节理解题。根据 public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English learners arriving in their classrooms. 公立学校目前 面临的问题是为那些母语不是英语的学生提供教育,故选 D。 37. The underlined part “built from scratch” (in Paragraph 2) probably means “________”.
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A. completely new C. based on past experience 【答案】A

B. painful to make D. constructed gradually

【解析】短语猜测题。根据 We had no teaching resources suitable for English learners here before.因为以前没有过适合英语的初学者的教学资源, 所以这个短语应是完全是新的, 故选 A。 38. What is one of the things the school leaders have done to deal with the problems? A. Provide more Spanish-only classes. B. Invite more teachers from other places. C. Train their teachers to speak Spanish. D. Use bilingual parents as part-time teachers. 【答案】B 【解析】细节理解题。根据 Throughout the country, districts had to train their own teachers to teach English to non-native speakers or recruit teachers from elsewhere. 主要问题是解决师资问题,需要更多的老师,需要邀请从外地来的老师,故选 B。 39. What do we know about the immigrant parents? A. Many of them cannot speak English. B. Most of them think education is not important. C. Some of them feel skeptical about the local community. D. Few of them have attended American schools. 【答案】A 【解析】细节理解题。根据 School staff members had to figure out how to communicate with parents who spoke no English.。这些父母当然不会讲英语,故选 A。 40. According to Paragraph 3, what has caused some of the recent complaints by Latino students? A. Discrimination by schools. B. Unfriendliness of the locals. C. Miscommunication with parents. D. Poor government service. 【答案】C
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【 解 析 】 细 节 理 解 题 。 根 据 One of the biggest challenges educators face, is communicating effectively with parents who don’t speak English — an issue that, in part, has contributed to complaints of discrimination by Latino students in some cities.由于学生的家长不会英语所以交流起来有一定的困难,容易引起误解,故选 C。

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A 、B 、C 和 D) 中,选出最佳选项。 【2013 广东省广州市调研测试】 Steven Spielberg’s new movie Lincoln paints a vivid and breath-taking picture of the 16th U.S. president and his determination to end slavery. Spielberg based his film on parts of Team of Rivals, a book by Doris Kearns Goodwin. He makes Abraham Lincoln relevant today by presenting a cunning political mind trying to overcome Washington’s all too familiar political divisions. In previous movies, Lincoln was shown as a simple yet almost perfect man. But Spielberg’s Lincoln is different. “I was determined to make a movie about a working president dealing with real problems. Not some angel,” Spielberg said. We watch the president first ending slavery and then the war. The film’s adviser, historian Eric Martin, explains how Lincoln's thinking evolved. “His main objective when the war began was not the freeing of the slaves but to keep the country united. Lincoln realizes that in order to keep the country together, the question of slavery will have to be addressed,” Martin said. The film focuses on the last four months of his presidency. In the movie, the arguments among political enemies seem very similar to the problems we see in Washington today. The disagreements were bitter. The film turns to Lincoln’s relationships with his wife and kids, his beliefs and constant self-examination. Daniel Day-Lewis, the actor who plays Lincoln, offers an Oscar-worthy performance as the 16th President. Not only is his physical similarity to the president incredible, he is able to capture many of Lincoln’s mannerisms and his high-pitched, almost lady-like voice. “I found it very easy to play the role of Lincoln because the real man himself was
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so open. When I was researching his history to prepare for the part, one of the most surprising things I found was just how accessible he was. Even in war-time, when he was in great danger, he was always willing to meet with others and share his ideas,” Day-Lewis said. Spielberg’s Lincoln will head to the Oscars. But more important it will make history. 41. What does Spielberg say is different about his movie of Lincoln? A. It is based on a book called “Team of Rivals”. B. It mainly shows how cunning Lincoln was. C. It focuses on how he worked as a politician. D. It describes how determined he was. 【答案】C 【解析】细节理解题。根据 I was determined to make a movie about a working president dealing with real problems.主要集中于林肯是作为一个政治家是怎样工作的,故选 C。 42. According to Martin, Abraham Lincoln ______. A. started the war to free the slaves B. ended slavery to keep the country united C. was killed because of his military failure D. was forced to free the slaves 【答案】B 【解析】细节理解题。根据 Lincoln realizes that in order to keep the country together, the question of slavery will have to be addressed,林肯要结束奴隶制度保持国家统一, 故选 B。 43. Which of the following is true about the actor who plays Lincoln? A. He looks very similar to Lincoln. B. His performance is very lady-like. C. He won an Oscar for his performance. D. He believed he really was Lincoln. 【答案】A 【解析】细节理解题。根据 Not only is his physical similarity to the president incredible, he is able to capture many of Lincoln’s mannerisms and his high-pitched,
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almost lady-like voice 演员看起来要和真正的林肯长相相似,故选 A。 44. What is the author’s opinion about the movie? A. It reflects historical facts. B. It is controversial. C. Its performances aren’t realistic. D. It is of high quality. 【答案】D 【解析】细节理解题。根据 Spielberg’s Lincoln will head to the Oscars. But more important it will make history.作者对这部电影的评价很高,故选 D。 45. In what section in a newspaper can this passage most probably be found? A. People in history C. Lifestyle 【答案】B 【解析】细节理解题。根据短文主要介绍了电影的内容可知应该出现在娱乐节目,故选 B。 B. Entertainment D. Politics

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