高 2009 级阅读理解专题指导
阅 读 理 解 解 题 指 导
----词 义 猜 测 题记：词义猜测题主要考查考生根据文章内容和所学知识推测词句意义的 能力，包括词义 猜测和句意猜测， 词义猜测又包括对单词和短语意义的猜测。 近几年的高考题中一般有二至 三个小题是直接考查词句意义的猜测。 对词义的考查主要体现在对生词词义的推测或对熟词 意义的推
测或是在特定场合下对其的理解。 该题型常见的设题方式有： 1）The word “…” in paragraph … can best be replaced by … ….
2）The underlined word “…” most probably means …. 3）By saying “…”, the author means … 4）The expression “…” is closest to … 5）According to the passage, the phrase “…” suggests … 6）The underlined part “… …” (in Para. … ) means …..
掌握解题方法，提高解题命中率: 在完整的语篇中，词、词组、句子的意义总是受特定的情景或上下文限制，因此，考生可 以根据上下文猜测，也可以利用所掌握句法、构词法和词汇等知识确定它们的意义。 Task 1 根据定义（definition）和例子猜测词义。如果生词有一个句子或段落来定义，那么理解这
个句子或段落本身就是推断词义。定义常用的谓语动词多为：be, mean, deal with, be considered, to be, be called, define, represent, refer to, signify 等。恰当的举例能够提 供猜测生词的重要线索。
Have you ever wondered why birds sing? Maybe you thought that they were just happy .After all ,you probably sing or whistle when you are happy. Some scientists believe that birds do sing some of the time just because they are happy .However ,they sing most of the time for a very different reason .Their singing is actually a warning to other birds to stay out of their territory. Do you know what a “territory” is ?A territory is an area that an animal ,usually the male, claims （声称） as its own .Only he and his family are welcome there .No other families of the same species（物种）are welcome .Your yard and house are your territory where only your family and friends are welcome . If a stranger should enter your territory and threaten you ,you might shout .Probably this would be enough to frighten him away. If so ,you have actually scared the stranger away without having to fight him .A bird does the same thing. But he expects an outsider almost any time ,especially at nesting （筑巢） season. So he is screaming all the time ,whether he can see an outsider or not .This screaming is what we call a bird’s song ,and it is usually enough to keep an outsider away. Birds sing loudest in the spring when they are trying to attract a mate and warn others not to enter the territory of theirs. You can see that birds have a language all their own .Most of it has to do with attracting mates and setting up territories. What is a bird’s “territory”? A．A place where families of other species are not accepted. B．A place where a bird may shout at the top of its voice. C．An area for which birds fight against each other. D．An area which a bird considers to be its own .
Task 2．根据复述推测词义。虽然复述不如定义那样严谨、详细，但是它提供的信息可以为阅读者 猜测词义提供依据，至少读者可以根据复述猜测生词的大致“义域”（意义范围） 。复述部分可以是词、 短语、 或从句。 同位语复述：在复述中构成同位关系的两部分之间常用逗号连接，有时也使用破折号， 冒号，分号，引号和括号等。同位语前常有 or, similarly, that is to say, in other words, namely, or other, say, i.e. 等。
高 2009 级阅读理解专题指导
While in Banff ,make time for a walk around town. A special treat is to go up the mountainside on the Banff Gondola for a surprising view of the valley below .Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces . Best time to visit is during the off-season ,from early May to mid-June ,or in October .This way you can avoid sharing the high way with mobile （移动的） homes which can be pulled by cars .But whatever the season ,take some lunch with you from Banff ,because there are only a few food stops on the road. Forty minutes north of Banff ,side by side with the Banff National Park ,sits world-famous Lake Louise .This surprisingly small body of water is attractive with towering mountains around it .Glaciers ,huge masses of ice ,moving very slowly against rocks ,produce what is called glacier rock flour ,making its water dark to see .It is worth taking a walk around the grounds of the Chateau Lake Louise ,another beauty ,proud of its early 20th century history. Back on the road , and it’s time to continue north past the astonishing Columbia Icefield ,then turn off the highway and take the short road to the base of the Athabaska Glacier .You can rent ice cleats（夹板）and do some climbing or do a more pleasant snowmobile tour .Either way ,you can enjoy endless beautiful sights. Finally you’ll reach Jasper ,the usual turning around the place for the Banff-Jasper loop（回 路）.It’s worth riding the Jasper Skytram ,and be sure to visit the wonderful Jasper Park Lodge ,also dating back to the 1920s.If you can have lunch there ,do it .The restaurant has an adventurous menu and their wine list would put a smile on any visitor’s face. According the passage ,The Pines is a ________. A．place in which you can see many mobile homes B．mountain where you can get a good view of the valley C．town which happens to be near the Banff National Park D．restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food
Task 3 根据对比关系和比较关系猜测词义. 在一个句子或段落中，有对两个事物或现象进行对比性 的描述，我们可以根据生词的反义词猜测其词义。表示对比关系的词汇和短语主要有：unlike, not, but, however, despite, in spite of, in contrast 等。 表示对比关系的句子结构：while 引导的 并列句。同对比关系相反，比较关系表示意义上的相似关系。表示比较关系的词和短语主要有： similarly, like, just as, also, as well as 等。
A child' s birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun, according to Beth Anaclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4 and 18 months. "Having a party at home usually requires a lot of running around on the part of the parents, and often the birthday boy or girl gets lost in wild excitement. But it really doesn't have to be that way," said Anaclerio. Last summer, Anaclerio and her friend Jill Carlisle, a Northbrook mother of a 2-year-old, founded a home party-planning business called "A Party in a Basket." Their goal is to help parents and children share in the fun part of party planning, like choosing the subject or making a cake, while they take care of everything. Drawing on their experiences as mothers, they have created (制作) 10 ready-to-use, home party packages. Everything a family needs to plan a party, except the cake and ice cream, is delivered to the home in a large basket. "Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10," Anaclerio said, "and they' re very interactive (互 动) and creative in that they build a sense of drama based on a subject. For example, at the Soda Shoppe party the guests become waiters and waitresses and build wonderful ice cream creations." The standard $ 200 package for eight children includes a basket filled with invitations, gifts, games and prizes, paper goods, a party planner and the like. For more information, call Anaclerio at 708-864-6584 or Carlisle at 708-205-9141. What does the underlined word "hassle" (paragraph 1 ) probably mean? A. a party designed by specialists B. a plan requiring careful thought C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble
高 2009 级阅读理解专题指导
D. a demand made by guests Task 4 根据因果关系猜测词义. 在句子或段落中，若两个事物现象之间构成因果关系，我们可以根据
The tea gardens in Sri Lanka are actually large estates(种植园). The best tea usually comes from plants grown on high grounds, the cool hilltops with rows and rows of tea plants. The plants are about one meter apart. The plant is often pruned so that it remains only 60 to 90 centimeters high. Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves. It is from these shoots that the best tea is got. Practically all the tea pickers are women. The estates prefer to employ women pickers because they are more careful. Their thin fingers can easily remove the twin leaves and new shoots from the plant, which are the parts used for processing(加工) tea. The pickers carry large baskets into which they throw their pickings. A skilled worker can harvest between 9 to 14 kilogrammes of tea leaves a day. Usually new shoots can be picked from the plants about every ten or fifteen days. Processing tea shoots into the familiar dry tea leaves requires great care and skill .There are various methods of processing depending on the type of tea required .For black tea ,the young green leaves are first spread out o shelves to dry. This process removes much of its water and the leaves become soft. After this ,the leaves are passed through heavy rollers .This operation will press the leaves for juices which give the tea both its color and taste .Then the leaves are spread out on floors and left to ferment （发酵）under wet conditions. Fermentation develops the rich taste of black tea .The fermented leaves are then dried with a hot-air blower until they become rolled-up black leaves .The final step is to sort and grade them before the black tea is ready for sale to countries all over the world. In the first paragraph ,the word “pruning” means . A．regular cutting of the plants B．frequent watering C．regular use of chemicals D．growing the plants high in the mountain
Task 5 根据同义、近义、并列、替代、说明等关系猜测词义. 在句子或段落中，我们可以利用熟 悉的词语，根据语言环境所表示的关系推断生词词义。
The twentieth century saw greater changes than any century before: changes for the better, changes for the worse; changes that brought a lot of benefits to human beings, changes that put man in danger. Many things caused the changes, but, in my opinion, the most important was the progress in science. Scientific research in physics and biology has vastly broadened our views. It has given us a deeper knowledge of the structure of matter and of the universe; it has brought us a better understanding of the nature of life and of its continuous development. Technology m the application of science m has made big advances that have benefited us in nearly every part of life. The continuation of such activities in the twenty-first century will result in even greater advantages to human beings: in pure science -- a wider and deeper knowledge in all fields of learning; in applied science -- a more reasonable sharing of material benefits, and better protection of the environment. Sadly, however, there is another side to the picture. The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankind. The application of science and technology to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction has created a real danger to the continued existence of the human race on this planet. We have seen this happen in the case of nuclear weapons, Although their actual use has so far occurred only in the Second World War, the number of nuclear weapons that were produced and made ready for use was so large that if the weapons had actually been used, the result could have been the ruin of the human race, as well as of many kinds of animals. William Shakespeare said, "The web of our life is of a mingled yarn (纱线), good and ill together. '’The above brief review of the application of only one part of human activities – science seems to prove what Shakespeare said. But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together
高 2009 级阅读理解专题指导
with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war? The underlined word "mingled" in the last means________. A. simple B. mixed C. sad
Task6. 通过构词法. 在猜测词义过程中，我们还可以依靠构词法方面的知识，从生词本身猜测词义。 1)． 根据前缀猜测词义 例如： （05 江西卷 E 段）Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? 2)． 根据后缀猜测词义 例如： （05 广东卷 E 段）It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point． 3)． 根据复合词的各部分猜测词义 例如： （05 北京卷 B 段） Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well – designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward（别扭的）hand positions. （04 浙江卷 D 段） We live in a technological society where most goods are mass-produced by unskilled labor. Because of this, most people that craft (手艺) no longer exists.
The traditional tent cities at festivals such as Glastonbury may never be the same again. In a victory of green business that is certain to appeal to environmentally-aware music-lovers, a design student is to receive financial support to produce eco-friendly tents made of cardboard that can be recycled after the bands and the crowds have gone home. Major festivals such as Glastonbury throw away some 10,000 abandoned tents at the end of events each year. For his final year project at the University of the West of England, James Dunlop came up with a material that can be recycled. And to cope with the British summer, the cardboard has been made waterproof. Taking inspiration from a Japanese architect, who has used cardboard to make big buildings including churches, Mr. Dunlop used cardboard material for his tents, which he called Myhabs. The design won an award at the annual New Designers Exhibition after Mr. Dunlop graduated from his product design degree and he decided to try to turn it into a business. To raise money for the idea, he toured the City’s private companies which fund new business and found a supporter in the finance group Mint. He introduced his idea to four of Mint’s directors and won their support. Mint has committed around ?500,000 to MyHab and taken a share of 30 per cent in Mr. Dunlop’s business. The first Myhabs should be tested at festivals this summer, before being marketed fully next year. Mr. Dunlop said that the design, which accommodates two people, could have other uses, such as for disaster relief and housing for the London Olympics. For music events, the cardboard houses will be ordered online and put up at the sites by the Myhab team before the festival-goers arrive and removed by the company afterwards. They can be personalized and the company will offer reductions on the expense if people agree to sell exterior (外部的) advertising space. The biggest festivals attract tens of thousands of participants, with Glastonbury having some 150,000 each year. Altogether there are around 100 annual music festivals where people camp in the UK. The events are becoming increasingly environmentally conscious. “Eco-friendly tents” in paragraph 1 refer to tents _______. A. economically desirable B. favorable to the environment C. for holding music performances D. designed for disaster relief